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2014 Issues


DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01344.4

Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Lactobacillus plantarum on Growth Performance and Serum Concentration of Amino Acids in Weaned Piglets

Y.H. Cai, Y.M. Aguilar, L. Yu, Y. Wang, H.B. Liu, G. Liu*, J. Zhong, Y.B. Jiang and Y.L. Yin

China Animal Disease Control Center Tiangui Street No. 17, Daxing District, Beijing 100000, China


Cai, Y.H., Aguilar, Y.M., Yu, L., Wang, Y., Liu, H.B., Liu, G., Zhong, J., Jiang, Y.B. and Yin, Y.L. 2014. Effects of dietary supplemented of Lactobacillus plantarum on growth performance and serum concentration of amino acids in weaned piglets. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 411-420.
This study investigated the effects of different doses of Lactobacillus plantarum on growth performance and serum concentration of amino acids in weaned piglets. A total of 32 piglets [(Yorkshire × Landrace) × Duroc], with an initial BW of 5.6±0.31 kg and weaned at 21d of age, were used for 28d. Pigs were assigned to four experimental treatments with eight replications per treatment and one pig per replication according to a completely randomized design. Dietary treatments consisted of a control group fed with basal alone (T0), Lactobacillus plantarum at 1011 cfu kg-1 (T1), Lactobacillus plantarum at 5×1011 cfu kg-1 (T2), and Lactobacillus plantarum at 10×1011 cfu kg-1 (T3). Supplementation of Lactobacillus plantarum, increased the final BW (P<0.05) and average daily gain (adg), and decreased (p<0.05) feed:gain ratio and diarrhoea rate compared with the control group (T0). Also, T2 showed the better results on final BW, ADG and diarrhoea rate (P<0.05) compared to other treatments with Lactobacillus plantarum. Likewise, supplementation of Lactobacillus plantarum (mainly the T2) increased (P<0.05) the serum concentrations of lysine, arginine, serine, glutamate, glycine and alanine, and decreased (P<0.05) the concentration of tyrosine; the other amino acids remained similar among the dietary groups. These findings show a beneficial effect of dietary supplementation of Lactobacillus plantarum at 5×1011 cfu kg-1 on growth performance and the serum concentration of some essentials amino acids and non-essentials in weaned piglets.

Keywords: Growth performance, Lactobacillus plantarum, Piglet, Probiotic, Serum amino acids.

*Corresponding author: gangle.liu@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01345.6

Use of Vitamin K-deficient AIN-93 Diet is an Effective Approach to Create Subclinical Vitamin K Deficiency in C57BL/6 Mice

Xueyan Fu*, D. Smith, X. Shen and S.L. Booth

Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University 711 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02111, USA


Fu, X., Smith, D., Shen, X. and Booth, S.L. 2014. Use of vitamin K-deficient AIN-93 diet is an effective approach to create subclinical vitamin K deficiency in C57BL/6 Mice. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 421-429.
Despite the popularity of genetically modified mouse models for mechanistic studies of human disease, little is known about the vitamin K requirements for mice. In the current study, we performed a small pilot time course study to determine the least amount of time required to reduce tissue concentrations of vitamin K without causing clinical signs of deficiency, such as abnormal bleeding. Female C57BL/ 6 mice were acclimated with AIN-93 G diet (903.5±26.5μg phylloquinone/kg diet) for 1 wk and subsequently fed a vitamin K-deficient AIN-93 G diet (21.4±3.0 μg phylloquinone/kg diet) for 0d (0D group; n=3), 7d (7D group; n=3), 14d (14D group; n=3) and 28d (28D group; n=3) while limiting coprophagy. Phylloquinone and menaquinone-4 (MK-4) concentrations were measured in serum, liver, kidney, brain, pancreas, and body fat (omental). Compared to 0D group, there was a reduction of vitamin K concentrations in all analyzed tissues within 7d (P<0.05), with the exception of body fat. in the 28d group, vitamin k was not detectable in mouse liver, yet there were no clinical signs of vitamin kdeficiency, including bleeding. in summary, a vitamin k deficient diet can be used to induce low vitamin k tissue concentrations within 7d.

Keywords: Bleeding, Mice, Phylloquinone, Vitamin K-deficiency.

*Corresponding author: xueyan.fu@tufts.edu

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01346.8

Performance, Meat Quality and Lipid Profile of Broiler Chickens Fed With Crude and Semi-purified Vegetable Glycerin from Biodiesel Production

F.J. Urgnani, C.R.A. Duarte, A.E. Murakami*, K.P. Picoli, C. Eyng and J.C. Fanhani

Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Departamento de Zootecnia Av. Colombo, 5790, Bloco j45, Maringá, Paraná, 87020-900, Brazil


Urgnani, F.J., Duarte, C.R.A., Murakami, A.E., Picoli, K.P., Eyng, C. and Fanhani, J.C. 2014. Performance, meat quality and lipid profile of broiler chickens fed with crude and semi-purified vegetable glycerin from biodiesel production. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 431-445.
This study evaluated the effects of crude (CVG) and semi-purified (SPVG) vegetable glycerins inclusion in the broiler chickens diet on performance, meat quality and lipid profile. 1,350 1-day-old male Cobb-Vantress chicks were distributed in a completely randomised design in a factorial 2x4 arrangement with two types of vegetable glycerin (crude and semi-purified) and four inclusion levels (3, 6, 9 and 12%) and a control group, totalling 11 treatments with five replications and 30 birds per experimental unit. At 42d of age, performance, meat quality and lipid profile of meat were assessed. There was no interaction between types and levels of glycerin for performance and meat quality. The body weight gain and feed:gain ratio showed a quadratic response, with the highest body weight gain at 9.4% of glycerin and lowest feed:gain ration at 7%, respectively. The meat quality was not affected by the inclusion of glycerin. There was an interaction between types of glycerin and levels for all fatty acids in thigh meat, exception for vaccenic, α-linolenic and eicosanoic acid. The thighs of chickens fed SPVG showed a linear increase in myristic, palmitic, stearic and SFAs concentration. The thighs of broilers fed CVG showed a linear increase in linoleic acid, α-linolenic, docosahexaenoic acid, PUFAs, ω-6, and ω-3, and a linear decrease in stearic acid concentration and ω-6/ω-3 ratio. The CVG and SPVG can be included in broilers diets up to 7% with no effects on meat quality. Considering the meat fatty acids profile, the inclusion of CVG glycerin increased ω-3 concentrations while SPVG inclusion increased the SFAs in meat.

Keywords: Fatty acid, Glycerine, Glycerol, Lipid profile, Meat quality

*Corresponding author: aemurakami@uem.br

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01347.X

Effect of Ensiling Process and Additive Effects of Fermented Juice of Epiphytic Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Cyanide Content of Two Varieties of Cassava

Y.Y. Kyawt, Y. Imai1, T. Yara and Y. Kawamoto*

Faculty of Agriculture, University of the Ryukyus Nishihara, Okinawa, 903-0213, Japan


Kyawt, Y.Y., Imai, Y., Yara, T. and Kawamoto, Y. 2014. Effect of ensiling process and additive effects of fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria on the cyanide content of two varieties of cassava. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 447-460.
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of processing method (silage making) on the hydrocyanic acid potential (HCNp) of two local varieties cassava leaves (Experiment 1) and tubers (Experiment 2). The study also ascertained the effects of fermented juice (leucaena leaves and napier grass) of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB) as additives and their impact on the changes of HCNp content at different duration (0, 2, 7 and 14d) of ensiling. The reduction rate of the HCNp of cassava leaves and tuber ensiled with FJLB additives were significantly higher (P<0.05) than the control silage in both varieties. the reduction of hcnp in final products of fjlb treated silages ranged from 18.54 to 82.30 mg />kg DM. The lowest HCNp (Red cassava, P=0.007 and White cassava, P=0.0001) and the highest lactic acid bacteria counts (Red cassava, P=0.004 and White cassava, P=0.002) were observed after 14d ensiling period in both varieties treated with leucaena FJLB in the second experiment. As indicated by the low HCNp level and high V-score value on 14d after ensiling period, it is concluded that the addition of FJLB to cassava silages was effective in optimum reduction of HCNp besides producing a good quality silage within two weeks. Moreover, a negative correlation between HCNp reduction and pH in of ensiled cassava was observed.

Keywords: Cassava, Ensiling, FJLB additive, HCN potential, Lactic acid bacteria.

*Corresponding author: yasuk@agr.u-ryukyu.ac.jp

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01348.1

Effect of Ensiling Process and Additive Effects of Fermented Juice of Epiphytic Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Cyanide Content of Two Varieties of Cassava

Runjun Dowarah, A.P.S. Sethi* and G.S. Brah

Department of Animal Nutrition Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Ludhiana-141004, India


Dowarah, R., Sethi, A.P.S. and Brah, G.S. 2014. Effect of dietary energy and protein on growth performance and carcass characteristics of white plumage Japanese quails during summer season. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 461-470.
An experiment, with different levels of dietary energy and protein, was conducted to assess the growth performance, nutrient utilization and carcass characteristics of meat type white plumage Japanese quail up to 5 weeks of age during summer season. Nine dietary treatments with three levels of crude protein (23, 25 and 27% CP) each at three levels of energy (2600, 2800 and 3000 kcal ME/kg) during starter (1- 3 weeks) phase and 18, 20 and 22% CP each at three levels of energy (2800, 2900 and 3000 kcal ME/ kg) during finisher (4-5 weeks) phase were offered respectively in 3 × 3 factorial design. A metabolism trial was conducted at 5th week, selecting 4 birds from each replicate using total collection method. Final BW, gain in weight, feed intake and FCR did not differ due to dietary energy levels, while final BW and gain in weight increased linearly (P≤0.05) with each increment of protein in the diets. N-retention, digestibility of ether extract, crude fibre, calcium and available phosphorus also showed significant (P≤0.05) variations due to different levels of energy and protein. Neither eviscerated weight nor dressing percentage was affected by dietary energy or protein levels; however, there was linear increase in abdominal fat content with increase in dietary energy at each level of protein. The percent giblet weight was lowest at highest level of energy and protein. The interaction of energy × protein during starter and finisher phase had significant (P≤0.05) effect on growth parameters and nutrient utilization. It may be concluded that 27% CP with 2600 kcal ME/kg during starter phase and 22% CP with 2900 kcal ME/kg in finisher phase is optimum for white plumage Japanese quail during summer season.

Keywords: Carcass, Energy, Protein, Summer, White Japanese quails.

*Corresponding author: apss_pau_ldh@yahoo.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01349.3

Effect of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) Powder as a Phytobiotic Growth Promoter in Commercial Broiler Chickens

Jaswinder Singh, A.P.S. Sethi, S.S. Sikka*, M.K. Chatli1 and Pawan Kumar

Department of Animal Nutrition Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-14004, India


Singh, J., Sethi, A.P.S., Sikka, S.S., Chatli, M.K. and Kumar, P. 2014. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) powder as a phytobiotic growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 471-479.
A study was conducted to evaluate cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) powder as a phytobiotic alternative to antibiotic growth promoters in broilers. A total of 210 one-day old broiler chicks (IBL 80) were randomly distributed to five treatments each with three replicates of 14 birds. The dietary treatments comprised of feeding a basal diet as a control (CON), or the basal diet supplemented with either 0.1g oxytetracycline per kg diet as negative control (OXT), or cinnamon powder at low (0.5%; CPL), medium (1.0%; CPM) and high (1.5%; CPH) levels. Body weight and feed consumed were recorded weekly and accordingly feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio were calculated. At the end of 5th week, two birds per replicate were sacrificed to determine the carcass characteristics and sensory evaluation of meat. Supplementation of cinnamon at all the three levels improved (P<0.05) the bw gain in the broilers during starter and overall period, which was statistically comparable to con and oxt groups. the best fcr was observed in cph group followed by cpm and cpl groups during the finisher and overall period which was better (p<0.05) than the CON and OXT groups. Dietary treatments did not influence the carcass characteristics significantly. Supplementation of cinnamon powder at all the levels studied improved (P<0.05) the sensory attributes of the meat as compared to CON group meat. Highest (P<0.05) benefit: cost ratio was found in OXT and CPL groups, and it was lowest in CPM and CPH groups. From the result of present study it could be suggested that dietary inclusion of 0.5% cinnamon powder can be used as phytobiotic alternative to antibiotic growth promoters in broilers.

Keywords: Antibiotic, Broiler, Cinnamon, Growth performance, Meat sensory qualities.

*Corresponding author: sssikka04@rediffmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01350.X

Effect of a Xylanolytic Enzymatic Extract from Cellulomonas flavigena on In Situ Ruminal Digestion of Agricultural Wastes

P.A. Hernández, G.D. Mendoza, R. Bárcena, M.C. Montes and J.A. Martínez*

Centro Universitario UAEM-Amecameca Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, 56900, México


Hernández, P.A., Mendoza, G.D., Bárcena, R., Montes, M.C. and Martínez, J.A. 2014. Effect of a xylanolytic enzymatic extract from Cellulomonas flavigena on in situ ruminal digestion of agricultural wastes. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 481-488.
In situ ruminal digestibility of four low quality forages (corn stover, sugarcane bagasse, wheat straw and alfalfa hay control) was evaluated with the addition of enzymatic extract of Cellulomonas flavigena. The enzyme extract (42 IU xylanases ml-1) was sprinkled over the forages at 1 ml g-1 24h before incubation. Samples were incubated in the rumen of a Holstein cow fitted with a ruminal cannula for 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 and 72h. There were positive effects of the enzyme (P<0.05) on forage dm digestibility at 24 and 48 h of incubation. however, there was no variation in the ndf digestion owing to enzyme or the forage source. in contrast, adf degradation showed differences (p<0.05) among forages in all incubation times, indicating that the enzyme acted on the hemicellulose and fodder containing different cell wall percentages. Results indicate that Cellulomonas flavigena enzymatic extract improves in situ degradation of DM and ADF in low quality forages.

Keywords: Cellulomonas flavigena, Enzymes, Low quality forage, Ruminants

*Corresponding author: jamgar@correo.xoc.uam.mx

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01351.1

Fodder Potential and Acceptability of Selected Tree Leaves by Goats

S.A. Okunade, O.A. Olafadehan* and O.A. Isah

Department of Animal Production Technology Federal College of Wildlife Management, New Bussa, Nigeria


Okunade, S.A., Olafadehan, O.A. and Isah, O.A. 2014. Fodder potential and acceptability of selected tree leaves by goats. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 489-498.
Fodder potential and acceptability of foliages of six selected trees, Afzelia africana, Daniellia oliveri, Acacia seyal, Entada africana, Pterocarpus erinaceus and Securnega virosa, by 12 Red Sokoto bucks (9.8±0.36 kg BW) was determined using cafeteria method in a completely randomized design. Whereas DM, ash, cellulose, NDF, ADF and condensed tannins (CT) were highest in Entada africana, OM, non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC) and ADL were lowest in the forage. Crude protein and ether extract (EE), and total carbohydrate and phytate were highest and lowest, respectively, in Afzelia africana. Hemicellulose was lowest in Securunega virosa. Intake of DM (g/d and % BW) and relative preference index (RPI) were significantly (P<0.05) lower for entada africana compared to other tree fodders. preference ranking followed this order afzelia africana> Securunega virosa > Acacia seyal > Daniellia oliveri > Pterocapus erinaceus > Entada africana. The OM digestibility, digestible organic matter and metabolizable energy (ME) were similar (P>0.05) among tree leaves, while ME intake varied significantly (P<0.05). relative preference index was negatively correlated to dm (r=-0.23, p=0.656), ndf (r=-0.59, p=0.214), adf (r=-0.34, p=0.505) and phytate (r=-0.09, p=0.865) but positively related to cp (r=0.41, p=0.425), ee (r=0.69, p=0.131) and om (r=0.53, p=0.283). the ct had a significant negative relationship (r=-0.96, p<0.002) with RPI. Results show that all browse plants are potentially valuable for dry season feeding and as protein and energy supplements.

Keywords: Condensed tannins, Fibre fraction, Forage preference, Goats, Intake, Nutritive potential, Tree fodders.

*Corresponding author: oaolafadehan@yahoo.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01353.5

Supplemental Effects of Canola Oil as a Source of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Vitamin A on Production Performance, Blood Metabolites and Immune Response in Laying Hens

S. Ahmad*, Ahsan-ul-Haq, Z. Kamran, M. Yousaf, Ata-ur-Rehman, M.U. Sohail, Z. Iqbal, A. Manzoor and M.T. Riaz

University College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan


Ahmad, S., Ahsan-ul-Haq, Kamran, Z., Yousaf, M., Ata-ur-Rehman, Sohail, M.U., Iqbal, Z., Manzoor, A., Riaz, M.T. 2014. Supplemental effects of canola oil as a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin A on production performance, blood metabolites and immune response in laying hens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 499-510.
A study was conducted to observe the effect of feeding canola oil and vitamin A on production performance, blood metabolites and immune response of commercial egg layers. A total of 240 laying hens were distributed into eight treatments each containing three replicates of 10 birds, and fed on diets with 0, 2, 3 and 4% canola oil with either 3,000 or 10,000 IU vitamin A/kg of diet for a period of 12 weeks. During the study, egg production was recorded daily while the feed intake was recorded at weekly intervals. For immune response, blood samples were collected at 0, 14, 28 and 35th day following revaccination against Newcastle Disease. Blood samples were also collected in the last week of the trial to measure the blood glucose and cholesterol level. The results of the study depicted that the production response of laying hens was not affected by the supplementation of canola oil and vitamin A except for a reduction (P<0.05) in feed intake in the hens on the 3% canola oil diet. the wb was affected negatively (p<0.05) with the increase in dietary canola oil. The serum cholesterol and blood glucose were similar (P>0.05) for the all dietary treatments. However, the antibody titer response to Newcastle Disease vaccination was enhanced (P<0.05) by increasing the supplemental levels of canola oil and vitamin A in the rations. It was concluded from the results that canola oil (4% of diet) and vitamin A (10000 IU/kg of diet) can enhance the immune response of laying hens without affecting laying performance.

Keywords: Canola oil, Hens, Immunity, Performance, Vitamin A.

*Corresponding author: drshakeel@iub.edu.pk

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01354.7

Evaluation of Minerals of Shrub Plant Forages Consumed by Goats in the Arid Southern Rangeland of the Peninsula of Baja California, Mexico

N. Medina-Córdova, J.L. Espinoza-Villavicencio, N.Y. Ávila-Serrano and B. Murillo-Amador*

Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales Agricolos y Pecuarias Baja California Sur, México


Medina-Córdova, N., Espinoza-Villavicencio, J.L., Ávila-Serrano, N.Y. and Murillo-Amador, B. 2014. Evaluation of minerals of shrub plant forages consumed by goats in the arid southern rangeland of the peninsula of Baja California, Mexico. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 511-522.
Minerals play a vital role in growth, reproduction, health and proper functioning of an animal. The present study was conducted to evaluate minerals of shrubby plants used as forage by grazing goats in an arid area in the peninsula of Baja California, Mexico. Leaves, pods, stems, or flowers of 16 species, which included legumes and non-legumes species, were sampled manually and were analyzed for Ca, K, Mg, Na, Mn, P, N, Zn, and Cu. It was found that the non-legumes selected by goats are of good nutritional quality, since they provide a higher content of the majority of essential minerals. The results indicate that for meeting the mineral requirement of goats during drought or arid seasons, the pasture forages had adequate levels of most macro minerals Ca, Mg, K, and Na, except P. However, these forages had lower content of micro minerals Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu. Trace-minerals are needed for supplementation in ruminant feed during the winter or particularly during the dry season when the mineral quantity in the forage plants decrease. The quality of these fodders is under drought stress and need sustainable utilization for the longevity of the rangeland.

Keywords: Feed, Forage, Goats, Mexico, Mineral, Soil.

*Corresponding author: bmurillo04@cibnor.mx

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01355.9

Effect of a Composite Phytochemical Feed Additive on In Vitro Substrate Degradation and Methanogenesis and In Vivo Rumen Fermentation

M. Choubey, A.K. Pattanaik*, S. Baliyan, Ajit Kumar, Avneesh Kumar, Narayan Dutta, S.E. Jadhav and K. Sharma

Division of Animal Nutrition Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122, India


Choubey, M., Pattanaik, A.K., Baliyan, S., Kumar, Ajit, Kumar, A., Dutta, N., Jadhav, S.E. and Sharma, K. 2014. Effect of a composite phytochemical feed additive on in vitro substrate degradation and methanogenesis and in vivo rumen fermentation. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 523-534.
The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of a composite phytogenic feed additive (cPFA) on rumen fermentation characteristics under in vitro as well as in vivo conditions. The cPFA was formulated using different parts of 11 herbal plants, well acclaimed for their therapeutic virtues. Graded levels (0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10%) of cPFA were supplemented to the basal substrate and incubated with rumen liquor of sheep for in vitro gas production test and methanogenesis. For in vivo study 28 Malpura hogget lambs (7-8 months; 17.8±2.04 kg) were divided in four equal groups and fed diets supplemented with cPFA at 0 (Control), 1.0 (L-cPFA), 1.5 (M-cPFA) and 2.0 (H-cPFA) percent of feed intake. At the end of experimental feeding of 180d, rumen liquor was collected at 4h post feeding. Results indicated that, in vitro supplementation of cPFA reduced (P<0.05) total gas production and improved (p<0.05) the microbial biomass production. There was a linear increase (P<0.05) in ammonia concentration accompanied by a reduction (P<0.05) in acetate concentration. There emerged a linear decrease (P<0.05) in methane production up to a level of 5% cPFA supplementation. In vivo study revealed that there was no effect of cPFA supplementation on pH, ammonia and different nitrogen fractions in strained rumen liquor (SRL) among the groups; however, a trend of improvement in the total N was evident in cPFA supplemented groups when contrasted against control. The level of 1.5 and 2.0% cPFA supplementation showed higher (P=0.02) acetate concentration values. The cPFA supplementation did not have significant effect on enzyme activities of CMCase, avicellase and xylanase in the SRL. The present study revealed that supplementation of cPFA at level of 1.5-2.0% level possesses a potential to modulate rumen fermentation both under in vitro as well as in vivo conditions.

Keywords: In vitro, Methane inhibition, Phytogenic feed additive, Rumen fermentation.

*Corresponding author: akpattanaik1@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01356.0

Evaluation of Dual-purpose Sorghum Hybrids for Nutritional Quality, Energetic Efficiency and Methane Emission

S. Singh*, G.P. Shukla and D.C. Joshi

Plant Animal Relationship Division Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi-284003, India


Singh, S., Shukla, G.P. and Joshi, D.C. 2014. Evaluation of dual-purpose sorghum hybrids for nutritional quality, energetic efficiency and methane emission. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 535-548.
Present study evaluated 25 dual-purpose sorghum hybrids for their nutrient contents, in sacco DM digestibility, nutritive value and methane emission potential. The CP, OM, EE, NDF, ADF, cellulose and lignin contents of the hybrids differed significantly (P<0.05) and mean values were 99.0, 924, 15.0, 604, 334, 264 and 42.5 g kg-1 dm, respectively. carbohydrate content and its fraction varied across the hybrids significantly (p<0.05). The hybrids differed (P<0.05) in terms of DM intake (DMI), leaf to stem ratio and digestible DM (DDM) with the values ranging between 1.78 to 2.32%, 11:89 to 26:74 and 59.4 to 67.2%, respectively. In sacco degradability of DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF and cellulose varied (P<0.05) amongst the hybrids. Relative feed value (RFV) and TDN varied (P<0.05) from 81.9 and 55.7 for the hybrid 716A x NTI-2 to 120 and 67.9% for 685A x ICSR89 hybrid. The hybrids differed (P<0.05) in their DE and ME contents with the mean values being 12.2 and 10.0 kJ g-1 DM, respectively. Net energy efficiency for maintenance (NEm), lactation (NEl) and growth (NEg) of tested hybrids differed and ranged between 5.52 to 7.11, 5.19 to 6.53 and 2.51 to 4.10 kJ g-1 DM, respectively. The methane production varied (P<0.05) significantly and ranged from 45.8 to 82.1 g kg-1 DDM. Male sterile lines viz. 686A, 685A and 716A resulted in higher values for CP, nutrient degradability, DMI and RFV in their respective hybrids. Results indicated that hybrids 686A x IS 697, 685A x ICSR 89 and 685A x GP 65072 are nutritionally superior with low to moderate methane production potential.

Keywords: Carbohydrate fractions, Degradability, Energy, Methane emission, Sorghum hybrids.

*Corresponding author: singh.sultan@rediffmail.com; sultan.igfri@icar.org.in

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01357.2

Effect of Feeding Graded Levels of Leaf Meal on Digestibility, Clinical Chemistry and Rumen Fermentation of Lambs

Y.A. Beigh* and A.M. Ganai

Division of Animal Nutrition Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Srinagar-190006, India


Beigh, Y.A. and Ganai, A.M. 2014. Effect of feeding graded levels of leaf meal on blood biochemical profile, rumen fermentation pattern and economics of raising lambs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 13: 549-562.
In order to study the effect of replacing conventional concentrates with graded levels of leaf meal (LM) mixture in total mixed rations (TMR), 20 Corriedale lambs were divided randomly into four equal groups. The animals of control group (T1) were maintained on the TMR comprising of oats straw and concentrate mixture while in T2, T3 and T4 groups, the concentrate mixture in TMR was replaced with LM @ 15, 30 and 45%, respectively. Blood analysis was carried out at the start and end of the 120d experiment. Rumen studies was carried out at the end of the trial period. DM intake was significantly (P<0.05) improved in groups fed lm at 30 and 45% of concentrate mixture. the lambs fed rations with concentrate mixture replaced at 0 (t1) and 30% (t3) level by lm had significantly (p<0.05) higher gain in weight. Mean values of Hb and PCV, total protein, albumin, globulin, urea, creatinine and cholesterol, Ca and P and SGOT, SGPT and ALP were similar among the groups except for significant variation seen in serum urea. The ruminal pH, TVFA, NH3-N and NPN varied significantly among the groups. Cost of production lowered significantly (P<0.01) due to inclusion of LM mixture with highest percent reduction in feed cost per kg LW gain (19.27) at 30% and lowest (2.77) at 15% replacement. It is concluded that replacement of concentrate mixture in TMR by LM had no adverse effects on health, growth and rumen fermentation pattern in lambs and better results could be obtained at 30% replacement level.

Keywords: Blood biochemical, Economics, Lambs, Leaf meal, Rumen metabolism.

*Corresponding author: vetyasir1@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01358.4

Effect of Feeding Sorghum Straw Based Complete Rations with Different Roughage to Concentrate Ratio on Growth and Carcass Characteristics in Nellore Ram Lambs

M. Venkateswarlu*, Y. Ramana Reddy, D. Nagalakshmi and M. Mahender

Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500030, India


Venkateswarlu, M., Reddy, Y.R., Nagalakshmi, D. and Mahender, M. 2014. Effect of feeding sorghum straw based complete rations with different roughage to concentrate ratio on growth and carcass characteristics in Nellore ram lambs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 563-572.
In order to find out the most suitable ratio of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) straw : concentrate for optimum growth, production and carcass characteristics in Nellore ram lambs, a study was carried out by feeding sorghum straw based complete rations at the ratio of 70:30 (CR-I), 60:40 (CR-II), 50:50 (CRIII) and 40:60 (CR-IV) for 180d. The ADG was significantly (P<0.05) higher in cr-iii and cr-v groups as compared to cr-i and cr-ii. the fcr was lower (p<0.01) by 11.87, 16.91 and 22.54 per cent with CR-III, CR-II and CR-I rations, respectively, in comparison to CR-IV ration. The feed cost (H) per kg LW gain was significantly (P<0.01) higher in lambs fed CR-IV followed by CR-III, CRII and was the lowest in CR-I. The dressing percentage expressed either on live or empty BW basis and per cent of leg, loin, rack, shoulder and neck and fore shank and brisket were similar (P>0.05) among the four groups; however, significant (P<0.01) difference was found among dietary groups in the lean, bone and fat contents of carcasses. Per cent weights of edible and non-edible organs and chemical composition of meat of the four experimental groups did not vary significantly. It is concluded that, inclusion of sorghum straw at 50-60% in the complete diets is considered to be economical in growing lamb’s ration.

Keywords: Carcass characteristics, Complete ration, Feed conversion ratio, Sorghum straw.

*Corresponding author: malisettyv46@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01359.6

Effect of Bypass Fat and Niacin Supplementation on the Productive Performance and Blood Profile of Lactating Crossbred Cows under Field Conditions

R.S. Grewal, N. Tyagi, J. S. Lamba, C.S. Ahuja and S. Saijpaul*

Department of Animal Nutrition Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Ludhiana-141004, India


Grewal, R.S., Tyagi, N., Lamba, J.S., Ahuja, C.S. and Saijpaul, S. 2014. Effect of bypass fat and niacin supplementation on the productive performance and blood profile of lactating crossbred cows under field conditions. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 573-581.
A 120d field study was conducted on crossbred lactating cows to evaluate the production economics of supplemental bypass fat and niacin. Eighteen animals were randomly divided into two equal groups. The control group was fed wheat straw, concentrate mixture, bread waste, biscuit waste, mixed green fodder and baby corn waste while the treatment group received the same ration with additional 200g bypass fat and 12g niacin daily. Results of the in vitro evaluation of the feed ingredients indicated that the net gas production (ml/200 mg DM) was similar in all the ingredients but the biscuit waste had highest truely degradable organic matter (TDOM). The concentrate mixture showed the highest microbial biomass production (MBP) and efficiency of MBP. The production data indicated that animals supplemented with bypass fat and niacin produced more milk (P<0.06) with better persistency and feed efficiency (p<0.05), higher milk fat (P<0.05), and exhibited more EE digestibility (P<0.01), blood glucose (P<0.01) and total cholesterol (P<0.01). The supplementation improved weight gain and conception rate. The study concluded that daily supplementation of bypass fat at 200 g/d along with 12g niacin in early lactation could be cost-effective for improving production and health of high producing dairy cows.

Keywords: Blood, By-pass fat, Digestibility, Niacin, Production, Reproduction.

*Corresponding author: sksaijpaul@rediffmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01360.2

Microbial Protein Yield in Sheep Fed Forage Legume Hays as Supplements to Veld Hay

J.J. Baloyi*, H. Hamudikuwanda, N.T. Ngongoni and S. Katsande

Department of Animal Science, University of Zimbabwe P.O. Box MP 167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe


Baloyi, J.J., Hamudikuwanda, H., Ngongoni, N.T. and Katsande, S. 2014. Microbial protein yield in sheep fed forage legume hays as supplements to veld hay. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 583-591.
This study examined the effects of feeding forage legumes as protein supplements to poor quality natural pasture (veld) hay offered to sheep on microbial protein yield and nitrogen metabolism. Four female Sabi cross-bred sheep were used in a 4 x 4 Latin cross-over design experiment. The sheep were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments comprising veld hay alone (V), veld hay supplemented at 25% of expected feed intake with either cowpea (VC), fine stem stylo (VF) or silverleaf desmodium (VS). Microbial protein yield was determined using the purine derivatives technique. Total nitrogen (N) intake increased with supplementation by approximately 9, 11 and 17 fold for VS, VF and VC, respectively. The microbial protein supply, the calculated microbial true protein and the digestible microbial true protein were not affected (P>0.05) by legume supplementation. It was concluded that supplementation of legume forages to poor quality veld hay increased nitrogen utilisation in the sheep. Animals on poor quality forages tended to show the most efficient microbial protein synthesis. However, feeding of veld hay failed to meet the maintenance requirements of the animal as evidenced by negative nitrogen balance.

Keywords: Legume, Microbial protein yield, Nitrogen metabolism, Supplementation, Veld.

*Corresponding author: joseph.baloyi@univen.ac.za

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01361.4

Nutritional Evaluation of Wheat Straw Upgraded by Pleurotus ostreatus in Growing Lambs

O.J. Aceves, C.M.E. Ortega*, M.G. Mendoza1, H.J. Herrera, C.P. Zetina and G.R. Bárcena

Colegio de Postgraduados, Ganadería 56230 Montecillo, Estado de México, México


Aceves, O.J., Ortega, C.M.E., Mendoza, M.G., Herrera, H.J., Zetina, C.P. and Bárcena, G.R. 2014. Nutritional evaluation of wheat straw upgraded by Pleurotus ostreatus in growing lambs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 593-599.
Wheat straw left after harvesting of edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus was evaluated as feed for growing lambs. Twenty four weaned lambs (25.75±5 kg) were randomly assigned to two treatments: 70% of wheat straw, either raw (US) or upgraded by Pleurotus ostreatus (TS) plus 30% of a concentrate mixture. Lambs were fed the diets for 60d. Feed intake, BW gain and feed conversion (FC) were measured. In situ digestibility of DM, NDF, ADF, and in vivo DM digestibility were also evaluated. The results showed no difference (P>0.05) in feed intake (1.65 and 1.59 kg day-1 for US and TS, respectively), with a lower (P<0.05) bw gain for ts (4.75±0.406 kg) than for us (6.06±0.401 kg) accompanying a poorer fc (us 16.91; ts 22.18). in vivo digestibility of dm was similar (p> 0.05) for both treatments (76.43% US, 76.16% TS), as were the data on in situ digestibility of DM, NDF, and ADF after 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72h of incubation in the rumen. In conclusion, it could be said that wheat straw treated by Pleurotus ostreatus did not improve its nutritional value when fed to growing lambs.

Keywords: Growing lambs, Pleurotus ostreatus, Wheat straw.

*Corresponding author: meoc@colpos.mx

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01362.6

Effect of Vegetable and Animal Protein Meal Combinations on The Mineral Utilization Pattern of Multicoloured Broilers

P. Vasan*, Narayan Dutta and A.B. Mandal

Division of Animal Nutrition Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India


Vasan, P., Dutta, N. and Mandal, A.B. 2014. Effect of vegetable and animal protein meal combinations on the mineral utilization pattern of multicoloured broilers. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 601-607.
The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of source of protein in the diet of broilers on the pattern of mineral utilization. Day-old multicolored broiler chicks were distributed into 12 groups of 10 chicks each and allotted equally to three dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. The chicks were reared up to 6 weeks of age, and fed diets based on three different diets varying in source of protein viz., soybean (D1), fish meal (D2) and meat-cum-bone meal (MBM; D3). After 17 (starter phase) and 38 (finisher phase) days of experimental feeding, retention study of 4-d durations were conducted to determine the retention of minerals. During starter phase, the retention of calcium and copper was significantly (P<0.05) higher in d3 diet. on the other hand, the retention of manganese and phosphorus were significantly (p<0.05) higher in D1 diet. During finishing phase, no significant difference was observed in calcium and manganese utilization among the dietary treatments. The retention of copper, however was significantly (P<0.05) higher in MBM (D3) based diet. On the contrary, the phosphorus utilization was markedly (P<0.05) higher in D1 and D2 treatments. It is concluded that dietary formulations based on animal protein supplements such as fish meal and meat-cum-bone meal could minimize the excreta load of copper to a greater extent thereby averting the threat of possible environmental pollution.

Keywords: Bioavailability, Coloured broilers, Environment, Minerals, Pollution.

*Corresponding author: drpvasan@yahoo.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01363.8

Detannification of Oak (Quercus leucotrichophora) Leaves Through Simple Physical Treatments

M.K. Ajith*, R. Bhar, A. Kannan, T.K. Bhat, Birbal Singh and K.B. Sharma

Indian Veterinary Research Institute Regional Station, Palampur-176061, India


Ajith, M.K., Bhar, R., Kannan, A., Bhat, T.K., Singh, B. and Sharma, K.B. 2014. Detannification of oak (Quercus leucotrichophora) leaves through simple physical treatments. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 609-615.
Oak (Quercus leucotrichophora) leaves are adequately available as scarcity fodder in North West Himalayan Region of India, but poisoning, even death due to its consumption, limits its use as a sole feed in hill cattle, sheep and goat. Information on easily adaptable technology for detoxification and detannification of leaves are lacking in the literature. Therefore, present experiment was planned for a nutrient protective detoxification and detannification process of Q. leucotrichophora leaves. Five different physical treatments viz., water soaking (12h), sun-drying (5d), shade-drying (5d), chopping and chopping and water soaking of locally collected fresh leaves were done, taking fresh leaves as control. The composition of fresh leaves remained comparable to that of different processed leaves except a small decrease (P<0.05) in total carbohydrate content due to water-soaking and chopping and water-soaking. all the physical treatments were effective in reducing all the polyphenols. reduction was the maximum for hydrolysable tannins (87.54%), followed by total tannins (70.35%), total phenolics (58.17%), condensed tannins (24.39%) and non-tannin phenolics (1.85%). maximum reduction in hydrolysable tannin (87.54%) and condensed tannin (24.39%) levels were achieved by chopping combined with water soaking, and least reduction was by shade-drying. on the basis of results, it may be concluded that chopping followed by water soaking would be the best nutrient protective processing technique for detoxification and detannification of q. leucotrichophora leaves.

Keywords: Oak leaves, Quercus leucotrichophora, Proximate principles, Tannins, Detannification.

*Corresponding author: drajmusthafa @gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01364.X

Effects of Dietary Protein Intake on Growth and Semen Quality in Broiler Breeder Males

N.C. Behura*, K.C. Mohanta, C. Biswal, F. Kumar, M.K. Singh, S.K. Mishra and G.D. Nayak

Post-graduate Department of Poultry Science College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar-751003, India


Behura, N.C., Mohanta, K.C., Biswal, C., Kumar, F., Singh, M.K., Mishra, S.K. and Nayak, G.D. 2014. Effects of dietary protein intake on growth and semen quality in broiler breeder males. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 617-623.
One hundred and eighty six-week old chicks were randomly distributed in to three dietary groups, each with three replicate of 20 birds. Three experimental iso-caloric (2750 Kcal ME/kg) grower diets containing 12, 14 and 16 percent CP were assigned to each of the three treatment groups CP12, CP14, and CP16, respectively. The daily dietary allocation was based on an energy requirement model. Weekly feed consumption and BW data were recorded. On 25th week semen was collected from 10 birds of each treatment groups and semen quality parameters were studied. The net gain in body weight of CP16 group was 1498.44±49.20g and significantly (P≤0.05) higher than CP12 and CP14 groups without any significant difference between them. The semen volume (0.575±0.014 ml), spermatozoa concentration (5.081±0.044 millions/μl) as well as number of spermatozoa per ejaculation (2.77±0.022 billions) in CP12 group were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those of cp14 and cp16 diet group. the results of the present study indicated that a grower diet with 12% cp and 2750 kcal me />kg diet fed during growing period (6 to 20 weeks) is adequate to control mature body weight and improve semen quality in broiler breeder males.

Keywords: Broiler breeder, Protein level, Semen quality, Growth.

*Corresponding author: kvk_semiliguda@yahoo.co.in


DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01332.8

Effects of Supplementation of Bacillus subtilis LS 1-2 Grown on Citrus-juice Waste and Corn-Soybean Meal Substrate on Performance and Gut Health of Weaning Pigs

S.H. Lee, S.L. Ingale, J.S. Kim, K.H. Kim, A. Lokhande, I.K. Kwon, Y.H. Kim and B.J. Chae

College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University Chuncheon 200-701, Republic of Korea


Lee, S.H., Ingale, S.L., Kim, J.S., Kim, K.H., Lokhande, A., Kwon, I.K., Kim, Y.H. and Chae, B.J. 2014. Effects of supplementation of Bacillus subtilis LS 1-2 grown on citrus-juice waste and corn-soybean meal substrate on performance and gut health of weaning pigs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 225-237.
The present experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with Bacillus subtilis LS 1-2 grown on citrus-juice waste and corn-soybean meal substrate on performance and gut health of weaning pigs. A total of 240 weaning pigs (Landrace x Yorkshire x Duroc) were randomly allotted to 4 treatments, each with 4 replicates of 15 pigs. Dietary treatments included basal diet without any antimicrobial (NC; negative control) or with 150 mg/kg apramycin (PC; positive control), 0.45% B. subtilis LS 1-2 grown on corn-soybean substrate (P1) and 0.45% B. subtilis LS 1-2 grown on citrusjuice waste substrate (P2). The experimental diets were fed in a meal form for 2 phases (d 0-14, phase I and d 14-28, phase II). Overall ADG, ADFI, FCR and ATTD of DM and GE (d 14, d 28) were better (P<0.05) in pigs fed the pc, p1 and p2 diets than pigs fed the nc diet. also, the attd of cp (d 14 and d 28) in pigs fed the pc and p2 diets was greater (p<0.05) than pigs fed the NC diet. At d 28, pigs fed the PC diet had lower (P<0.05) caecal total anaerobic bacteria, Clostridium spp. and coliforms than pigs fed the NC diet. In addition, pigs fed the P2 diet had lower (P<0.05) caecal coliforms than pigs fed the NC diet. Pigs fed the PC, P1 and P2 diets had greater (P<0.05) villus height and villus height: crypt depth than pigs fed the NC diet. In addition, growth performance, ATTD of nutrients, caecal microbial population and intestinal morphology of pigs fed P2 diet were not different (P>0.05) from pigs fed the PC diet. These results indicate that B. subtilis LS 1-2 inclusion at 0.30% level had beneficial effects on weaning pigs growth performance, ATTD of nutrients, caecal microflora and intestinal morphology. Additionally, citrus-juice waste can be used as substrate for growth of probiotic B. subtilis LS 1-2.

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis LS 1-2, Citrus-juice waste, Corn-soybean meal, Performance, Pigs.

*Corresponding author: bjchae@kangwon.ac.kr

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01337.7

Effect of Increasing Level of Barley Distillers Dried Grains with Soluble on Ruminal Methanogenesis, Enzyme Profile and Ciliate Protozoal Population In Vitro

A. Santra*, S. Konar, A. Banerjee, A. Mandal and S.K. Das

Eastern Regional Station, National Dairy Research Institute A-12 Block, Kalyani-741 235, West Bengal, India


Santra, A., Konar, S., Banerjee, A., Mandal, A. and Das, S.K. 2014. Effect of increasing level of barley distillers dried grains with soluble on ruminal methanogenesis, enzyme profile and ciliate protozoal population in vitro. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 239-249.
The study was conducted to see the effect of barley distillers dried grain with soluble (BDGS) as a feed supplement on ruminal methanogenesis, enzyme profile and ciliate protozoal population in paddy straw based diet in vitro. Five different combination of paddy straw and BDGS (viz., T1:00 mg BDGS + 200 mg of paddy straw, T2: 50 mg BDGS + 150 mg paddy straw, T3: 100 mg BDGS + 100 mg paddy straw, T4: 150 mg BDGS + 50 mg paddy straw and T5: 200 mg BDGS + 00 mg paddy straw) were used for this study. BDGS contained 95.3% OM, 19.3% CP, 73.1% NDF, 28.6% ADF and 23.1% cellulose on DM basis. The results indicated that ruminal methane production gradually decreased (P<0.05) with increasing level of bdgs in the incubating substrate. the number of total ciliate protozoa as well as holotrich and spirotrich protozoa, tvfa concentration, propionic acid and microbial biomass production increased (p<0.01) with increasing level of BDGS. The activities of polysaccharide degrading enzymes e.g., carboxy-methyl cellulase, xylanase and β-glucosidase decreased (P<0.01) with inclusion of BDGS in the incubating substrate. However, activities of amylase enzyme showed the reverse trend. In vitro true dry matter and true organic matter degradibility of paddy straw also improved (P<0.01) with supplementation of BDGS. Findings of the present study suggested that incorporation of barley distillers dried grain with soluble (BDGS) in paddy straw based diet reduced ruminal metahnogenesis and improved organic matter degradibility, TVFA and propionic acid production in vitro.

Keywords: Ciliate protozoa, Distillers grain, Enzyme, Methane, Rumen fermentation.

*Corresponding author: santraashok@rediffmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01325.0

Influence of Feeding an All Plant Ingredients Containing Diet at Different Levels on Growth and Digestive Enzyme Activity of Pond Raised Indian Major Carps

C. Pradhan, S.N. Mohanty, S.C. Rath and S.S. Giri

Fish Nutrition and Physiology Division Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture Kausalyaganga, Bhubaneswar-751 002, India


Pradhan, C., Mohanty, S.N., Rath, S.C. and Giri, S.S. 2014. Influence of feeding an all plant ingredients containing diet at different levels on growth and digestive enzyme activity of pond raised Indian major carps. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 251-262.
A 150 days feeding experiment was conducted in Indian major carps (IMCs) in poly-culture ponds to study their growth and digestive enzymes activity in response to feeding only plant ingredients containing diet, at different levels. Twelve earthen ponds of 0.06 ha were allocated for the experiment. Carp juveniles were stocked at a ratio of 35: 35: 30 of Catla: Rohu: Mrigal with a stocking density of 3500 fish/ha. Fish were fed on an all plant ingredients containing diet at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% of their biomass in each pond. Triplicate ponds were allocated under each feeding level. The final body weight and net biomass gain were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the dietary treatments. in all the three species of carps the highest (p<0.05) growth was obtained at 2% feeding level, and thereafter the growth was plateaued. Fish grew the lowest at 1.0% feeding level. Protease, amylase and lipase activities were studied in the three parts of the gastrointestinal tract. For all the species the amylase activity was the highest (P<0.05) in anterior intestine (AI), followed by middle intestine (MI) and posterior intestine (PI). In AI of catla and rohu the protease activity was significantly higher (P<0.05) at 1% feeding level in comparison to that in other dietary treatments. In mrigal and catla the highest lipase activity was determined in AI when fed at 1% level. The digestive enzyme amylase, protease and lipase activities found maximum with 1% feeding level. The study indicated that the best growth of IMC was obtained when fed at 2% of their body weight in pond aquaculture condition.

Keywords: Digestive enzymes, Feeding levels, Segments of intestine, Vegetable ingredients.

*Corresponding author: ssgiri123@yahoo.co.in

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01326.2

In Vitro Manipulation of Jersey Cow Rumen Ecology with Enzymes or Microbes Obtained from Wild Ungulates

F.N. Fon*, I.V. Nsahlai and P.F. Scogings

Department of Agriculture University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa, 3886, South Africa


Fon, F.N., Nsahlai, I.V. and Scogings, P.F. 2014. In vitro manipulation of Jersey cow rumen ecology with enzymes or microbes obtained from wild ungulates. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 263- 272.
This study aimed to increase the amount of energy harvested by the cow system (CW) without necessarily increasing intake. Primarily, four in vitro microbial consortia N1 (cow and horse), N2 (cow and wildebeest), N3 (cow and zebra) and N4 (cow, horse, wildebeest and zebra) were created. Exocellulase, endocellulase, xylanase and cellobiase specific activities of these systems upon incubation with cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose, xylan and cellobiose, respectively, were measured. Enzyme kinetic constant, rate of product formation and enzyme catalytic rate (Kcat) were also determined. Thirdly, in vitro microbial fermentation and degradability of milky maize stover (MS) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) with inocula from the four systems over 72 h at 39°C were determined by measuring the amount of gas released and true degradability. Systems N4 (Kcat= 32.08) and N1 (Kcat= 16.67) were the most (P<0.05) active enzyme systems upon incubation with endocellulose with specific activity of 9.57 and 4.47 μg glucose />mg, respectively. In vitro fermentation of MS and NDF, and gas production measurements showed that system N4 was the most (P<0.05) active microbial consortium relative to cw. these results demonstrated that in vitro transfer of active enzymes or microbes from other herbivores to the cow is possible while maintaining their fibrolytic potential. further investigation of such microbial consortia can improve livestock productions as the method is inexpensive and may be easily accessed by most farmers if established.

Keywords: Cellulases, Fermentation, Faecalinoculum, Herbivores, Rumen fluid.

*Corresponding author: fabiannde@gmail.com or fabiannde@yahoo.co.uk

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01341.9

Comparative Efficacy of Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Amla (Emblica officinalis) and Mangrail (Nigella sativa) as Growth Promoters in Broilers

R.K. Chaudhary, V.K. Singh*, S.P. Singh, B. Sahoo and A.K. Singh

Department of Animal Nutrition College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology Kumarganj-224 229, India


Chaudhary, R.K., Singh, V.K., Singh, S.P., Sahoo, B. and Singh, A.K. 2014. Comparative efficacy of turmeric (Curcuma longa), amla (Emblica officinalis) and mangrail (Nigella sativa) as growth promoters in broilers. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 273-281.
A study was conducted to compare the efficacy of turmeric (Curcuma longa), amla (Emblica officinalis) and mangrail (Nigella sativa) as herbal growth promoters in broiler chickens. Day old commercial broiler chicks (n=280) were distributed equally into seven groups of 40 chicks each, which were further replicate to five groups of eight each. The chicks were placed on one of seven dietary treatments i.e. basal diet without any supplement (CON) or with turmeric at 0.5 (CL-0.5) and 1.0% (CL-1.0), amla at 0.5 (EO-0.5) and 1.0% (EO-1.0) and mangrail with 0.5 (NS-0.5) and 1% (NS-1.0) levels. The effect of these supplements on feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass characteristics and on economic return was assessed in a six week study. The herbal group broilers were significantly (P<0.05) higher weight gain and lower fcr than control group broilers. the highest weight gain (2097g) and lowest fcr (1.89) was found in ns-1.0 group. h:l ratio was lowest in eo-1.0 group, however, liver enzymes ast and alt concentration did not show any significant (p> 0.05) differences due to herbal supplementation. No significant (P>0.05) effect of turmeric, amla or mangrail were observed on carcass characteristics of broilers. The net profit per bird and net profit per kg live weight of the birds was significantly (P<0.05) higher in all the treatment groups in comparison to the control group and it was highest in ns-1.0 group. the outcome of this study indicated that 1% mangrail powder had no deleterious effect on bird’s health and it improves the weight gain, feed efficiency and economic return in broiler production.

Keywords: Amla, Broiler, Growth promoter, Mangrail, Turmeric.

*Corresponding author: vksinghnduat@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01336.5

Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Probiotics on Growth Performance, Nutrients Digestibility and Faecal Microbiology in Weaned Piglets

D.K. Mishra, A.K. Verma*, N. Agarwal, S.K. Mondal and Putan Singh

Division of Animal Nutrition Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India


Mishra, D.K., Verma, A.K., Agarwal, N., Mondal, S.K. and Singh, P. 2014. Effect of dietary supplementation of probiotics on growth performance, nutrients digestibility and faecal microbiology in weaned piglets. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 283-290.
In order to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of two different probiotics (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus acidophilus) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and faecal microbial count in weaned piglets (28d of age), 36 crossbred (Landrace x Local) piglets were allocated into three treatments on the basis of the BW in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was comprised of four replicates with three piglets in each. Dietary treatments were basal diet without any probiotic (Control), or with 10% of the basal diet replaced by feed fermented with either S. cerevisiae NCDC- 49 (SC; 3-5x106 cfu/g) or L. acidophilus NCDC-15 (LA; 2-3x109 cfu/g). Supplementation of SC or LA to piglets improved (P<0.05) bw gain and adg. digestibility of nutrients, however remained similar (p> 0.05) among the groups. However, piglets in SC and LA groups showed better (P<0.05) fcr compared to control. yeast count and lactobacillus counts were higher (p<0.01) in both SC and LA groups as compared to Control accompanying a concomitant reduction (P<0.01) in coliform count. The results indicated that dietary supplementation of S. cervisiae or L. acidophilus has a positive effect on the performance of weaned piglets.

Keywords: Growth performance, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Nutrient utilization, Probiotics, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Weaned piglets.

*Corresponding author: vermaak62@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01340.7

Performance of White Pekin Ducks on Replacement of Maize with Cassava Tuber Meals

S.K. Sahoo*, S.K. Naskar, S.C. Giri, M.K. Padhi and S.K. Panda

Regional Centre, Central Avian Research Institute Bhubaneswar-751 003, India


Sahoo, S.K., Naskar, S.K., Giri, S.C., Padhi, M.K. and Panda, S.K. 2014. Performance of white pekin ducks on replacement of maize with cassava tuber meals. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 291- 300.
An experiment was conducted to study the performance of White Pekin ducklings when the cereal maize in the diet was replaced with different levels of water soaked and untreated cassava tuber meals (CTM). The water soaked CTM was prepared by soaking the previously chopped clean and freshly harvested cassava tubers in 1:2 water for overnight. Day old straight run White Pekin ducklings (n=240) were randomly divided into 5 equal groups namely CON, wsCTM-40, wsCTM-60, rCTM-40 and rCTM- 0. The CON ducklings were provided with conventional control ration without containing any CTM. The maize in CON ration was replaced by water-soaked CTM in wsCTM-40 and wsCTM-60 and by raw CTM in rCTM-40 and rCTM-60 at 40 and 60% level, respectively. On completion of 6-weeks feeding trial significantly (P≤0.05) higher growth rate and lower FCR was observed in both water-soaked CTM groups (wsCTM-40 and wsCTM-60) than the other experimental groups. No significant differences between the groups were observed in their apparent metabolizability of DM, OM, CP. and GE. On carcass evaluation, a higher (P≤0.05) percentage of breast meat yield was observed in wsCTM-40, wsCTM-60 and rCTM-40 as compared to the CON group. It is concluded that maize could be replaced by watersoaked cassava tuber meals in White Pekin ducklings up to 40%. Higher beneficial effects were observed in water washed cassava tuber meals.

Keywords: Cassava tuber meals, Ducks, Performance, Water washing, White Pekin.

*Corresponding author: sahoosk4@rediffmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01328.6

Comparative Efficacy of Anthelmintic and Condensed Tannins on Intake, Nutrient Metabolism and Growth Performance of Naturally Infected Lambs

Sunil Kumar, Narayan Dutta*, A.K. Pattanaik, P.S. Banerjee and A. Narang

Centre of Advanced Faculty Training in Animal Nutrition Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India


Kumar, S., Dutta, N., Pattanaik, A.K., Banerjee, P.S. and Narang, A. 2014. Comparative efficacy of anthelmintic and condensed tannins on intake, nutrient metabolism and growth performance of naturally infected lambs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 301-310.
This study examined the comparative efficacy of anthelmintic and condensed tannins (CT) on growth and nutrient utilization in lambs. Muzaffarnagari lambs (n=18) with natural GI infection were randomly divided into three equal groups: CON (Control), DW (Dewormed) and CT (Condensed-tannin treated) in a completely randomized block design. In DW group, lambs were treated with broad-spectrum anthelmintic at the onset of experiment. The lambs in CON and DW groups were given a standard total mixed ration (TMR); whereas, the CT group, the lambs were fed a CT-based TMR having 1.5% CT through Ficus infectoria leaves. The feeding-cum-growth trial lasted for a period of 120d. A metabolism trial of 6d duration was conducted after 90d of experimental feeding. Feeding of CT diet (P<0.05) increased the total dm intake by lambs as compared to dw and control groups. the digestibility coefficient of dm, om, cp, ee, ndf and adf did not differ (p> 0.05) among the groups. Total-N intake by lambs was higher (P<0.05) in ct group as compared to control. feeding of ct based tmr reduced (p<0.02) urinary-N excretion as compared to DW and CON groups. Similarly, N-retention was higher (P<0.02) in CT group followed by DW and CON groups. Daily intake of DCP and TDN was higher (P<0.07) in CT group as compared to CON group. The net BW gain and ADG were higher (P<0.01) in CT group followed by DW and CON groups. Feed conversion ratio was better (P<0.07) in CT group as compared to CON. Overall, it is concluded that feeding of CT based TMR significantly improved feed intake, nitrogen retention and growth performance of lambs with natural GI infections.

Keywords: Anthelmintic, Condensed tannins, Growth, Intake, Lambs, Nutrient utilization.

*Corresponding author: dutta65@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01327.4

Effect of Zinc Supplementation With or Without Phytase on Performance, Mineral Accumulation in Tissues and Immune Response of Broiler

Amitava Roy, G.P. Mandal*, Kaushik Pal, I. Samanta, P. Biswas and B. Roy

Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata-700 037, India


Roy, A., Mandal, G.P., Pal, K., Samanta, I., Biswas, P. and Roy, B. 2014. Effect of zinc supplementation with or without phytase on performance, mineral accumulation in tissues and immune response of broiler. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 311-319.
The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of supplementation of Zn with or without phytase on the performance, accumulation of mineral in tissues and immune response of broiler chickens. Two hundred Vencobb 400 unsexed day-old broilers were randomly divided into 4 groups with 5 replicates each. The starter (1-10 d), grower (11-22 d), finisher (23-35 d) diet was formulated to meet or exceed the recommendations of standard commercial broiler chicken except Zn which was not added in diet. The four experimental treatments resulted from a 2x2 factorial arrangements, where factors include Zn (0, 15 mg/kg form zinc sulphate) and phytase (0, 500 U/kg). BW at day 21 and 35 were significantly (P≤0.01) higher in zinc supplemented groups, however feed intake and FCR were unaffected. Phytase supplementation did not alter the BW, feed intake and FCR. Deposition of Zn in bone and liver was significantly (P≤0.05) higher in Zn and phytase supplemented birds. Tibia ash, Zn content of muscle and Cu and Mn content of bone, liver and muscle were unaffected by Zn or phytase addition. Antibody titre against Newcastle Disease virus vaccine was significantly (P<0.01) higher in zn supplemented group, however was unaltered due to phytase supplementation. results indicated that zn supplementation to a maize-soyabean based diet improved bw, mineral deposition in tissue and immune response. however there is no additional benefit from the use of phytase.

Keywords: Broiler, Immunity, Performance, Phytase, Tissue mineral, Zinc.

*Corresponding author: gpmandal1@gpmandal1@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01331.6

Effect of Feeding Green Gram Straw-based Complete Feed Blocks With or Without Live Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Supplementation in Ration of Goats

R. Nehra*, T. Sharma, R.K. Dhuria and S.S. Dangi

Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and Animal Science Rajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bikaner-334 001, India


Nehra, R., Sharma, T., Dhuria, R.K. and Dangi, S.S. 2014. Effect of feeding green gram straw-based complete feed blocks with or without live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) supplementation in ration of goats. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 321-328.
Twelve Marwari kids divided into two equal groups of six in each, were fed ad libitum for 120d a green gram straw based complete feed blocks (GGS-CFB) diet. One group was supplemented with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) culture (YS), while the other group (YU) without any supplementation served as control. The DM intake was similar between the two groups, which was 78.46 and 84.01 g/kg W0.75 amounting to 3.92 and 4.12 kg/100 kg BW, respectively, in YU and YS groups. Yeast supplementation increased (P<0.01) digestibility of dm, om, cp, ee nfe, cf, ndf and adf. average daily gain was higher (p<0.05) in YS group (91.89 g) as compared to YU group (82.74 g), whereas feed conversion ratio was similar between the two groups. The DCP and TDN contents were 10.45 and 58.05% in YU group and 11.12 and 61.68% in YS group, respectively and were similar between the groups. Animals of both groups were in positive nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus balances. Yeast supplementation significantly improved rumen pH, decreased concentrations of lactic acid, ammonia nitrogen, and increased TVFA, total protozoal counts, and TCA-perceptible nitrogen. It is concluded that yeast culture supplementation with GGS-CFB based ration improved nutrient digestibility, average daily gain and promoted rumen fermentation by reducing lactic acid production and increasing volatile fatty acids.

Keywords: Digestibility, Kids, Complete feed block, Green gram straw, Yeast.

*Corresponding author: drrajnehra@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01329.8

Effect of Vitamin C Supplementation on Performance and Blood Biochemical Parameters in Broiler Chicken at Leh-Ladakh

Prabhat Kumar, Avishek Biswas*, V.K. Bharti and R.B. Srivastava

Defence Institute of High Altitude Research Defence Research and Development Organization C/o 56 APO, Leh-194 101, India


Kumar, P., Biswas, A., Bharti, V.K. and Srivastava, R.B. 2014. Effect of vitamin C supplementation on performance and blood biochemical parameters in broiler chicken at Leh-Ladakh. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 329-336.
This study investigated the effect of vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) supplementation on performance and haemato-biochemical parameters in broiler chicken at cold arid high altitude region of Leh- Ladakh, India. One hundred and twenty (120) day old broiler chicks hatched locally at high altitude, cold hypoxic conditions of Ladakh at 12000 ft above mean sea level (AMSL) were randomly selected and divided into 12 groups of 10 chicks each (4 dietary treatments x 3 replicates) in completely randomized design. Chicks were placed in a solar poultry house with mesh floor and reared under uniform husbandry conditions (14 h light/day and 25-32°C). The basal diet (T1) contained crude protein (CP) 210g/kg, 3200 Kcal/kg ME, 30 g/kg total calcium and 0.5g/kg total phosphorus. Experimental diets T2, T3 and T4 contained an additional 100 mg, 200 mg and 400 mg of vitamin C/kg feed, respectively. During the experiment, feed and water were provided ad libitum. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in body weight, feed conversion ratio and cumulative feed intake among the different experimental groups. serum concentrations of total cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase (alp), glucose and total protein in chicks that received dietary vitamin c supplementation decreased significantly (p<0.01) in comparison to control group. By contrast albumin and uric acid concentrations significantly increased (P<0.05), whereas the serum concentrations of creatinine, triglyceride, and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) showed no significant alterations. From the above study it may be concluded that, supplementation of dietary vitamin C would be beneficial for production performance and haemato-biochemical parameters in broiler chicken at cold arid high altitude conditions.

Keywords: Blood metabolites, Broiler, Cold stress, Feed conversion ratio, Vitamin C.

*Corresponding author: drbiswas007@rediffmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01333.X

In Vitro Ruminal Degradability, Fermentation Metabolites and Methanogenesis of Different Crop Residues

R.S. Bhatt*, A.R. Agrawal and A. Sahoo

Division of Animal Nutrition Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, Avikanagar-304 501, India


Bhatt, R.S., Agrawal, A.R. and Sahoo, A. 2014. In vitro ruminal degradability, fermentation metabolites and methanogenesis of different crop residues. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 337-348.
In vitro rumen fermentation study of different source of crop residues used for livestock feeding in semi-arid region was conducted to compare the effects on degradability, fermentation metabolites and methanogenesis. Cereal crop residues (CCR) included pearl millet, barley, sorghum and wheat; leguminous crop residues (LCR) were chick pea, groundnut, and clusterbean; oilseed crop residues (OCR) were sesamum, and mustard; and spices crop residues (SCR) was cumin and fennel. The samples were incubated with ruminal buffer in glass syringes under anaerobic conditions for assessing the ruminal fermentation attributes. The degradability and methanogenesis parameters were assessed at t1/2(h), being determined following fermentation kinetic study of the crop residues. The CP content (g/kg DM) in legumes crop residues (80.6-194) was higher (P<0.05) followed by sorghum (67.9) and mustard (62.5) and was lower in other crop residues. whereas the ndf was lower (p<0.05) in legume and spices crop residues compared to oilseed and cereal crop residues. LCR produced highest and SCR lowest (P<0.05) cumulative gas at t1/2(h). Pearl millet, cumin and groundnut crop residues produced lowest whereas sesamum and mustard crop residues produced highest methane at t1/2(h). The OCR had lower DM digestibility and highest methane per unit digestible DM. Total volatile fatty acids production was higher in fermented substrate of clusterbean, groundnut, sorghum, and wheat having higher proportion of propionate. Above all, pearlmillet, cumin and groundnut crop residues produced less CH4 without compromising digestion and thus feeding of these crop residues could be a strategy to reduce CH4 emissions.

Keywords: Crop residues, In vitro ruminal degradability, Metabolites, Methanogenesis.

*Corresponding author: bhatt_rs@yahoo.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01324.9

Effect of Dietary Moringa oleifera Leaves Powder on Growth Performance, Blood Chemistry, Meat Quality and Gut Microflora of Broiler Chicks

Divya*, A.B. Mandal, A. Biswas, A.S. Yadav and A.K. Biswas

Avian Nutrition and Feed Technology Division Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India


Divya, Mandal, A.B., Biswas, A., Yadav, A.S. and Biswas, A.K. 2014. Effect of dietary Moringa oleifera leaves powder on growth performance, blood chemistry, meat quality and gut microflora of broiler chicks. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 349-357.
An experiment was conducted using 420 day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the effects of Moringa oleifera leaves (MOL), on growth performance, serum chemistry, gut microflora and meat quality. The six dietary treatments included corn-soybean meal based basal diet (control), basal diet supplemented with 20 mg/kg antibiotic; and four levels of Moringa leaves powder (0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0%). Each treatment diet was fed ad libitum to seven replicated groups of 10 chicks up to 42d of age. At the end of feeding trial seven birds from each group were randomly selected for collection of blood and analysis of serum biochemical profile. Gut microflora and TBA value of meat were also estimated. There was no significant change in BW gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of broilers among the groups. The dietary inclusion of MOL powder, in broiler ration significantly (P<0.05) decreased the serum total protein, triglycerides, cholesterol, albumin, uric acid and creatinine. inclusion of mol upto 1.5% reduced alt and ast activities. the tba values of meat and microbial load were lower at 2.0% mol as compared to control and group supplemented with antibiotic. these results suggested that mol could improve the liver function and retarded catabolic rate in broiler chicks. in addition moringa leaves had hypocholesterolaemic effect. further, gut health of the bird improved and mol can be suitable natural alternative to antibiotic. it may also provide several benefits in meat quality and finally to consumer health.

Keywords: Broiler, Growth performance, Meat quality, Moringa oleifera, Serum chemistry.

*Corresponding author: dsdivyasharma714@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01342.0

Effect of Supplementation of Organic Zinc on the Performance of Broiler Breeders

N. Soni, S.K. Mishra*, R.K. Swain, A. Das, N.C. Behura1 and G. Sahoo

Department of Animal Nutrition College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar-751 003, India


Soni, N., Mishra, S.K., Swain, R.K., Das, A., Behura, N.C. and Sahoo, G. 2014. Effect of supplementation of organic zinc on the performance of broiler breeders. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 359- 369.
Two hundred and sixty four broiler breeder hens of 33 weeks of age were distributed randomly in four dietary treatments with three replicate containing 22 birds. The dietary treatments included broiler breeder control ration containing 40 ppm zinc (T0) or the control ration supplemented with organic zinc (zinc methionine) at 20 (T1), 40 (T2) and 60 (T3) ppm levels. The experiment was continued from 33 to 48 weeks of age. Daily eggs production, BW and hatchability were recorded. At 48 weeks, serum biochemical and tibia bone parameters were assessed. The periodical hen day egg production in all the treated groups did not differ significantly (P<0.05) from 33 to 44 weeks of age but during 45-48 weeks of age the hen day egg production of the group t1 was significantly (p<0.05) higher than all other groups. The overall hen day egg production of the broiler breeders from 33 to 48 weeks did not differ (P>0.05) among all the treated groups. The FCR of different treatments did not differ significantly from 33 to 44 weeks of age but during 45-48 weeks, the FCR of T1 was significantly (P<0.05) better than other treated groups. The overall FCR of the entire experimental period (33-48 weeks of age), was without variations (P>0.05). The overall BW change, did not differ significantly among the treatments. The overall (33- 48 weeks) fertility percent and hatchability percent (on fertile egg set basis) of all the groups of broiler breeder were almost similar but the hatchability percent on total egg set basis of T2 and T3 groups was significantly higher as compared to T0 and T1. Except, serum levels of total protein, urea, alkaline phosphate (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, all other studied biochemical parameters did not differ significantly. There were no variations in the weight, length and cortex thickness of tibia including ash, calcium and phosphorus concentrations among the treatments. This experiment revealed that zinc methionine supplementation at 40 ppm level in broiler breeder ration had no consistent effect on egg production of the birds but improved hatchability on total egg set basis.

Keywords: Biochemical, Broiler breeder, Egg production, Organic zinc, Tibia bone parameters.

*Corresponding author: sumantkmishra@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01343.2

Effect of a Blend of Essential Oils on In Vitro Methanogenesis and Feed Fermentation With Buffalo Rumen Liquor

M.A. Yatoo, L.C. Chaudhary*, Neeta Agarwal and D.N. Kamra

Rumen Microbiology Laboratory, Animal Nutrition Division Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India


Yatoo, M.A., Chaudhary, L.C., Agarwal, N. and Kamra, D.N. 2014. Effect of a blend of essential oils on in vitro methanogenesis and feed fermentation with buffalo rumen liquor. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 371-377.
Essential oils (EOs) are effective antimethanogenic agents but some of them have adverse effect on feed digestibility. Therefore, a blend of ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi) oil, garlic (Allium sativum) oil and cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) leaf oil (BEO) having anti-methanogenic activities was used at lower concentrations to avoid adverse effect on digestibility of feed in an in vitro gas production test. Inclusion of the BEO at graded levels of 0.66, 1.0, 1.33, 1.66 and 2.0 μl/ml of incubation medium resulted in a linear depression (P<0.001) in total gas and methane production with a maximum reduction of 28.9 and 22.1 per cent at 1.33 μl />ml level. The in vitro true dry matter and organic matter digestibility of feed was also inhibited (P<0.001) by 25.70 and 24.17 per cent at this level. the levels of total volatile fatty acids in the fermented medium were not affected, however, the proportion of acetate was significantly increased and that of propionate and butyrate decreased, resulting in increased acetate to propionate ratio. the results indicated that the blend of eos comprising of low levels of individual eos suppressed methane production, however, there was also a simultaneous reduction in in vitro true degradability (ivtd) of feed.

Keywords: Allium sativum, Buffalo, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Essential oils, Methane, Trachyspermum ammi.

*Corresponding author: lcchaudhary1@rediffmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01330.4

Effect of Dietary Inclusion of Lipid Utilizing Agents and NSP-degrading Enzymes on Performance of Layers

B.N. Suresh*, B.S.V. Reddy, T.M. Prabhu, G.U. Manju and N. Suma

Department of Animal Nutrition, Veterinary College Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University Hebbal, Bangalore-560 024, India


Suresh, B.N., Reddy, B.S.V., Prabhu, T.M., Manju, G.U. and Suma, N. 2014. Effect of dietary inclusion of lipid utilizing agents and NSP-degrading enzymes on performance of layers. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 379-384.
A study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplements viz., lipase, lecithin and NSP degrading enzymes on production performance and egg quality of layers. For the purpose, a cornsoybean meal-sunflower-groundnut extractions type control diet and three test diets by fortifying the control diet with either lipid utilizing agents (lipase- 100units + lecithin- 20 g/kg diet) or NSP degrading enzymes (xylanase-1250, β-glucanase-500, cellulase-250, pectinase-125 units/kg diet) or both were prepared. Each diet was offered to four groups of four laying hens (42 wks old, BV-300 birds) each for a period of 84 days. The results revealed that there was no significant (P<0.05) difference in cumulative average egg production, feed consumption and feed efficiency and egg characteristics such as shape index, albumen index, yolk index, yolk colour, haugh unit score and shell thickness among different groups. however, egg weight was significantly (p> 0.01) higher in groups fed diet supplemented with lipase and lecithin. The metabolizability of dry matter and organic matter of and retention of calcium and phosphorus remained similar (P>0.05) among different groups. The serum calcium and inorganic P levels were also comparable to each other at different intervals. It is concluded that the dietary supplementation of either lipase with lecithin or NSP degrading enzymes has no influence on production performance, nutrient utilization and egg quality of layers except egg weight.

Keywords: Egg quality, Layers, Lipid utilizer, NSP degrading enzyme, Production.

*Corresponding author: suresh658@rediffmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01335.3

Dietary Influence of Amino Acids on Growth of Neon tetra Paracheirodon innesi

S.I. Darve and H. Singh*

Department of Aquaculture, College of Fisheries, Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Ratnagiri-415 629, India


Darve, S.I. and Singh, H. 2014. Dietary influence of amino acids on growth of Neon tetra Paracheirodon innesi. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 385-391.
A study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary amino acids on the growth performance of neon tetra (Paracheirodon innesi). Eleven purified diets were prepared using crystalline amino acids, and their effects on growth, survival and feed performance of P. innesi (0.0506±0.001 g mean initial weight) were evaluated. Control diet contained all ten essential amino acids, while in other diets one essential amino acid was deleted and that amino acid was replaced with alanine. Fishes were fed by hand to apparent satiation, twice a day, for 90d. Fish fed with the control diet resulted in the highest weight gain, specific growth rate, food conversion efficiency and protein efficiency ratio and it differed significantly (P<0.05) with other diets. this indicated that all ten amino acids were found essential for growth of p. innesi. lowest growth was observed in lysine, arginine, leucine, valine and threonine deficient diets. from the growth data, it was evident that the growth rate reduced in absence of each of the chosen amino acids and it thus proved that they were more essential for this species. it is concluded that appropriate and balanced incorporation of each amino acid in the diet of p. innesi is necessary for the efficient feed utilization and better growth for its mass production.

Keywords: Amino acids, Paracheirodon innesi, Purified diet.

*Corresponding author: gohar.fish@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01338.9

Effect of Plant Based Feed Attractants on Growth of Cirrhinus mrigala Fingerlings

B.N. Paul*, B.K. Pandey and S.S. Giri

Regional Research Centre, Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture Rahara, Kolkata-700 118, India


Paul, B.N., Pandey, B.K. and Giri, S.S. 2014. Effect of plant based feed attractants on growth of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 393-398.
A 60-d experiment was conducted to study the efficacy of plant-based attractants in the feed of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings (av. weight 5.24±0.02g). The formulated feed contained mustard cake, soyabean meal, rice bran, vegetable oil, vitamin and mineral mixture with 1% feed attractants replacing rice bran. The different attractants used in feeds are: FA0 (Control), FA1 (Awbel, Cuscuta reflexa), FA2 (Kharboj, Cucumis melo), FA3 (Tambul, Zanthoxylum acanthopodium), FA4 (Chotokakla, Piper cubeba) and FA5 (Jayatri, Myristica fragrans). The net weight gain (g) was 1.05±0.15, 2.43±0.08, 1.45±0.05, 1.53±0.28, 1.50±0.02, 2.05±0.05, respectively in dietary groups Control to FA5. The growth study with different attractants revealed that the net weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR) were significantly (P<0.05) higher in mrigal fingerlings fed fa1 compared to other groups. feed conversion ratio (fcr) was significantly (p< 0.05) lower in FA1 and FA5. The proximate composition of Carcass did not differ significantly (P>0.05) among the groups fed with different plant based feed attractants. Thus it may be concluded that out of the attractants tested in the present experiment, use of Awbel at 1% level (FA1) in the diet induced better performance in terms of growth and feed utilisation in mrigal fingerlings.

Keywords: Attractant, Carcass composition, Cirrhinus mrigala, Feed conversion ratio, Growth.

*Corresponding author: bnpaulcifa@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01334.1

Effect of Low Nutrient Density Diets and Certain Feed Additives on Performance of Laying Hens

B.N. Suresh*, B.S.V. Reddy, R.G. Gloridoss, B.C. Umashankar and C. Basavanta Kumar

Department of Animal Nutrition, Veterinary College Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University Hebbal, Bangalore-560 024, India


Suresh, B.N., Reddy, B.S.V., Gloridoss, R.G., Umashankar, B.C. and Kumar, C.B. 2014. Effect of low nutrient density diets and certain feed additives on performance of laying hens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 399-404.
A trial was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding low nutrient density diets with certain dietary agents on the egg production and nutrient metabolizability of layers (n=144). A practical type layer diet (BIS, 1992) served as control and test diets were prepared by replacing 10, 20 and 30 per cent of the control diet by a diluent feed ingredient i.e., sun-dried sugarcane press residue. Further, each diet was fortified with either lipid utilizing agents (lipase 100 units + lecithin 20 g/kg diet) or NSP degrading enzymes (xylanase 1000, β-glucanase 400, cellulose 200, pectinase 100 units/kg feed) or together to result in another set of three diets. Each diet was offered to triplicate groups of three laying hens (35 wks old, BV-300 birds) each for 56d. The results revealed a significant (P<0.01) reduction in per cent egg production and feed consumption with the decreased diet nutrient density. the feed efficiency was also significantly (p<0.01) poorer in birds fed lower nutrient density diets. The egg characteristics such as shape index, albumen index, yolk index, yolk colour, Haugh unit score and shell thickness including egg weight were statistically similar (P>0.05) among different groups. Further, the egg production, feed consumption, feed efficiency and egg qualities were similar (P>0.05) among the groups fed diets supplemented without or with lipid utilizing agents or NSP degrading enzymes or together. It was concluded that the diet dilution decreases the production performance of layers without affecting egg qualities.

Keywords: Egg characteristics, Egg production, Enzymes, Layers, Nutrient density.

*Corresponding author: suresh658@rediffmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2014.01339.0

Performance of Crossbred Pigs Reared Under Traditional and Scientific Feeding Practices in Goa

E.B. Chakurkar*, P.K. Naik, B.K. Swain and N.P. Singh

ICAR Research Complex for Goa, Old Goa-403 402, India


Chakurkar, E.B., Naik, P.K., Swain, B.K. and Singh, N.P. 2014. Performance of crossbred pigs reared under traditional and scientific feeding practices in Goa. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 405- 409.
An experiment was conducted to study the performance of the 50% crossbred (Goa Local x Large White Yorkshire) piglets under field under different traditional and scientific feeding practices in Goa. Twelve 50% crossbred castrated male piglets were divided into four groups of three piglets in each. Randomly, one group was maintained under scientific feeding practices (Ts). The other three groups were distributed to three pig farmers maintaining their units under different traditional feeding practices i.e. bakery waste (TBW), kitchen waste (TKW) and cooked poultry offal + wheat bran (TPO+WB) based feeds. Among the traditional feeding practices groups, the CP content of the TPO+WB (36.15%) was higher (P<0.05) than the tbw (9.69%) and tkw (14.49%). the ee content in tpo+wb (21.85%) was highest among all the feeds. the cf content of the tbw (4.14) and tkw (4.40) was similar (p> 0.05) with the Ts (4.97), but lower (P<0.05) than the tpo+wb (15.22). the daily bw gain of tpo+wb (237.77 g) was higher (p<0.05) than the TBW (112.89g) and TKW (111.33g), but lower than the Ts group (308.44g). It was concluded that traditional feeding practices have to be developed based on the nutritive value for the existing feed resources and increasing pig production.

Keywords: Bakery waste, Kitchen waste, Pig, Poultry offal, Wheat bran.

*Corresponding author: eknchakurkar@yahoo.com


Mineral Composition of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) Plant during Vegetation Period with Special Reference to Copper

B. Debski*, M.A. Gralak, K. Gesinski and E. Jendrzejczak

Department of Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Biological Sciences, 02-787 Warsaw, Nowoursynowska 159, Poland


Debski, B., Gralak, M.A., Gesinski, K. and Jendrzejczak, E. 2014. Mineral composition of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) plant during vegetation period with special reference to copper. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 1-8.
Two varieties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) viz. Olav and Sandoval were cultivated in central Poland. Biomass and concentrations of Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, and Cr (using flame AAS method) were estimated in different parts of plant (stem, leaves, infructescence), during 180 days of vegetation period. Whole green part of quinoa was found to contain higher concentrations of Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe and Cu than whole plant cereals (data known from literature). Estimated mineral concentrations found in quinoa plant were compared with requirement of these elements for cattle. Comparison of mineral composition of different parts of quinoa showed that the concentration of the examined minerals, except for Cu, were highest in leaves followed by infructescence and stem. In case of this metal its highest concentration was observed in infructescence followed by leaves and stem. At the end of the vegetation period participation of infructescence in plant copper content was high and ranged from 57% (Olav var.) to 65% (Sandoval var.). Average Cu content in quinoa plants of the two examined varieties was positively correlated with duration of vegetation period, and its concentration exceeds 10 mg/kg DM, the stipulated dietary requirements for cattle. It is concluded that quinoa could be used for cattle and seems to be a good source of macro and micro-elements like magnesium, manganese, iron, zinc and copper.

Keywords: Chenopodium quinoa, Copper, Minerals, Quinoa.

*Corresponding author: bogdandebski@tlen.pl

Effects of Multi-Enzyme Supplementation in Wheat Based Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) Rations on Egg Production, Egg Quality and Some Blood Parameters

A. Tekeli*, K. Bilgeçli1, F. Çelen, Ö.F. Kurbal and M. Bitigic

Animal Science Department, Agriculture Faculty Yuzuncu Yil Üniversity, Van, Turkey 65080


Tekeli, A., Bilgeçli, K., Çelen, F., Kurbal, Ö.F. and Bitigiç, M. 2014. Effects of multi-enzyme supplementation in wheat based quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) rations on egg production, egg quality and some blood parameters. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 9-18.
This study investigates the effects of multi-enzyme (xylanase, β-glucanase, cellulase, pectinase, and protease) supplementation of wheat based quail rations on body weight, feed consumption, egg production, egg quality, feed conversion ratio and some blood parameters. A total of 210 eight-week old quails were distributed into five groups and fed diet supplemented with the multi-enzyme Rovabio Excel at 0 (Control), 0.5 (E-0.5), 1.0 (E-1.0), 1.5 (E-1.5) and 2.0 (E-2.0) kg/ton for a period of 12 weeks. Egg production and egg number increased (P<0.01) in e-1.0 and e-1.5 groups but decreased (p<0.01) in E-2.0. The highest (P<0.05) average egg weight was obtained in the E-1.5 group, fed with 1.5 kg enzyme/ton. Albumen index significantly increased (P<0.05) in all treatment groups compared to control group. The highest (P<0.05) yolk index was recorded in the E-0.5 group fed with 0.5 kg enzyme/ton. Egg shape index increased (P<0.05) in the E-1.0 and E-2.0 groups while the Haugh unit increased significantly (P<0.05) in the E-1.0 and E-1.5 groups. However, egg size decreased (P<0.05) with E-1.0. As a result, 1 and 1.5 kg enzyme/ton amounts of Rovabio Excel enzyme supplementation in wheat based quail rations increased egg production, egg number, average egg weight, albumen index, yolk index, egg shape index and Haugh unit, Minolta a* value. This results of this study suggest that multi-enzyme additives can be used to improve the performance quail fed on wheat based rations.

Keywords: Colour parameters, Egg quality, Enzyme supplementation, Quail, Wheat.

*Corresponding author: atekelim@gmail.com.tr

Vitamin E Deficiency could Increase the Optimum Dietary Vitamin C Requirement in Juvenile Olive Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

R.M. Mizanur, X. Wang, G. Park, H. Yun, S. Choi, Y. Park and S.C. Bai

Department of Marine Bio-Materials and Aquaculture Feeds and Foods Nutrition Research Center, Pukyong National University Busan 608-737, Republic of Korea


Mizanur, R.M., Wang, X., Park, G. Yun, H., Choi, S., Park, Y. and Bai, S.C. 2014. Vitamin E deficiency could increase the optimum dietary vitamin C requirement in juvenile Olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 19-28.
A 12-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of deficiency of vitamin E (α- tocopherol) on the optimal vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid, AA) requirement in diets for juvenile Olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Ten diets were formulated to contain two dietary vitamin E levels of 0 (E0) and 200 (E200) mg dl-tocopheryl acetate (TA) and five graded levels (0, 100, 300, 1000 and 3000 mg/kg diet) of AA in the form of L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate (AMP). Fish averaging 4.81±0.06 g (mean ±SD) were distributed randomly to each aquarium as a group of 25 fishes. Increasing vitamin C levels from 0 to 100 mg/kg diets had significantly improved survival, weight gain and feed efficiency of fish, being particularly evident with vitamin E deficient diet (E0). Broken-line regression analysis indicated that the optimum dietary vitamin C level could be 114.99 mg ascorbic acid (AA)/kg diet in vitamin E deficiency diets (E0) and of 92.16 mg AA/kg diet in vitamin E supplemented diets (E200). The results indicated that vitamin E deficiency could increase the optimum dietary vitamin C level in juvenile Olive flounder.

Keywords: Deficiency, Olive flounder, Paralicthys olivaceus, Vitamin C, Vitamin E.

*Corresponding author: scbai@pknu.ac.kr

Effect of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) Seed Tannin on In vitro Biomass Production and Substrate Degradation of Aerobic Rice Straws

Deepa Ananth*, U. Krishnamoorthy, K. Chandrapal Singh and R.G. Gloridoss

Department of Animal Nutrition, Bangalore Veterinary College Karnataka Veterinary and Fisheries Science University, Bangalore-560 024, India


Ananth, D., Krishnamoorthy, U., Singh, K.C. and Gloridoss, R.G. 2014. Effect of tamarind (tamarindus indica) seed tannin on in vitro biomass production and substrate degradation of aerobic rice straws. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 29-39.
Three aerobic varieties of rice straw IR-64, IR-36 and IR-30864 differing in their composition and rate of substrate degradation were incubated without or with 5 and 7.5% of tamarind seed testa (TST) to evaluate the effect of tannin on ruminal biomass production. Semi-purified tamarind seed tannin containing total phenolic content of 51.73% tannic acid (TA) equivalence, total tannin of 31.75% TA equivalence and condensed tannin of 23.32% leucocyanidine equivalent, degrading with a total gas production of 100 ml at a rate of 0.0306 mg/min was used for the study. The (TST) supplementation (P<0.01) reduced the potential gas production, prolonged the rate of substrate degradation in all the three varieties. the halflife was prolonged by 2h in ir-64 and ir-36 variety and 6h in ir-30864 variety. incubation of straw varieties with tst at t1 />2 period of respective straws, showed significant (P<0.01) increase of rumen microbial biomass production in terms of rna equivalence. significant linear reduction in gas production was observed in all the varieties with increasing level of tst. the efficiency of rumen biomass production were increased (p<0.01) in all the varieties with TST addition. The total SCFA contents were low in all the varieties of straw with addition of either 5 or 7.5% TST with resultant variations in the concentration of propionate and butyrates. Inclusion of tamarind seed testa at 5 and 7.5% to aerobic straws produced a shift in the fermentation pattern towards more microbial biomass, and less of gas and SCFA production, increased efficiency of biomass production along with higher propionate and lower butyrate and isobutyrate production.

Keywords: In vitro, Microbial biomass production, Rice straw, Tamarind seed testa, Tannin.

*Corresponding author: drdeepaananth@hotmail.com

Azzawi Dates (Phoenix dactylifera) as a Substitute for Corn as an Energy Source in Sheep Diet: In vitro Gas Production and Fermentation

I.M. Khattab, A.Z.M. Salem1*, L.M. Camacho, A.M. Abdel-Wahed and K.Z. Kewan

Animal Nutrition Department, Desert Research Center 1 Matahaf El Mataria St., P.O. Box 11753, Mataria, Cairo, Egypt


Khattab, I.M., Salem, A.Z.M., Camacho, L.M., Abdel-Wahed, A.M. and Kewan, K.Z. 2014. Azzawi dates (Phoenix dactylifera) as a substitute for corn as an energy source in sheep diet: In vitro gas production and fermentation. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 41-49.
In vitro gas production technique was used in the current study to evaluate Azzawi date (AD) as a substitute for corn grain (CG). The AD was used to replace corn grain at graded levels in the proportion: 0:100 (CG), 25:75 (AD25), 50:50 (AD50), 75:25 (AD75), and 100:0 (AD100). Gas production (GP) was continuously measured by incubating samples in buffered rumen fluid from cannulated sheep and it was recorded at 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 and 72h of incubation. Cumulative GP, kinetics of GP (a, b and c), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations were determined, while metabolizable energy (ME), net energy (NE), organic matter digestibility (OMD), microbial protein (MP) were estimated. The gas volume was increased (P<0.05) at 12h with increasing the substitution levels of ad in the feed, the values ranged between 31.3 and 44.7 ml />200 mg DM. However, it was found to be decreased (P<0.05) at 48 and 72h with increasing substitution levels of ad. there were no differences in the gas production found at 24h. data of vfa, ne, omd and mp were similar (p> 0.05) among the feeds. The energy (ME; MJ/kg DM) value of AD25 (10.4) and AD50 (10.3) were comparable to that of CG (10.5); however it was reduced (P<0.05) with ad75 and ad100. data demonstrated that, azzawi date at the level of 50 g />100g of substrate (i.e., AD50) may have similar energy contents as of corn grain, and it can be used as a source of energy in ruminant diets either alone or in combination with corn grain.

Keywords: Azzawi date, Corn grain, Gas production, In vitro.

*Corresponding author: asalem70@yahoo.com

Effect of Addition of Certain Antioxidants on the Metabolism of Cadmium and Other Nutrients in Dietary Cadmium Exposed Guinea Pigs

R.S. Dhayagude, A.K. Garg* and R.S. Dass

Centre for Advanced Faculty Training in Animal Nutrition Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India


Dhayagude, R.S., Garg, A.K. and Dass, R.S. 2014. Effect of addition of certain antioxidants on the metabolism of cadmium and other nutrients in dietary cadmium exposed guinea pigs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 51-58.
Seventy healthy guinea pigs (261.1±2.18 g mean BW) were divided into seven equal groups. While no cadmium (Cd) was added in the control group (T0), 10 ppm Cd was added in remaining all the groups along with zinc (Zn) @ 0 (T1), 50 (T2) and 100 ppm (T3), selenium (Se) @ 0.2 (T4) and 0.4 ppm (T5) and vitamin E @ 100 IU/kg diet (T6). Experimental feeding lasted for 70d including a 4d metabolic trial. The results showed that supplementation of 10 ppm Cd in the diet had no effect on intake and digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF, cellulose and hemicelluloses and retention of N, Ca, P, Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn. However, absorption as well as retention of Cd was significantly (P<0.05) higher in all the cd treated groups (t1 to t6) as compared to control (t0), but it was significantly (p<0.05) reduced in all the groups supplemented with antioxidants with highest reduction in group T3 (100 ppm Zn) and T6 (100 IU vitamin E) as compared to group T1. Overall, the results indicated that supplementation of either 100 ppm Zn or 100 IU vitamin E could largely reduce the absorption and retention of dietary Cd in the guinea pigs given 10 ppm Cd in their diet.

Keywords: Antioxidants, Cadmium, Guinea pigs, Nutrient utilization

*Corresponding author: akgivri@gmail.com

Effect of Essential Oils Dissolved in Different Solvents on the In vitro Methane Production

M. Wadhwa, J.S. Hundal1, K. Kaur and M.P.S. Bakshi

Department of Animal Nutrition Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Ludhiana-141 004, India


Wadhwa, M., Hundal, J.S., Kaur, K. and Bakshi, M.P.S. 2014. Effect of essential oils dissolved in different solvents on the in vitro methane production. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 59-67.
The study was taken up to assess the effect of the essential oils (EOs) like cinamaldehyde (CIN), carvone (CAR) and limonene (LIM), dissolved in different solvents like water, 50% methanol, 80% ethanol, petroleum ether (PE), propylene glycol (PG) on in vitro digestibility of nutrients, methane and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production from wheat straw in a 4x5 factorial experiment. The EOs were supplemented @ 3% of the substrate. Irrespective of the solvent used, the net gas production (NGP) was depressed (P<0.01) in car and lim supplemented groups as compared to control. the digestibility of ndf and true om was depressed (p<0.01) in all the EO supplemented groups as compared to control. Amongst the EOs, the highest digestibility was observed in wheat straw supplemented with CIN. The CH4 production was lowest (P<0.01) when wheat straw was supplemented with CAR. The ME availability was also highest in CIN supplemented group, which was comparable to control but higher (P<0.01) than CAR supplemented group. Irrespective of EO, the NGP was high (P<0.01) when ethanol was used as a solvent as compared to methanol. The digestibility of NDF and that of true OM was comparable between water and methanol, but higher (P<0.01) than other solvents.The EOs dissolved in PE and PG showed lowest (P<0.01) CH4 production. The total VFA production was highest (P<0.01) in PG followed by ethanol and methanol. The propionate and isovalerate were highest in PG supplemented groups. Keeping in view the NGP, digestibility of nutrients, methane and VFA production and correlations worked out for all possible combinations in different parameters, the best combination was cinamaldehyde or carvon dissolved in 50% methanol. The use of petroleum ether and propylene glycol as solvent in such studies should be avoided.

Keywords: Digestibility, Essential oils, In vitro, Methane, Solvents, Volatile fatty acids.

*Corresponding author: bakshimps@yahoo.com

Conservation Characteristics of Triticale-Hungarian Vetch Silage Ensiled with Homo-fermentative or Hetero-fermentative Lactic Acid Bacteria in Jars

G. Keles*, V. Kurtoglu, U. Demirci, S. Ates, T. Canatan, M. Kan and A. Gunes

Faculty of Agriculture, Adnan Menderes University, 09100 Aydin, Turkey


Keles, G., Kurtoglu, V., Demirci, U., Ates, S., Canatan, T., Kan, M. and Gunes, A. 2014. Conservation characteristics of triticale-hungarian vetch silage ensiled with homo-fermentative or hetero-fermentative lactic acid bacteria in jars. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 69-79.
The effects of five lactic acid bacteria (LAB) treatments on the conservation characteristics of triticale-Hungarian vetch silages were investigated in a 3 (stage of ensiling) x 6 (additive treatments) factorial design. Triticale-Hungarian vetch herbage wilted to 35% DM was chopped and treated with three homo-fermentative LAB (two strains of Lactobacillus plantarum; L. plantarum + Enterecoccus faecium and multi-strain of homo-fermentative LAB + enzyme mixture), hetero-fermentative LAB (two strains of Lactobacillus buchneri) or hetero-fermentative + homo-fermentative LAB (L. buchneri, L. plantarum, E. faecium). Silages made without additive served as control. The application of homo-fermentative LAB resulted in increased (P<0.001) water soluble carbohydrates (wsc), but decreased (p<0.001) silage pH and ammonia-N within the 4 weeks of fermentation. Application of homo-fermentative LAB with enzyme also increased (P<0.001) concentration of lactic acid resulting in higher (P<0.001) DM recovery. L. buchneri with or without homo-fermentative LAB improved the standard of preservation which had higher (P<0.001) silage pH, concentration of acetic and propionic acid, but lower concentration of lactic acid and WSC (P<0.001). The combination of L. buchneri and homo-fermentative LAB reduced (P<0.001) ammonia-N as compared to the control. Aerobic stability was the longest (P<0.001) in silages treated with L. buchneri, but it was the shortest (P<0.001) in silages treated with homo-fermentative LAB. It is concluded that even if ensiling conditions are optimal for silage fermentation, both homo-fermentative and hetero-fermentative LAB and their combination can improve the quality of silage. Further, using homo-fermentative LAB in combination with L. buchneri rather than using L. buchneri alone is more preferable.

Keywords: Lactobacillus buchneri, Stage of ensiling, Triticale-Hungarian vetch silage.

*Corresponding author: gurhan.keles@adu.edu.tr

Performance of Broilers Fed Formic and Propionic Acid Supplemented Diets

R. Venkatasubramani, P. Vasanthakumar*, D. Chandrasekaran, D. Rajendran1 and M.R. Purushothaman

Department of Animal Nutrition, Veterinary College and Research Institute Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Namakkal-637 002, India


Venkatasubramani, R., Vasanthakumar, P., Chandrasekaran, D., Rajendran, D. and Purushothaman, M.R. 2014. Performance of broilers fed formic and propionic acid supplemented diets. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 81-90.
A feeding trial was conducted using 360 one day-old broiler chicks (Vencobb) of either sex for six weeks period to assess the performance of broilers fed diets containing formic and propionic acids either singly or in combination. The experimental birds were allotted to eight dietary treatment groups with three replicates per group comprising 45 birds in each treatment group. The control and antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) dietary groups were fed basal diet and basal diet plus virginiamicin (0.05%), respectively while the other dietary treatment groups were supplemented with either formic acid at 0.1 (FA-0.1) or 0.15% (FA-0.15) or propionic acid at 0.1 (PA-0.1) or 0.15% (PA-0.15) or combination of formic (0.05) and propionic (0.05% each) acids (FA+PA-0.1) or commercial gut acidifier (CGA) at 0.1% level. The performance of the birds in terms of weight gain, feed efficiency, nutrient digestibility, carcass characteristics, blood parameters and cost of production were assessed. The results revealed that addition of formic acid at 0.1 (FA-0.1) or 0.15% (FA-0.15) or propionic acid at 0.1 (PA-0.1) or 0.15% (PA- 0.15) or combination of formic and propionic acids (FA+PA- 0.1) or commercial gut acidifier (CGA- 0.1) at 0.1% level in the diet of broilers did not influence the BW gain and feed intake. The feed conversion ratio (P<0.05) was better in antibiotic-virginiamicin (1.76), fa+pa-0.1(1.70) and cga-0.1 (1.74) fed groups as compared to the control (1.86). carcass characteristics, digestibility of nutrients and tibial ash content were not affected significantly. the feed cost per kg live weight gain and per kg meat production was significantly (p<0.05) lower in antibiotic and FA+PA-0.1 groups. Based on feed conversion efficiency and economics, it can be inferred that combination of formic and propionic acids at 0.1% level in the diet of broilers was found to be beneficial and comparable to the antibiotic (virginiamicin) fed group. Hence organic acids can be used in the diet of broilers to replace AGP so as to avoid the problem of antibiotic residues in livestock products.

Keywords: Broiler chicken, Feed acidifiers, Formic, Organic acids, Propionic acids.

*Corresponding author: p.vasanthakumar@tanuvas.org.in

Optimization of Dietary Protein in All Male Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Reared in Inland Saline Water

M. Mohammadi*, A.H. Sarsangi, T.D. Haghighi, C. Webster, F. Rajabipour, N. Mashaii, A. Bitaraf and M. Hafeziyeh

Iranian Fisheries Research Organization, National Research Center of Saline Water Aquatics, P.O. Box 159, Bafgh, Yazd, Iran


Mohammadi, M., Sarsangi, A.H., Haghighi, T.D., Webster, C., Rajabipour, F., Mashaii, N., Bitaraf, A. and Hafeziyeh, M. 2014. Optimization of dietary protein in all male Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) reared in inland saline water. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 91-99.
Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is important as a newly introduced species to inland aquaculture industry of Iran. Feed is the most important economic factor, and protein, the most expensive ingradient represents more than 50% of expenses was investigated. All male Nile tilapia (180) with initial weight 13.85±1.01 g divided randomly in 12 tanks (150 L, 3 L/min water flow) and fed with 4 diets (15, 22, 29 and 36% crude protein) during 8 weeks. Survival did not affect by increasing protein level. Growth, food and protein performance indices improved significantly (P<0.01) up to cp 29. the most economical diet for getting convince growth, food and protein performance was 29% crude protein. mathematical model (polynomiyal) between pce and protein level showed the maximum protein efficiency appeared in 35.3% crude protein.

Keywords: Dietary protein, Male Nile tilapia, Saline water, Optimization.

*Corresponding author: mohammaditabasy@gmail.com

Effect of Herbal Anticoccidial Feed Mix Pellet on the Growth, Rumen Fermentation and Blood Metabolites of Barbari Goats

Ravindra Kumar*, U.B. Chaudhary, Ashok Kumar and D.K. Sharma

Division of Nutrition Feed Resources and Product Technology Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom, Farah, Mathura-281122, India


Ravindra Kumar, Chaudhary, U.B., Ashok Kumar and Sharma, D.K. 2014. Effect of herbal anticoccidial feed mix pellet on the growth, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites of Barbari goats. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 101-108.
Effect of replacement of chemical anticoccidial with herbal mixture on growth, rumen and blood metabolites in Barbari goats was studied. Three types of complete pelleted feed with roughage and conc. (60:40) were formulated i.e. normal complete pellet (T1) with no addition, chemical anticoccidial pellet (T2) containing amprolium as feed mix and herbal anticoccidial pellet (T3) containing extract of Allium sativum and Artmisia as feed mix. Evaluation of these three pellets was carried out in 3-4 months old Barbari goats. An experiment of 120d feeding was carried out and daily feed intake, fortnightly body weight gain, blood parameters, rumen fermentation parameters, oocyst count (OPG) were studied. The daily dry matter intake (g) was similar (P>0.05) in all the group. The average daily gain (g) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in treatment groups as compared to t1 (control) group (40.41). however, statistically similar body weight gain (g) was recorded in t2 (53.52) and t3 (52.05) groups. there was no difference in ruminal ph, ammonia nitrogen (mg />dl) among different groups, while higher total volatile fatty acid (mmol/dl) was observed in T3 (13.50) as compared to T1 (10.88) and T2 (11.02) groups. Similarly, significant (P<0.05) lower acetate to propionate ratio was found in t3 (3.44) as compared to t1 (5.50) and t2 (4.04). the level of haemoglobin (g />dl) and hematocrit (%) was lower (P<0.05) in control (t1) group (5.92, 18.46) as compared to t2 (7.28, 23.58) and t3 (8.50, 28.34) groups, respectively. it can be concluded that production parameters affected due to coccidial infection get improved by feeding of anticoccidial pellet containing either chemical or herbal anticoccidial mix. so herbal anticoccidial mix can replace chemical anticoccidial compound in feed pellet there by reducing the chemical residue in goat products.

Keywords: Coccidia, Goats, Herbal pellet feed.

*Corresponding author: ravindra.srivastava@gmail.com

Effect of Level and Duration of Application of a Commercial Enzyme Mixture on In Vitro Ruminal Fermentation Responses of a Mid-Forage Total Mixed Ration

E. Parand, M. Danesh Mesgaran*, A. Faramarzi Garmroodi and A. Vakili

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad-91975-1763, Iran


Parand, E., Danesh Mesgaran, M., Faramarzi Garmroodi, A. and Vakili, A. 2014. Effect of level and duration of application of a commercial enzyme mixture on in vitro ruminal fermentation responses of a mid-forage total mixed ration. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 13: 109-119.
In vitro gas production technique was used to evaluate ruminal fermentation characteristics of a mid-forage total mixed ration (TMR; containing 39.4% corn silage, 6.2% wheat straw and 54.4% concentrate) which was pre-treated with a commercial enzyme mixture (Natuzyme®) applied at the rate of 0.0, 0.84, 1.68 and 2.52 g/kg DM (E0.0, E0.84, E1.68 and E2.52, respectively) and at different times (0, 12 and 24 hr before to the start of the in vitro incubation, namely hr0, hr12 and hr24, respectively). Increasing levels of enzyme from 0.84 to 2.52 g/kg substrate DM linearly (P<0.001) increased gas production volume (gp96). in vitro dry matter disappearance (ivdmd) increased quadratically (p<0.05) with increasing level of enzyme and was highest at E1.68. Fermentation efficiency (FE) increased quadratically (P<0.001) with increasing level of enzyme and the highest (P<0.05) FE was at E0.84. Methane production at (t1/2) increased (P<0.05) linearly with increasing level of enzyme. Gas production volume (GP24) responded quadratically (P<0.001) as the time of enzyme administration increased from hr 0 to hr12 and hr24 and was highest at hr12. IVDMD and FE decreased linearly (P<0.001) as time of pre-incubation increased from 0h to 24 h. Results suggest that the enzyme used and the times of pretreatment are advantageous to improve in vitro fermentation of a mid-forage ration.

Keywords: Enzyme, Gas production, In vitro fermentation.

*Corresponding author: danesh@um.ac.ir

Influence of Feeding Cellulytic Enzymes on Performance, Digestibility and Ruminal Fermentation in Goats

A.M. Kholif and H.A. Aziz

Dairy Science Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt


Kholif, A.M. and Aziz, H.A. 2014. Influence of feeding cellulytic enzymes on performance, digestibility and ruminal fermentation in goats. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 121-136.
A study was conducted to investigate the effects of adding cellulytic enzyme “Asperozym” or Tomoko® to the diets on the performance of goats. Six Baladi lactating goats after 42 days of parturition were assigned randomly into three groups of two animals each using 3x3 Latin square design. The experimental periods were 90 days and consisted of three equal periods. The first group was fed on 50% concentrate feed mixture (CFM), 10% grounded date stone and 40% berseem clover (control diet). The second group was fed control diet (C) supplemented with Asperozym at 3.08 U/kg DM (T1). The third group was fed control diet supplemented with Tomoko® at 1.54 U/kg DM. (T2). At the last day of each experimental period, rumen liquor samples were collected at zero and 4h post-feeding. Individual milk samples were collected at the last three days of each period for analysis. The diets supplemented with Asperozym (T1) and Tomoko® (T2) showed significantly (P<0.05) increased digestibility all nutrients for compared with the control diet. rumen liquor parameters were significantly (p<0.05) affected. Asperozym enzyme group had the highest total ciliate densities of ruminal protozoa followed by control group and group B. Milk yield was higher (P<0.05) for goats fed T1 and T2 diets than those fed the control diet. On the other hand, there were no significant differences between goats fed T1 diet and those fed T2 diet. Milk composition was not affected (P>0.05) by cellulase-treated diets. Overall, the results suggest that the exogenous enzymes could be used with success as supplements in goats’ diets.

Keywords: Cellulytic enzymes, Digestibility, Goats, Milk, Rumen parameters.

*Corresponding author: am_kholif2000@yahoo.co.uk

Effects of Exogenous Enzymes, Lactobacillus acidophilus or their Combination on Feed Intake, Digestibility and Performance of Rabbits Fed Sugarcane Bagasse

N.A. Abdel-Aziz, M.M. El-Adawy, A.Z.M. Salem*, M.A. Cerrillo-Soto, L.M. Camacho and B.E. Borhami

Department of Animal and Fish Production Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Egypt


Abdel-Aziz, N.A., El-Adawy, M.M., Salem, A.Z.M., Cerrillo-Soto, M.A., Camacho, L.M. and Borhami, B.E. 2014. Effects of exogenous enzymes, Lactobacillus acidophilus or their combination on feed intake, digestibility and performance of rabbits fed sugarcane bagasse. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 137-145.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC), exogenous enzymes ZAD® or their combination on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and performance of rabbits fed increasing levels of sugarcane bagasse (SCB). Five rations were allotted randomly to five groups of New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits (838±42.4g average BW at 5 weeks of age. Rabbits were fed: (i) a control diet made of 100% berseem hay and 0% SCB, (ii) 50% berseem hay and 50% untreated SCB (USCB), (iii) 50% berseem hay and 50% SCB treated with Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC), (iv) 50% berseem hay and 50% SCB treated with ZAD® (ZAD), and (v) 50% berseem hay and 50% SCB treated with LAC+ZAD® (LZ). Treatment of SCB with Lactobacillus acidophilus, ZAD® and LAC+ ZAD® led to higher CP content and lower contents of ADF, NDF and DM. Total DM intake was not affected by treatments. Digestibility coefficient of CP for LAC and LZ were higher (P<0.05) compared to the other groups. the bw for lac and lz rabbits was higher (p<0.05) than for the other groups, while the BW for LAC rabbit was the highest (P<0.05) and for USCB was the lowest. It can be concluded that treating sugarcane bagasse with Lactobacillus acidophilus, exogenous enzymes of ZAD® or their combination improved feeding values; however, the treatment with Lactobacillus acidophilus was found to be the best.

Keywords: Exogenous enzymes, Feed digestibility, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Sugarcane bagasse.

*Corresponding author: asalem70@yahoo.com

Effect of Probiotic Supplementation on Growth, Nutrient Utilization and Economics of Feeding in Beetal Kids under Stall-Fed Conditions

S. Saijpaul, Chandrahas*, A.L. Saini and M. Gangwar

College of Veterinary Science Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Ludhiana-141 004, India


Saijpaul, S., Chandrahas, Saini, A.L. and Gangwar, M. 2014. Effect of probiotic supplementation on growth, nutrient utilization and economics of feeding in beetal kids under stall-fed conditions. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 147-152.
A study was conducted on 24 Beetal kids randomly distributed into four groups (3 males and 3 females in each) to investigate the effect of fresh live cultures having 1 x 108 cfu/gm of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on growth and nutrient digestibility under stall-fed conditions. All the animals were fed a basal diet without any probiotic (P0) or supplemented with L. acidophilus (PL), S. cerevisiae (PS) or both in combination (PL+S) at 0.2% of BW. The ADG of kids was also not influenced by probiotics supplementation; however, it was higher by 22.42 and 3.42% in PS and PL, respectively, over the control (P0). There were no significant differences in the DM intake among the groups. Digestibility coefficients of OM, CP, EE, total carbohydrates, ADF, cellulose and hemi-cellulose were also similar (P>0.05) among the groups. However, the NDF digestibility was significantly (P<0.05) higher in ps in comparison to pl+s. the cost of per unit daily gain was lowest in ps in comparison to the control and other two probiotic groups. it can be concluded that the sole supplementation of s. cerevisiae (strain ncdc-49) at 0.2% of bw may improve the intake and digestibility of cell wall fractions in beetal kids under stall-fed conditions.

Keywords: Beetal kids, Economics, Probiotics, Nutrient digestibility, Supplementation.

*Corresponding author: drchandrahas2003@gmail.com

Growth Performance of Growing Lambs Fed on Pine (Pinnus patula) Sawdust as Basal Diet Supplemented with Monensin Sodium

C.E. Guerra-Medina, L.G. Medina-Torres, O.D. Montañez-Valdez*, M. Pérez-Sato and A. Ley de Coss

Departamento de Desarrollo Regional Centro Universitario del Sur Universidad de Guadalajara, Zapotlán El Grande. Jalisco, México


Guerra-Medina, C.E., Medina-Torres, L.G., Montañez-Valdez, O.D., Pérez-Sato, M. and Ley de Coss, A. 2014. Growth performance of growing lambs fed on pine (Pinnus patula) sawdust as basal diet supplemented with monensin sodium. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 153-159.
In order to evaluate the effect of including monensin sodium in a diet of 15% pine sawdust for lambs in feedlots, two treatments in five experimental periods of seven days each were used. The treatments were- Control: basal diet of 15% pine sawdust, M: control diet supplemented with 15 g/ton of monensin sodium. Average daily gain (ADG), dry matter intake (DMI), feed conversion (FC), rumen pH and cost of feed were measured. Treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design with seven replicates per treatment. The ADG, FC, rumen pH and feed costs did not differ (P>0.05), while the DMI was reduced in lambs fed the M (P>0.05) diet. There were no metabolic problems such as acute rumen acidosis or diarrhea in any treatment. The results suggest that pine sawdust may be used an alternative source of fiber in diets for lambs in feedlots and monensin may be included in feedlot lambs production to decrease DMI without affecting ADG.

Keywords: Feedlot, Fiber, Lambs, Monensin, Sawdust.

*Corresponding author: montanez77@hotmail.com

Effect of Supplementation of Deoiled Mahua Seed Cake on the Growth Performance and Blood Biochemical Parameters of Crossbred Calves during Recovery Period of Infection from F. gigantica

A.B. Jacob, P. Singh* and A.K. Verma

Division of Animal Nutrition, Indian Veterinary Research Institute Izatnagar-243 122, India


Jacob, A.B., Singh, P. and Verma, A.K. 2014. Effect of supplementation of deoiled mahua seed cake on the growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of crossbred calves during recovery period of infection from F. gigantica. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 161-168.
A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of deoiled mahua seed cake (DMSC) in the concentrate mixture of crossbred calves infected with F.gigantica on its growth performance and blood biochemical parameters during recovery period. Twenty healthy crossbred (HF X Haryana) male calves aged 6-7 months with an initial average live weight of 79.59±2.71 kg were divided into four treatment groups (CON, CON-INF, DMC and DMC-INF) of 5 animals each following randomized block design. DMSC was included in the concentrate mixture of DMC and DMC-INF groups at 10% level. Animals of groups CON-INF and DMC-INF were given an infection of 200 metacercariae (mc) of F. gigantica as trickle infection dose of 50 mc twice weekly over a period of two weeks. The average daily gain and feed conversion efficiency were significantly (P<0.001) higher in dmc-inf group compared to con-inf group. the dmc-inf group regained haemoglobin concentration comparable to that of control group as early as 30 days post treatment (dpt), whereas the con-inf group took more time to regain the same. in both the con-inf and dmc-inf groups, the serum glucose, total proteins and its fractions became comparable to that of control groups by 30 dpt. the mean serum concentration of serum ast, ldh and ggt of con-inf group was significantly (p<0.001) higher than that of CON and DMC-INF groups. However, in DMC-INF group the enzyme values were significantly (P<0.001) lower as compared to CON-INF group and in both the infected groups the enzyme level returned to a normal physiological range by 60 DPT. The study revealed that supplementation of DMSC at 10% level in the concentrate mixture of crossbred calves recovering from F. gigantica in infection helped to recuperate the normal growth performance earlier as compared to unsupplemented animals.

Keywords: Crossbred calves, Fasciolosis, Growth, Recovery, Supplementation.

*Corresponding author: putan60@gmail.com

Effect of an Exogenous Phytase on Growth Performance in Growing Holstein Calves

R.G. Buendía, M.S. González, S.M. Pérez, N.I. Ortega, H.C. Aceves, F.M.D. Montoya, B.I. Almaraz, P.J.E. Partida and A.Z.M. Salem

Centro Nacional de Investigación Disciplinaria en Fisiologia y Mejoramiento Animal, INIFAP, Ajuchitlán, Qro, 76280, México


Buendía, R.G., González, M.S., Pérez, S.M., Ortega, N.I., Aceves, H.C., Montoya, F.M.D., Almaraz, B.I., Partida, P.J.E. and Salem, A.Z.M. 2014. Effect of an exogenous phytase on growth performance in growing Holstein calves. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 169-174.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on the productive performance, apparent digestibility of DM, serum phosphorus and phosphorus balance in Holstein calves which received a high concentrate diet with different doses of exogenous phytase for a period of 60d. The experiment was conducted with a completely randomized design with three treatments of eight calves each, the treatment included dietary supplementation of exogenous phytase at 0, 12 and 24 g/ton. Phytase inclusion increased (P<0.05) average daily gain when phytase was supplemented at 24 (850g) as compared to 0 (816g) or 12 (809g) g />ton. However, it had no effect (P>0.05) on DM intake, feed conversion and DM digestibility. Adding phytase in the diet decreased phosphorus excretion in faeces (P<0.05) showing a significant linear increase with increasing level of supplementation (the values being 9.96, 9.14 and 8.13 g />d) which, in turn, increased the P retention (4.69, 5.37 and 6.45 g/d, resectively, for the three groups). In conclusion, supplementation of phytase could improve the growth performance of calves without any discernible effects on feed intake or digestibility of nutrients.

Keywords: Calves, Growth, Holstein, Phytase.

*Corresponding author: asalem70@yahoo.com

Effect of Palm Oil By products on In Vitro Fermentation and Nutrient Digestibility

M. Zain*, J. Rahman and Khasrad

Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Animal Science, Andalas University Kampus Limau Manis, Padang-25163, Indonesia


Zain, M., Rahman, J. and Khasrad. 2014. Effect of palm oil by products on in vitro fermentation and nutrient digestibility. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 175-181.
Indonesia has the most abundant palm oil by products such as oil palm fronds (OPF), palm oil sludge (POS) and palm kernel cake (PKC) that can be used as feed for ruminant. The aim of this experiment was to study the level of OPF, POS, PKC on in vitro digestibility and fermentation. Oil palm fronds was previously treated with 3% urea. The five treatments consisted of native grass as control and four levels of palm oil by products viz., A= native grass (control), B= 30% OPF + 50% POS + 20% PKC, C= 40% OPF + 40% POS + 20% PKC, D= 50% OPF+ 30% POS+ 20% PKC, and E= 60% OPF + 30% POS + 20% PKC. The formulated feeds were evaluated adopting Tilley and Terry method. The results indicated that increasing use OPF in diet caused lowered ammonia-N and total volatile fatty acids concentration in the incubation medium. There was a reduction (P<0.05) in the in vitro dm digestibility in all the opf containing diet vis-à-vis the control. digestibility of cp was also reduced (p<0.05) in diets C and D as compared to A; that of diet E was of the lowest. The digestibility all nutrients showed a gradual decline with increasing proportion of OPF in the formulation. It is concluded that use of OPF based oil palm by products reduced in vitro digestibility. Further animal trials are needed to confirm the optimal level of its use.

Keywords: Ammoniation, Degradability, Fermentation, Oil palm fronds, Palm oil by product.

*Corresponding author: mardiati@faterna.unand.ac.id

Effects of Exogenous Phytase on Growth Performance of Weaned Dorper x Pelibuey Lambs

R.G. Buendía, M.S.S. González, M.G.D. Mendoza, A.N.I. Ortega, H.C. Aceves, G.M.M. Crosby, T.A.P. Meneses and A.Z.M. Salem*

Centro Nacional de Investigación Disciplinaria en Fisiologia y Mejoramiento Animal, INIFAP, Ajuchitlán, Qro, 76280, México


Buendía, R.G., González, M.S.S., Mendoza, M.G.D., Ortega, A.N.I., Aceves, H.C., Crosby, G.M.M., Meneses, T.A.P. and Salem, A.Z.M. 2014. Exogenous phytase effects on growth performance of weaned Dorper x Pelibuey lambs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 183-188.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an exogenous phytase on in vitro residual phosphorus (P) concentration and performance of 30 weaned ¾ Dorper vs ¼ Pelibuey lambs (12.12±1.46 kg BW). In vitro treatments were: 0 and 0.12 mg phytase per g of sorghum, corn gluten meal (CGM), alfalfa hay and experimental diet (70% ground sorghum grain, 16.9% CGM, 12% alfalfa hay, 1.1% calcium carbonate). There were significant (P<0.05) differences in the residual p concentration (%) between 0 and 0.12 mg phytase at 24h of incubation, the values being 0.086 and 0.050 for ground sorghum grain, 0.259 and 0.119 for cgm, 0.365 and 0.240 for alfalfa hay, and 0.276 and 0.240 for the mixed diet with the corresponding 48h values of 0.054 and 0.048 for ground sorghum grain, 0.178 and 0.161 for cgm, 0.198 and 0.131 for alfalfa hay, and 0.237 and 0.211 for the mixed diet. for the performance trial, 30 lambs were allotted to three different groups using complete randomised design, and were fed the experimental diet supplemented with 0, 6 or 12 g t-1 phytase. parameters recorded were adg, dm intake, feed conversion (fc), apparent dm digestibility and faecal p excretion (fpe). phytase supplementation did not change (p> 0.05) ADG (251, 294 and 266 g/d), DMI (905, 1119 and 975 g/d), FC (4.06, 4.37 and 3.94). However, phytase addition increased DMD (72.34, 82.54 and 82.57%) and FPE (1.01, 1.09 and 1.26 g/d). It may be concluded that apparent DM digestibility as well as faecal excretion of phosphorus were affected when an exogenous phytase was added to a 70% sorghum grain diet, fed to weaned Dorper x Pelibuey lambs.

Keywords: Faecal excretion, In vitro, Phosphorus, Phytase, Sheep.

*Corresponding author: asalem70@yahoo.com

Impact of Acidified Sodium Chlorite Treatment and Enzyme Supplementation on Energy Bio-availability from Maize-Soy Mixture

Rakesh Thakur*, A.B. Mandal, M.M. Kadam and Rana Parvin

Division of Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India


Rakesh Thakur, Mandal, A.B., Kadam, M.M. and Rana Parvin. 2014. Impact of acidified sodium chlorite treatment and enzyme supplementation on energy bio-availability from maize-soy mixture. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 189-193.
Acidified sodium chlorite, a strong biocidal agent, has been found to improve the energy bioavailability from fiber rich feed ingredients like sunflower meal and de-oiled rice bran in chicken. As maize and soybean are the two most commonly used ingredients in poultry feed and a number of exogenous enzyme preparations are being used commercially to improve the nutrient bioavailability in poultry, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) treatment at 0, 100 and 250 ppm level and enzyme supplementation (0.3 g/kg), both individually and in combination, on energy bio-availability from maize-soy mixture (60:40), through practical diet replacement method in adult cockerels. Results revealed that the feed intake in various groups was almost similar indicating ASC and enzyme had no untoward influence on feed palatability. The treatment with ASC at 100 and 250 ppm resulted in 1.72 and 2.94% improvement in AMEn of maize-soy mixture over control (3261 kcal). The AMEn values were comparable between enzyme supplemented and non supplemented groups. Thus it may be concluded that though ASC pretreatment enhanced the energy bioavailability (1.7 to 2.9%) from maizesoy mixture but its effectiveness with enzyme supplementation need to be further investigated.

Keywords: Acidified sodium chlorite, Energy, Enzymes, Maize and soybean.

*Corresponding author: drtcari@yahoo.com

Influence of Vitamins and Exogenous Enzymes Combination on alleviating Heat Stress in Lactating Ewes under Egyptian Summer Conditions

H.M. Gado1, S.S. Almustafa, A.Z. Salem*, F.A. Khalil and E.B. Abdalla

Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, México


Gado, H.M., Almustafa, S.S., Salem, A.Z., Khalil, F.A. and Abdalla, E.B. 2014. Influence of vitamins and exogenous enzymes combination on alleviating heat stress in lactating ewes under Egyptian summer conditions. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 195-203.
The present experiment was designed to study the effects of vitamin mixtures and exogenous enzymes ZADO® in alleviaties heat stress in ewes in summer temperatures (25-44°C) compared with winter temperatures (8-22°C). Fifty lactating Ossimi ewes were divided randomly into 5 treatment groups. In summer, the experiment included four treatments: (i) control i.e., normal summer conditions, no supplements (control 2), (ii) ewes supplemented with 10 g/head/day of ZADO® mixed in the concentrate, (iii) ewes supplemented with vitamin AD3E (250 mg/kg BW) and C (45 mg/kg BW) mixture, and (iv) ewes supplemented with ZADO® and vitamin mixture as above. In winter, the treatment comprised of assessments only under normal winter condition (8 to 22°C) without any additives (control 1). Blood and milk samples from each ewe were collected biweekly throughout lactation. Results indicate that plasma total protein, total lipids and glucose, and milk production and composition were decreased (P<0.01) in summer compared with winter. addition of zado® increased plasma total protein, glucose, milk production, protein and lactose as compared with summer control (control 2). vitamin mixture increased (p<0.01) plasma total protein, milk production and milk protein, but had no effect on total lipids, glucose, milk fat and lactose. Combination of vitamin mixture with ZADO® addition increased the ability of lactating ewes to alleviate heat stress as evident by increased plasma parameters and milk production during the summer season.

Keywords: Enzymes, Ewes, Milk composition, Milk yield, Vitamins

*Corresponding author: asalem70@yahoo.com

Current Concepts of Feed Formulation for Livestock using Mathematical Modeling

S. Ghosh*, J. Ghosh, D.T. Pal and R. Gupta

Department of Mathematics, Jain University, Bangalore, India


Ghosh, S., Ghosh, J., Pal, D.T. and Gupta, R. 2014. Current concepts of feed formulation for livestock using mathematical modeling. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 14: 205-223.
Feed cost is the single most factor which determine the profitability of animal farming. In an attempt to economizing the ration formulation several mathematical models have been used with varying success. Among all the methods linear programming (LP) is used effectively for least cost ration or economic concentrate mixture formulation for many years. Least cost ration formulation is criticized because it can not include nutrient variability and cost variability of feed ingredients in the model. The stochastic programming (SP) has been evolved to consider the nutrient variability of the feed stuff in the model for ration formulation. The SP is found more flexible, accurate, and precise in meeting the requested probability levels as compared to linear programming. Several other non-linear optimization programs are used subsequently to tackle the LP problems of feed formulation but could not replace LP as such. The current trend is to combine the advantage of LP and other optimization program to arrive at a possible and acceptable solution. The LP when combined with the advantage of other optimization programs would give a better solution than any other program used singly. The scope of LP, SP, GA (genetic algorithm) and GP (Goal programming) models are discussed and the advantages of combining LP and weighted (GP) is shown with a practical example which has greater prospects of field application.

Keywords: Animal ration formulation, Goal programming, Linear programming, Ration optimization programs, Stochastic programming.

*Corresponding author: shrabani.ghosh123@gmail.com


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