130A Jalan Awan Jawa, 58200 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Devendra, C. 2015. Improved feed technologies for expanding the productivity frontiers in Asia: The importance of system perspectives for transforming waning animal-agriculture. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 311-336.
Agricultural productivity and economic growth have had an unprecedented rate of rural growth, improved livelihoods and increased prosperity in Asia. Feed resources, the primary determinant of productivity, are most important, but are constrained to drive the supply of animal proteins. Currently the scenario is challenged by at least four defining factors: (i) the need for more food and productivity growth, (ii) rampant poverty and malnutrition, (iii) inefficient use of natural resources, and (iv) the effects of climate change. A fifth critical factor is underutilisation of productivity-enhancing technologies, adoption, replication and intensification that link production with post-production in supply value and food chains. Serious doubts have been raised about the capacity and resource efficiency to expand food production. With ruminants, the doubts are reflected in low productivity and inadequate supplies of animal proteins, meat and milk to meet current and projected human demands. Ensuring efficient feed utilisation and production systems are thus central to innovative strategies and pathways are necessary to accelerate productivity and also cope with climate change.
Current trend in research on feeds is testing the component technologies. The traditional researchfarmer-extension model for technology delivery is unacceptable, due to the “top down” prescriptions, inappropriate production systems, complex interactions of the natural resources, doubtful technical capacity of the extension personnel, and inability to respond quickly to farmers’ needs. Transformation is necessary and is determined by (i) intensive use of new technologies that are adapted to climate change, (ii) empowering farmers into agents of poverty reduction and stewards of the environment, and (iii) when there is community-based participation in economic activities and expansion. Ruminants can be the entry point for the development of LFAs. The limited availability of feeds in small farm systems enables the development of low input systems and cost-effective increased productivity. That forms the backbone of about 470 million mainly mixed small farms in Asian agriculture. They provide jobs for about 60% of the working population, and account for 50-90% of Asia’s total food production. The opportunities for technology-induced feed-based productivity gains in economic production systems, policy framework, rigorous R&D;, investments, and multinational engagement for improving livelihoods are most challenging. Small farmers and the landless have an enduring dream of well-fed animals, sustained food security, reduced poverty, assured survival, and ability to cope with climate change in harmony with agricultural landscapes and self-reliance. These goals are achievable, provided there is collective will to serve and vision to provide direction and lead the way.
Keywords: Asia, Community-based farming systems, Dryland agriculture, Productivity-enhancing feed technologies, Rain-fed research and development, Systems perspectives, Technology delivery.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
M. Meth, S.L. Ingale, S.H. Lee, K.Y. Kim, Y.H. Choi, I.K. Kwon, Y.S. Kim, Y.H. Kim and B.J. Chae*
College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University Chuncheon 200-701, Republic of Korea
Meth, M., Ingale, S.L., Lee, S.H., Kim, K.Y., Choi, Y.H., Kwon, I.K., Kim, Y.S., Kim, Y.H. and Chae, B.J. 2015. Effects of dietary supplementation of antifungal agents, probiotics or toxin binder to aflatoxin-contaminated diets on the performance and carcass characteristics of growing pigs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 337-347.
In order to assess the effects of dietary supplementation of antifungal agent, probiotics or toxin binder to aflatoxin contaminated diets on performance, carcass characteristics and blood metabolites of growing pigs, 240 growing pigs (Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc; BW 53.97±0.35 kg) were randomly allotted to five treatments on the basis of BW (4 pens per treatment with 12 pigs in each pen). The dietary treatments included negative control (NC; basal diet), positive control (PC; diets containing 20 µg/kg aflatoxin), and PC diet supplemented with either 0.10% sodium propionate (antifungal agent; T1), 0.30% Bacillus subtilis (T2) or 0.1% zeolite (toxin binder; T3). The diets were fed in a meal form for two phases (phase I; 0-4 wk and phase II; 5-9 wk). Results indicated that the growing pigs fed NC and T3 diet had greater (P<0.05) final bw and overall adg (0-9 wk) than pigs fed pc and t1 diets. final bw and overall adg of pigs fed t2 diets remained comparable (p> 0.05) with pigs fed PC, T1 and T3 diets. Dietary treatments had no effects (P>0.05) on ADFI, gain:feed ratio, apparent total-tract digestibility of DM, GE and CP of pigs. Also, there were no effects (P>0.05) of dietary treatments on carcass characteristics of pigs except for weight of liver, which was lower (P<0.05) in pigs fed nc diet than other treatments. during phase ii, pigs fed nc and t3 diets had lesser (p<0.05) WBC count than that of pigs fed PC, T1 and T2 diets. Blood glucose level of pig fed NC and T3 diets were lower (P<0.05) than pigs fed PC, T1 and T2 diets. Dietary treatments had no effects (P>0.05) on blood cortisol level. These results indicated that dietary inclusion of 1.0% zeolite (a toxin binder) had potential to improve performance of growing pigs fed 20 µg/kg aflatoxin contaminated diets.
Keywords: Aflatoxin, Growing pigs, Performance, Probiotics, Sodium propionate, Zeolite.
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X. Ding, L. Li*, Y. Lv, F. Xu, H. Kuang and S. Wang
School of Animal Science and Technology Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, China
Ding, X., Li, L., Lv, Y., Xu, F., Kuang, H. and Wang, S. 2015. Effects of fermented sesame meal on the performance, serum biochemical parameters and intestinal morphology of ducks. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 349-359.
A trial was performed to study the effect of feeding a diet containing solid-state fermentation sesame meal (FSM) replaced soybean meal (SBM) on the growth performance and serum biochemistry parameters of ducks. The amount of FSM required to replace the proportion of soybean meal in diet was determined. 90% sesame meal and 10% slurry of corn were mixed and then inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus subtilis. Over the 14-day fermentation, dietary phytate was reduced from 0.62% to 0.05%. A total of 360 twenty-one-day-old Cherry Valley ducks were randomly allocated into 3 dietary treatments, with 4 replicate groups per treatment containing 30 ducks. In three treatment groups, fermentation sesame meal replaced soybean meal at 0, 3% or 6%, respectively. At the end of 21 day feeding trial, 10 ducks from each treatment were killed. Their dressing percentage was recorded. Duodenal, jejunal, and ileal segments of the small intestine were collected for intestinal morphology, and serum was collected for biochemical constituents. Results showed that the daily gain and feed conversion ratio of ducks fed 3% or 6% FSM were similar with those fed SBM (P>0.05). Total phosphorus content in the serum from the FSM groups was improved (P<0.01). total protein content in the serum from the 6% fsm group was lower than that in the 0 and 3% fsm treatment groups (p<0.05). Concentrations of IgG were Significant higher for animals fed 6% FSM than for those fed SBM (P<0.05). In comparison for whole SBM, FSM increased villus height (P<0.05) in the duodenum. Villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio in the jejuna of ducks fed FSM were also markedly higher than for those fed SBM (P<0.01). There were no effects of FSM on the duck’s ileum mucosa morphology, or eviscerated index and half eviscerated index. Therefore, it was concluded that sesame meal fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus subtilis is a promising alternative source of protein, and that fermented sesame meal can replace soybean meal in the diets of duck for potentially reduced production costs of duck.
Keywords: Duck, Fermentation sesame meal, Growth, Serum biochemical parameter.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Sunil Kumar, Narayan Dutta, S. Baliyan, A.K. Pattanaik and S.K. Singh
Division of Animal Nutrition, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India
Kumar, S., Dutta, N., Baliyan, S., Pattanaik, A.K. and Singh, S.K. 2015. Effect of feed restriction on nutrient metabolism, metabolic profile and excretion of nutrients in goats. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 361-374.
This experiment examined the effect of feed restriction on nutrient metabolism, nutrient excretion and metabolic profile in goats. Fifteen goats of about 1 year age and average body weight (BW) of 12.59±0.60 kg were randomly divided into three equal groups viz., Control, RF-1 and RF-II. The goats of control group were fed a TMR ad libitum as per the predicted requirement (Kearl, 1982), while in group RF-I and RF-II goats were fed 12.5 and 25% restricted diets, respectively of predicted requirements for 60 days. Blood was collected from all experimental animals at 0 and 60d. A metabolism trial of 6 days duration was conducted towards the end of feeding trial. Daily intake of dry (DM) and organic matter (OM; g/kgW0.75) was significantly (P<0.01) higher in control group followed by rf-i and rf-ii groups. digestibility of dm, om, cp, ee and adf was significantly (p<0.05) higher in RF-II as compared to control, with RF-I at intermediate position. Urinary excretion and retention of nitrogen as well as retention of P was comparable among treatment groups. Feed restriction at 12.5 and 25% levels significantly reduced the excretions of nitrogen (17.58-30.93%) and phosphorus (17.64-36.9%) by goats. Nutrient density (%) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in control group as compared to RF-II. Haemoglobin, PCV, serum glucose, total protein, globulin, A: G ratio, AST, ALT and ALP were comparable among treatment groups, however, serum albumin and urea N were higher in control. Body weight (kg) were significantly (P<0.05) higher in control and RF-I as compared to RF-II. Feed restriction considerably improved the nutrient utilization in goats and mild restriction at 12.5 percent level was found to be more efficient.
Keywords: Feed restriction, Goats, Metabolic Profile, Nutrient, Nitrogen, Phosphorus.
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M.R. Ghomi,*, E.V. Elert, A. Uhde and P. Fink
Cologne Biocenter, University of Cologne, Zülpicher Str. 47b, 50674 Cologne, Germany
Ghomi, M.R., Elert, E.V., Uhde, A. and Fink, P. 2015. Nutritional responses of round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) caught from rhine river (Germany) as a wild species to different fish oils. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 375-384.
This study was aimed to determine the effects of food supplementation with different levels of two types of fish oil (anchovy and menhaden oils), on growth and the composition of fatty acids and essential amino acids in muscle of a wild and alien species. In this study round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) caught from Rhine River (0.95-1.0 g fresh mass) were fed for 47 days diets containing 5% anchovy oil (AO), 5% menhaden oil (MO) or 2.5% AO+2.5% MO. Fish were cultured in indoor 40 L aquaria (12 aquaria in total). The feeding rate was adjusted to 10% of the fish fresh mass per day and water temperature was constantly maintained at 19°C. After 47 days, no differences were observed in weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and condition factor (P>0.05). The lowest FCR was found in AO diet. Muscle fatty acid composition was influenced by dietary fish oils, and fish fed the AO diet have shown slightly higher contents of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid in their muscle. Muscle amino acid composition was not affected by the diet, an except for leucine. The results indicated that addition of fish oil is important in maintaining the content of n-3 fatty acids in fish in aquaculture.
Keywords: Amino acid, Anchovy oil, Fatty acid, Fish feeds, Menhaden oil, Round goby.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
H. Yun, J. Lee, G. Park, I.K. Jang, K. Katya, E. Shahkar and S.C. Bai*
Department of Marine Bio-Materials and Aquaculture Feeds and Foods Nutrition Research Center, Pukyong National University Busan 608-737, Republic of Korea
Yun, H., Lee, J., Park, G., Jang, I.K., Katya, K., Shahkar, E. and Bai, S.C. 2015. Reevaluation of optimum dietary protein level in juvenile whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931). Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 385-394.
This feeding trial was conducted to reevaluate the optimum dietary protein level required for juvenile whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931). Triplicate of thirty shrimp averaging 1.0±0.1g (mean±SD) were randomly distributed into each of four diets in 12 plastic aquaria. Shrimps were fed one of four isocaloric diets, containing 33, 38, 44 and 54% crude protein (CP) (CP33, CP38, CP44 and CP54, respectively) at a ratio of 4% body weight per day for six weeks. At the end of feeding trial, weight gain and specific growth rate of shrimp fed CP44 and CP54 diets were significantly higher than those of shrimp fed CP33 diet (P<0.05). feed conversion ratio of shrimp fed cp44 diet was significantly lower than that of shrimp fed cp33 diet. protein efficiency ratio was significantly affected by dietary protein level. dietary protein levels significantly influenced on amino acid composition of edible portion of shrimp. broken line analysis of weight gain showed an optimum protein requirement of 43.3% in juvenile whiteleg shrimp. therefore, these results suggest that the optimum dietary protein level could be higher than 43.3% but less than 44% reared in the semi-recirculation system.
Keywords: Amino acid composition, Growth performance, Protein requirements, Whiteleg shrimp.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
S.K. Park, H.J. Lee , J.C. Park , J.Y. Jeong , E.S. Cho and M.J. Kim*
Department of Food Science and Technology, Sejong University, 143-747, Korea
Park, S.K., Lee, H.J., Park, J.C., Jeong, J.Y., Cho, E.S. and Kim, M.J. 2015. Effect of supplementation of hesperidin on growth performance, immune response and antioxidant activity in pigs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 395-404.
Three experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of hesperidin supplementation on growth performance, immune function, and antioxidant activity of growing pigs (56 d old; average BW 20.4±0.6kg). In Exp. 1, 24 pigs with an initial BW of 19.53 kg were randomly allotted to three treatments, and fed for 9-wk either on a basal diet (CON), alone or with 0.01% (Hes-1), and 0.02% hesperidin (Hes- 2). Initial and final BW, ADG or average daily feed intake were not different among the treatments. Hes-1 or Hes-2 groups, on the other hand, had a higher (P<0.05) gain feed ratio compared to con group. antioxidant activity in terms of serum superoxide dismutase activity was increased (p<0.05) in Hes-2 compared to CON group. To confirm this beneficial effect of hesperidin as an antioxidant reagent, in vitro antioxidant activities of hesperidin were ascertained vis-à-vis butylated hydroxytoluence (BHT) in Exp. 2 by using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-radical scavenging activity. Hesperidin showed lower (P<0.05) IC50(concentration for scavenging 50% of DPPH radicals) than BHT. In Exp.3, 12 barrows (13.8±0.9 kg BW) fed 0 (CON), 0.02% (Hes-0.02) or 0.04% (Hes-0.04) of hesperidin for 4-wk were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 50 µg/kg BW). Blood samples were obtained at 0,3, 6, 12 and 24 h to determine immune response. There was no effect of hesperidin on levels of immuneglobulins (IgM, IgG and IgA). Taken together, administration of hesperidin has beneficial effects on feed efficiency and antioxidant activity suggesting that hesperidin can be used as a feed additive in growing pigs.
Keywords: Antioxidant activity, Growth performance, Hesperidin, Immune response, Pigs
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Y.Q. Xu, J. Gorge and Z.K. Ding*
Faculty of Animal Sciences and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, Guangxi, China
Xu, Y.Q., Gorge, J. and Ding, Z.K. 2015. Metabolism of gamma-tocopherol in the liver of male spraguedawley rat. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 405-416.
Vitamin E (VE) plays important roles in the physiological and biochemical processes of animals and humans. However, VE is an unique vitamin that has not been understood thoroughly because the metabolites of VE are very complicated and hard to be analysed. This experiment was conducted to study the metabolism of γ-tocopherol, one of 8 VE isomers, in the liver post-mitochondrial supernatant (S9) of male Sprague-dawley rat (Rattus norvegiens, SD-rat) using a novel approach. The results showed that an optimal reactive system of γ-tocopherol metabolism in vitro was composed of 5 mg/ml of S9, 8 µg/ ml of γ-tocopherol, 1 mmol/ml of nicotine amide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and 45 min of reactive time at 35°C. The metabolites of γ-tocopherol could be successfully analyzed using gradient elution and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). A main metabolite was identified as ω-hydroxylate, a side chain of γ-tocopherol, when the structure of γ-tocopherol metabolites was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A conclusion was drawn that ω-hydroxylate, a main metabolite of γ-tocopherol, could be most utilized by SD-rat and other mammals.
Keywords: Metabolism, γ-tocopherol, Post-mitochondrial supernatant (S9), SD-rat.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
G.H. Pailan*, Parimal Sardar and B.K. Mahapatra
Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Kolkata Centre, Salt Lake, Kolkata-700 091, India
Pailan, G.H., Sardar, P. and Mahapatra, B.K. 2015. Marigold petal meal: A natural carotenoid source for pigmentation in Swordtail (Xiphophorus helleri). Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 417-425.
An experiment was conducted to see the effect of feeding graded levels of marigold petal meal on pigmentation of skin, growth performance, nutrient utilization and muscle biochemical composition in ornamental fish, swordtail (Xiphophorus helleri). Different iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous experimental diets were formulated with supplementing five levels (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8%) of marigold flower meal. The experimental fish (n=225) were divided into five equal groups having three replicates under each group and fed respective experimental diets for a period of 60 days. The biochemical composition of fish muscle was similar in all the groups. Total carotenoids concentration (µg/g) in the skin of sword tail at the beginning and end of feeding was similar in control diet (2.94 vs 3.17). The supplementation of marigold petal meal in the diet significantly increased (P<0.05) the total carotenoid concentration in the muscle and skin of sword tail from 2.87 to 6.17 µg />g. Growth performance and nutrient utilization in fish were similar in all the experiment groups. The study revealed that marigold petal meal at the 4% level can be supplemented in the diet of swordtail for improvement of skin coloration through increase in the carotenoids concentration in skin without any adverse effect on body composition, growth and feed conversion efficiency.
Keywords: Carotenoids, Marigold petal meal, Pigmentation, Swordtail.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
L. Samal , L.C. Chaudhary*, N. Agarwal and D.N. Kamra
Division of Animal Nutrition, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India
Samal, L., Chaudhary, L.C., Agarwal, N. and Kamra, D.N. 2015. Effect of plants containing secondary metabolites as feed additives on rumen fermentation and rumen microbial profile of buffaloes. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 427-437.
Four fistulated adult Murrah buffaloes were fed on a basal diet consisting of wheat straw and concentrate mixture in a 4x4 Latin square design to study the effect of feeding plant secondary metabolites on rumen function and microbial ecology. The four groups were, no additive (Control), essential oil mixture (Mix 1), mixture of seeds rich in saponin and essential oil (Mix 2) and mixture of seeds rich in saponin and fruit pulp rich in tannin, saponin and essential oil (Mix 3). Daily intakes of feed was similar (P>0.05) in all the four groups. Feeding of any of the additives have not affected (P>0.05) rumen pH. The concentration of ammonia N was reduced (P<0.001) in the treatment groups supplemented with additives. the ruminal enzymes viz. carboxymethyl-cellulase, avicelase, xylanase, protease and acetyl esterase activities and concentration of lactic acid were not affected (p> 0.05) by supplementation of any additives. The additives have not affected the population of Ruminococcus flavefaciences, fungi and methanogens, whereas, Fibrobacter succinogenes population increased and protozoa decreased in the entire additive fed groups. To study the rumen methanogen diversity, mcrA (methyl coenzyme M reductase) gene was amplified. The number of clones analysed were 44 from control animals and 89 were from Mix 1 fed animals. The bootstrap analysis showed that in control group, 60% of the clones were uncultured microbes whereas it was 25% in Mix 1 group. In Mix 1 group, 26% of the clones were related to that of Methanobrevibacter millerae strain ZA10 in comparison to only 3.39% in control group. It is concluded that feeding of additives containing PSM have not exerted any adverse effect on rumen fermentation of buffaloes. However there was change in different microbial groups with additives supplementation. The additives containing essential oils (Mix I) resulted in shifts within the methanogen population in comparison to control animal.
Keywords: Buffalo, Microbial profile, Plant secondary metabolites, Rumen fermentation
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S. Raju,*, Y. Ramana Reddy , D. Nagalakshmi and T. Raghunandhan
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Sciences S.V. Veterinary University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030, India
Raju, S., Ramana Reddy, Y., Nagalakshmi, D. and Raghunandhan, T. 2015. Effect of supplementation of dietary protected lipids at varying levels of feed restriction on growth performance and carcass characteristics in Deccani ram lambs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 439-446.
The effect of supplementation of bypass fat in the form of Ca-soap of red palm oil on growth performance and carcass characteristics at varying levels of feed shortage was studied in lambs. Eighteen Deccani ram lambs (BW 19.45±1.06 kg) were randomly distributed into three equal groups. The first group (T1 ) of lambs was fed complete ration ad lib. The second (T2 ) and third (T3 ) group of lambs were restricted to 85% and 70% of T1 feed intake, respectively with supplementation of calcium soap of red palm oil at 10% of total DM requirement during the trial period of 180d. The ADG in lambs on ration T3 was significantly (P<0.05) lower compared to those on ration t1 and t2 . the feed efficiency was higher in lambs fed ration t2 (9.19 kg) followed by t1 (12.93 kg) and t3 (13.14). cost />kg gain was Rs. 79.91, 95.74 and 147.15 in lambs fed ration T1 , T2 and T3 , respectively. Supplementation of Ca-soap of red palm oil at feed restriction up to 30% had no significant effect on dressing percentage, lean meat percent, fat and bone: meat ratio. However, the lambs fed T2 ration had higher dressing percentage and other carcass traits than the other two groups tested in this study. It is concluded from the result of present study that calcium soap of red palm oil can be used as energy supplement at 100 g/d, when there is a shortage of feed intake to an extent of 15% with improved weight gain, and carcass characteristics. But economics has to be considered while supplementing protected fat to sheep under feed shortage conditions.
Keywords: Bypass fat, Deccani sheep, Feed shortage, Performance, Supplementation.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
F.A. Khan, A. Sahoo* and S.K. Dixit
Division of Animal Nutrition, ICAR-Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, Avikanagar-304 501, India
Khan, F.A., Sahoo, A. and Dixit, S.K. 2015. Evaluation of administering Duddingtonia flagrans through complete feed block for controlling Haemonchus contortus in sheep. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 447-456.
In this experiment, a device was developed and evaluated to deliver nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans to sheep by using local fungal isolate. Sterilized barley grains supporting the fungal growth were incorporated into straw based complete feed blocks (CFB). The viability of fungal spores was assessed for the biological control of ovine Haemoncus contortus. Two groups (fungus-treated and control without fungus), each consisting of five Garole x Malpura lambs (about 6-9 months old) which were artificially infected with 6000 Haemonchus contortus larvae per lamb. The treated group received fungus incorporated CFB (400g block per lamb delivering 6 million chlamydospores) daily during 7 weeks. Fungal chlamydospores survived well in CFB with very little moisture (11.8%) when stored at room temperature. Mean larval development was significantly (P<0.001) lower compared to control from day 1 to the end of the feeding. larval recovery from the grass samples started from 2nd week of the experiment, and it increased markedly on the plot grazed by the control group reaching as high as 4000 l3 />kg DM compared to less than 600 L3 /kg DM in the plot grazed by experimental group fed on CFB with fungal spores. No significant difference was observed in the number of eggs per gram of faeces between both the groups. However, significant (P<0.001) reduction in developed larvae on coprocultures was seen for fungal spore incorporated group. a low level of larval counts were maintained in the plot grazed by fungus treated group throughout the experiment. the study demonstrated that cfb feeding might prove a potential means of delivery of d. flagrans to sheep for successful biological control of h. contortus.
Keywords: Complete feed block, Duddingtonia flagrans, Haemonchus contortus, Sheep.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
M.M. Pawar*, A. Kumar, S.R. Bhagwat, K.J. Ankuya and D.S. Bhosale
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry S.D. Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar-385 506, India
Pawar, M.M., Kumar, A., Bhagwat, S.R., Ankuya, K.J. and Bhosale, D.S. 2015. Nutritional evaluation of some leaves used as top-feeds in North-Gujarat region. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 457- 464.
The nutritive values of eleven tree leaves viz. Citrus limon, Ficus bengalensis, Ficus relegiosa, Ricinus communis, Ziziphus mauritiana, Azadirachta indica, Musa acuminatea, Acacia nilotica, Leucaena leucocephala, Prosopis julifora and Albizia samanm were evaluated by chemical analysis and in vitro gas production test. There were significant (P<0.05) differences among tree species in terms of chemical composition. crude protein contents ranged from 7.98 to 19.96%. the ether extract content varied from 1.45 to 6.04% and crude fibre content from 13.77 to 26.86%. neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre contents were in the range of 27.78 to 51.84 and 21.79 to 33.70%, respectively. in vitro evaluation revealed lower methane production (ml />g OM) in Ficus bengalensis, Acacia nilotica, Albizia samanm, Ficus relegiosa and Azadirachta indica compared to the control at 10 and 20% inclusion level of selected leaves. The in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVMOD) ranged from 53.98 to 64.92 and 61.14 to 67.81%, respectively at 10 and 20% inclusion. The total volatile fatty acids (mM) ranged from 35.01 to 45.52 and 32.46 to 44.47 at 10 and 20% inclusion, respectively. Results revealed that most of tree leaves studied in this experiment have potential nutritive values indicated by high crude protein content, IVOMD and low fiber values.
Keywords: Chemical composition, IVGPT, IVOMD, Methane, Tree leaves.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
B.N. Paul*, S. Chanda, S. Das, N. Sridhar , G.S. Saha and S.S. Giri
Regional Research Centre of Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Rahara, Kolkata-700 118, India
Paul, B.N., Chanda, S., Das, S., Sridhar, N., Saha, G.S. and Giri, S.S. 2015. Seasonal variation in proximate and mineral composition of Koi, (Anabas testudineus, Bloch 1792). Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 465-470.
The variation in proximate composition and mineral content was determined in relation to season and body weight of Koi (Anabas testudineus). The samples were collected from different places and seasons; further fishes were grouped as small (10-50 g) and big (52-150 g). The protein content was significantly higher (P<0.05) in small fish during january-april season vis-à-vis other groups. the fat content of the species was significantly (p<0.01) higher during September-December and January-April. The ash content was significantly higher (P<0.01) in small fish during May-August when compared to big fish. The moisture was significantly (P<0.01) higher and fat content was significantly lower during May-August in respective body size of Koi. Calcium content was significantly higher (P<0.01) in small fish during May-August whereas the phosphorus content was significantly higher (P<0.01) during JanuaryApril and September-December, irrespective of their body weights. Sodium and potassium content were significantly (P<0.01) higher in small fish during January-April. The zinc content is also higher in small fish during January-April. The results indicated that Koi is a good source of protein, fat and minerals.
Keywords: Anabas testudineus, Proximate composition, Minerals, Season.
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M.F. Abdallah, G. Girgin and T. Baydar*
Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hacettepe University, 90-06100, Ankara, Turkey
Abdallah, M.F., Girgin, G. and Baydar, T. 2015. Occurrence, prevention and limitation of mycotoxins in feeds. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 471-490.
There has been a significant concern regarding the potential health risks for humans and animals via foods and feeds that are contaminated with different agents. Particularly, mycotoxin contamination is of great importance as it is widespread and unpreventable. In both foods and feeds, molds produce secondary metabolites called mycotoxins; these are produced generally after the fungi reach their maturity. Depending on the definition used, hundreds of fungal compounds are recognized as mycotoxins. However, the attention is mainly focused on aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumunisins, and zearalenone which are considered the most important threats for human and animal health. Mycotoxin contamination causes a fundamental problem all over the world including developed countries. Additionally, the economic impact of mycotoxins is another global concern on the agricultural markets. These concerns are based on toxicological data, which show that naturally occurring levels of mycotoxins have adverse effects in farm and laboratory animals as well as humans. The diversity of mycotoxin structures induces various toxic effects. Owing to the significant health risks and economic impacts, considerable investigations are being performed to diminish their harmful effects and to prevent their formation. In order to limit their levels, much research has been focused on detecting the mycotoxins in contaminated food and feedstuffs. This review will focus on information about primary mycotoxins, their occurrence, related regulations, prevention and methods of detection within the light of the current literature.
Keywords: Aflatoxin, Fumonisins, Mycotoxins, Ochratoxin, Zearalenone.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
S. Parashuramulu, D. Nagalakshmi*, D. Srinivasa Rao M. Kishan Kumar and P.S. Swain
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science Hyderabad-500 030, India
Parashuramulu, S., Nagalakshmi, D., Rao, D.S., Kumar, M.K. and Swain, P.S. 2015. Effect of zinc supplementation on antioxidant status and immune response in buffalo calves. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 179-188.
Eighteen buffalo calves with an average BW of 125±2.5 kg were randomly allotted to three groups in a completely randomized design to investigate the effect of dietary Zn supplementation on antioxidant enzyme activities and immune response. The dietary treatments were viz., basal diet (control; 29.72 ppm zinc from feed ingredients) alone or supplemented with 80 and 140 ppm Zn as ZnSO4 .7H2 O. Calves were fed the respective diets individually at 3% of BW to meet the nutrient requirements throughout 120 days of experiment. Blood was collected after 110 days of feeding trial for estimating antioxidant enzyme activities. The humoral immune response against Brucella abortus and chicken RBC was assessed after 95 days of feeding and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction against phytohaemagglutinin phosphate (PHA-P) indicative of cell mediated immune response (CMI) was assessed at 120 days of experiment. Lipid peroxidation was higher (Pd”0.05) in calves fed BD, which reduced with Zn supplementation and was lowest with 140 ppm Zn supplementation. The glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities were higher (P<0.01) in 140 ppm zn supplemented calves, while rbc catalyse activity was higher (p<0.05) in 80 ppm Zn supplemented calves compared to those fed the control diet. Humoral immune response against Brucella abortus was higher (P<0.05) in Zn supplemented calves and highest response was observed with 140 ppm Zn supplementation. The haemagglutination titers against chicken RBC did not differ significantly with variation in dietary Zn supplementation. The DTH reaction against PHA-P was maximum at 24h post inoculation, maximum response was observed with 140 ppm Zn supplementation and lowest (P<0.05) in those fed the basal diet. Thus results of present study indicated that 140 ppm Zn supplementation to a basal diet containing 29.72 ppm Zn resulted in higher antioxidant activities and immune responses in buffalo calves.
Keywords: Antioxidants, Buffalo, Calves, Immunity, Zinc
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
Inamdar Arif, L.C. Chaudhary*, Neeta Agarwal and D.N. Kamra
Division of Animal Nutrition ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India
Inamdar A., Chaudhary, L.C., Agarwal, N. and Kamra, D.N. 2015. Effect of plant containing secondary metabolites on in vitro methane production and feed fermentation with buffalo rumen liquor. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 189-196.
The present study was conducted to screen the plants containing secondary metabolites for their antimethanogenic activity by in vitro gas production system. A total 14 plant parts viz., leaves of babool (Acacia arabica), shirish (Albizzia lebbek), kathal (Artocarpus spp.), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), pakar (Ficus infectoria), mentha (Mentha piperita), karanj (Pongomia pinnata), oak (Quercus spp.), arjuna (Terminalia arjuna), asoka (Aaraca indica), guava (Psidium gujava), mahua seed cake (Madhuka indica), harad seed pulp (Terminalia chebula) and seed of tamarind (Tamarindus indica) were screened using wheat straw and concentrate mixture (50:50) as substrate and buffalo rumen liquor as inoculum. All the plant parts were added at 10% level. There was no effect on gas production by inclusion of any of the plant part, however, significant reduction in methane was observed by inclusion dry powder of eucalyptus leaves (E. globules), deoiled mahua cake (M. indica), and harad seed pulp (T. chebula) by 20.16, 22.41 and 17.48 per cent, respectively as compared to control. The in vitro true dry matter digestibility of feed, production of TVFA and its fractions and acetate to propionate ratio were also similar with all the plant parts except with tamarid (T. indica) seeds and shirish (A. lebbek) leaves, where TVFA was significantly higher than control. Various combinations of deoiled mahua cake and harad did not have any additive effect on inhibition of in vitro methane production. The results revealed that the plants containing secondary metabolites tested, have potential to be used as feed additive.
Keywords: Buffalo, In vitro gas production, Methane, Plant secondary metabolites.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
A.B. Mandal*, Chandra Deo and A.V. Elangovan
ICAR-Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India
Mandal, A.B., Deo, C. and Elangovan, A.V. 2015. Response of growing egg type pullets (CARI Priya) to variable dietary energy and critical amino acids levels. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 197- 206.
An experiment was conducted involving egg type chicks (CARI Priya) reared in battery cages to optimize energy to limiting amino acids profile ratio during different phases of growth in winter months. Day-old chicks (n=225) were distributed into five dietary treatments formulated with different levels of energy (kcal ME/kg) viz. T1: 2850, T2: 2700, T3: 2600, T4: 2500 at the fixed ratio with concentration of limiting amino acids, and T5: 2600 kcal ME with altered lysine and methionine concentration. Each dietary treatment was offered to four replicated groups of 11 to 12 each. In a second experiment, 112 growing pullets of 6-wk age were distributed to four dietary treatments formulated with different levels of energy (kcal ME/kg) viz. T1: 2700, T2: 2600, T3: 2500 with the fixed energy to amino acids ratio, and T4: 2500 kcal ME with altered lysine and methionine concentration to assess the optimum requirements for 6-12 weeks growth phase, Each dietary treatment was offered to four replicated groups of seven each. Successively, in the third experiment, the same 112 growing pullets of 12-wk of age were switched over to four dietary treatments consisting of different levels of energy (kcal ME/kg) viz. T1: 2900, T2: 2700, T3: 2500 with the fixed energy to amino acids ratio and T4: 2500 kcal ME with altered lysine and methionine. Each dietary treatment was offered to four replicated groups of 7 each upto 20 wk of age. The results indicated that the optimum levels of energy, CP, lysine, methionine and threonine were 2850 kcal ME/kg, 17.7%, 0.85%, 0.31% and 0.68% for gain and feed conversion efficiency during 0-6 wk of age. A diet with 2600 kcal ME/kg, 14.6% CP, 0.62% lysine, 0.28% methionine and 0.56% threonine was optimum for growing pullets during 6-12 weeks of age. Whereas, the optimum concentration in diet of pullets during 12-20 weeks of age was energy 2700 kcal ME/kg, lysine 0.48%, methionine 0.26%, methionine + cystine 0.52% and threonine 0.47%.
Keywords: CARI Priya, Chick, Energy, Essential amino acids, Growth.
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V.K. Dwivedi, V.K. Singh*, D. Tewari, S. Gautam and S.P. Singh
Department of Animal Nutrition College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry N.D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj-224 229, India
Dwivedi, V.K., Singh, V.K., Tewari, D., Gautam, S. and Singh, S.P. 2015. Effect of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) on performance, hemato-biochemical parameters and economics of broiler production. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 207-216.
This study was conducted to assess the ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) as a phytogenic herbal growth promoter in broiler chickens. Day-old commercial broiler chicks (n=250) were distributed equally into five groups of 50 chicks each and further subdivided into five replicates The chicks were placed into five dietary treatments- basal diet without any supplements (NCON) or with antibiotic (PCON), ashwagandha at 0.5% (WS-0.5), 1.0% (WS-1.0) and 1.5% (WS-1.5) levels. The effect of these supplements on feed intake, weight gain, FCR, hemato-biochemical parameters, carcass characteristics and on economic return was assessed in a six week study. After six week WS-0.5 and PCON groups showed significantly (P<0.05) higher weight gain and growth rate than ncon group the fcr of pcon and ws-0.5 group broilers were incomparable, while weight gain, growth rate and pi were highest in ws-0.5 group broilers. ashwagandha supplemented groups showed significantly (p<0.05) higher Hb, PCV and WBC values, however, H:L ratio and serum cholesterol concentrations were lowest in WS-0.5 group. No significant effect of ashwagandha or antibiotics was observed on the drawn yield of broilers. The net profit per bird as well as net profit per kg live weight was highest in WS-0.5 group. The outcome of this study indicated that 0.5% ashwagandha root powder improved weight gain, feed efficiency and economic returns in broiler chickens and may be used as phytogenic growth promoter in broiler production.
Keywords: Ashwagandha, Chicken, FCR, Economics, Hemato-biochemical, Performance.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
S.A. Dhage*, Y.G. Fulpagare and S.H. Mane
Division of Animal Husbandry and Dairy Science College of Agriculture, Pune-411 003, India
Dhage, S.A., Fulpagare, Y.G. and Mane, S.H. 2015. Evaluation of whole sugarcane based rations in lactating crossbred cows. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 217-226.
The study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of feeding whole sugarcane based rations on the performance of lactating crossbred cows. Twenty lactating cows (370 kg BW) were divided in four similar groups viz. WS0 , WS50, WS75 and WS100. Control group (WS0 ) was fed on concentrate and green maize as roughage. Animals in groups WS50, WS75 and WS100 groups were fed with concentrate and green chopped whole sugarcane at 50, 75 and 100 percent of total roughage DM requirement, respectively, and remaining roughage DM was provided through jowar kadbi. Experimental feeding was carried out for 180 days. A digestion trial was conducted at the end of experimental feeding. Digestibility of DM was higher in WS100 animals fed solely on whole sugarcane as roughage portion of the diet. Digestibility of CP was significantly higher in animals in WS100 fed 100% whole sugarcane than other groups, while the animals under WS50 and WS75 showed significantly higher CP digestibility than the control group (WS0 ). The DCP and TDN contents were 7.98, 7.57, 7.87, 8.10 and 65.84, 62.67, 65.67, 68.16 percent in the WS0 , WS50, WS75 and WS100 diets, respectively. There were no adverse effects on nutrient intake and utilization even when 100% whole sugarcane was used in the ration. There was no adverse effect on reproductive performance of crossbred cows. It is, therefore, concluded that whole sugarcane can be fed solely to lactating cows as source of roughage without adverse effect on production, reproductive performance and nutrient utilization.
Keywords: Cows, Crossbred, Milk production, Reproduction, Whole sugarcane.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
Ram Singh*, A.B. Mandal and Divya
Division of Avian Nutrition and Feed Technology ICAR-Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India
Singh, R., Mandal, A.B. and Divya. 2015. Efficacy of methionine hydroxy analogue in ameliorating aflatoxicosis in Japanese quails. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 227-234.
The efficacy of dietary methionine hydroxy analogue (MHA) to ameliorate aflatoxicosis caused by 500 ppb aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) in Japanese quails was investigated. A total of 600, day-old quail chicks were divided into ten treatment groups viz. T1 : control; T2 : T1 +500 ppb AFB1 , T3 : T1 +400 ppm MHA, T4 : T1 +500 ppm MHA, T5 : T1 +625 MHA, T6 : T1 +769 ppm MHA, T7 : T2 +400 ppm MHA, T8 : T2 +500 ppm MHA, T9 : T2 +625 MHA, and T10: T2 +769 ppm MHA. Each diet was fed to four replicated groups of 15 birds each from day-old to 35d of age. The results revealed that contamination of aflatoxin (500 ppb) in the diet of Japanese quails caused significant (P<0.05) decrease in bw gain. supplementation of mha at 400-625 ppm (t7 to t9 ) level in afb1 contaminated diet though improved (p<0.05) the BW gain but could not match with the gain in control diet. However, supplementation of MHA at 769 ppm level in AFB1 contaminated diet ameliorated the adverse effects of AFB1 on gain in quails. The overall feed consumption remained uninfluenced due to dietary treatments. The FCR of groups T7 , T8 and T9 was lower (P<0.05) than that of AFB1 fed group but higher (P<0.05) than control. The FCR of group T10 was significantly (P<0.05) lower than that of AFB1 fed group similar to control. Contamination of feed with 500 ppb AFB1 resulted in significant increase in FCR of quails. Supplementation of MHA (769 ppm) to the AFB1 contaminated diet resulted in significant improvement in feed efficiency that was comparable to control. Aflatoxin contamination in diet (T2 ) resulted in enlarged, pale, congested and round bordered liver. Incorporation of MHA at higher level (769 ppm) in AF contaminated diet significantly reduced the effect of AFB1 on liver morphology. It is concluded that supplementation of MHA at 769 ppm in 500 ppb AFB1 contaminated feed ameliorated the adverse effects on BW gain and FCR in Japanese quails.
Keywords: Aflatoxicosis, Methionine hydroxy analogue, Japanese quail.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Divya Negi1, B.C. Mondal* and D.P. Tiwari
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263 145, India
Negi, D., Mondal, B.C. and Tiwari, D.P. 2015. Effect of phase-feeding on milk production, milk composition, nutrient utilization and haemato-biochemical constituents in lactating crossbred cattle. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 235-244.
Lactating crossbred cows (n=12) in early-lactation were divided into two groups of six each and used to assess the effect of phase feeding on milk production, milk composition, nutrient utilization and haemato-biochemical constituents. The feeding trial was divided into two phases i.e. phase 1 (0-60 days) and phase 2 (61-120 days). During phase 1, cows of group I were provided high energy ration (60% TDN and 13% CP), whereas cows of group II were provided low energy ration (55% TDN and 13% CP). During phase 2, both the groups of cows were fed low energy ration. The diets were fed as total mixed ration consisting of concentrate mixture, wheat straw and mixed green fodder. During phase 1, digestibility coefficients of CP, EE, NFE, NDF and ADF were significantly (P<0.05) higher in group i as compared to the group ii. the total dm intake in both the groups was statistically similar in phase 1 and 2. during phase 1, the average milk yield was significantly (p<0.05) higher in group I as compared to group II, whereas the average milk yield during phase 2 did not differ significantly (P>0.05) between the two groups. During phase 1, protein, ash and SNF contents of milk were significantly (P<0.05) higher in group II as compared to group I, whereas there was no significant difference in milk constituents except for total solids content was apparent during phase 2. The net energetic efficiency for milk production and gross and net efficiency of nitrogen utilization for milk production during phase 1 were significantly (P<0.05) higher in cows of group II as compared to group I while there were no significant difference between the groups in these parameters during phase 2. It was concluded that phase feeding with variable concentration of energy increases the milk yield and digestibility as well as intake of nutrients in lactating crossbred cows where high energy diet was fed during 0-60 days followed by low energy diet during the next 60 days.
Keywords: Blood, Crossbred, Energy, Lactation, Milk yield, Composition, Phase feeding.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
Ilakshy Deka*, J. Goswami, A. Saikia, D. Kalita and B.C. Sarmah
Department of Veterinary Physiology, College of Veterinary Science Assam Agricultural University, Guwahati-781 022, India
Deka, I., Goswami, J., Saikia, A., Kalita, D. and Sarmah, B.C. 2015. Efficacy of pharmacologic levels of zinc supplementation around weaning for prevention of piglet diarrhoea. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 245-250.
Thirty-two (32) crossbred (Hampshire × Assam Local) piglets of 52-days old were divided randomly into four equal groups and maintained under zinc supplemented feed for a period of 14 days (from 52 to 65 days of age). The piglets were weaned at 56 days. The Group-I (Control) was offered 100 ppm of ZnSO4 as per NRC recommendation. The group II, III and IV of the piglets were fed pharmacological doses of zinc at graded levels viz. 1000, 2000 and 3000 ppm, respectively. Body weight measurement was done at days 1, 7 and 14 of feeding and ADG and FCE were calculated. Daily monitoring for piglet diarrhoea was done. Blood collection was done at days 1, 7 and 14 of feeding for estimation of different blood parameters. It was observed that, in group III and IV, there was no evidence of piglet diarrhoea whereas in Group II only two piglets and in group I six piglets had diarrhoea during the experimental period. The analyzed serum profile of zinc, glucose, amylase, total protein, globulin and albumin, cholesterol and cortisol levels supports the role of zinc in prevention of piglet diarrhoea. This study indicated that 2000 ppm of zinc supplementation to the piglets around weaning have higher efficacy in preventing piglet diarrhoea
Keywords: ADG, Blood profile, Body weight, FCE, Pharmacological zinc, Pig, Piglet diarrhoea.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
U.B. Chaudhary*, A.K. Das, P. Tripathi and M.K. Tripathi
Nutrition, Feed Resources and Products Technology Division ICAR-Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom-281 122, India
Chaudhary, U.B., Das, A.K., Tripathi, P. and Tripathi, M.K. 2015. Effect of concentrate supplementation on growth performance, carcass traits and meat composition of Sirohi kids under field condition. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 251-260.
In order to assess the influence of on-farm supplementary feeding of concentrate pellets on growth, carcass traits and quality, 35 male Sirohi goat kids (60d old), divided in two groups were maintained either on 6h sole grazing (control; n=5) or grazing with supplementation of concentrate pellets at 1.5% of LW (supplemented; n=30). Experiment lasted for 140d followed by slaughter of five representative kids from each group. The kids of supplemented group had an ADG of 110g, which was 1.8 times higher (P<0.05) than the control. the supplemented kids had finishing weight of 25 kg vs. 12.08 kg in control kids. the slaughter and carcass weights and dressing percentages were 25.8 kg, 11.9 kg and 46.0%, and 17.5 kg, 7.4 kg and 43.0%, respectively, in supplemented and control groups, being higher (p<0.05) in supplemented group. Supplemented kids had improved (P<0.05) carcass traits, organ weight and had higher fat levels. Among non-carcass traits, blood, head and GI tract weights as % of slaughter weight were higher (P<0.05) in control kids, whereas other non-carcass traits were similar in both groups. The weights of cut portions viz. leg, loin, rack, and breast and shank, separated lean, fat and trim % and, meat: bone ratio were higher (P<0.01) in supplemented kids. The chemical constituents of Longissimus dorsi muscle were similar in both groups. Cholesterol content of the muscle was similar between two groups. It is concluded that on-farm supplementation of concentrate pellets at 1.5% of LW in growing kids improved growth performance, carcass traits and provided leaner carcass.
Keywords: Carcass traits, Growth, Meat composition, Muscles Cholesterol, Supplementation.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
N. Suma*, B.S. Venkatarami Reddy, R.G. Gloridoss, T.M. Prabhu, G.U. Manju, M.T. Rekha and Amitha R. Gomes
Department of Animal Nutrition, Veterinary College Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Sciences University Bangalore-560 024, India
Suma, N., Venkatarami Reddy, B.S., Gloridoss, R.G., Prabhu, T.M., Manju, G.U., Rekha, M.T. and Gomes, A.R. 2015. Nutritional evaluation of sugarcane press residue in layers. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 261-271.
Sugarcane press residue (SPR), a byproduct from sugar industry was evaluated for its nutritional worth as the non-conventional source of minerals as well as organic nutrients in 32-week-old white leghorn laying hens. Eight practical types of isonitrogenous rations were prepared by incorporating SPR at 0, 5, 10 and 15 per cent either in the soya based or fish based diets to form T1 to T8 diets in that order. Each diet was assigned to five replicates of 4 laying hens each. The trial lasted for 84 days. Results revealed that the cumulative average feed consumption varied non-significantly (P>0.05) among different treatments ranging from 117.4 (T3 ) to 121.7 g/d/bird (T6 and T7 ). The cumulative egg production ranged from 83.93 (T8 ) to 93.3 (T1 ) per cent. Cumulative feed conversion ratio (kg feed/dozen eggs) in soya based diets was significantly (P<0.05) poorer (1.65) in 10 per cent spr diets as against best in control (1.53) and the corresponding values in fish based diets were 1.74 (15% spr) and 1.58 (10% spr). hence, it can be concluded that spr appears to be a valuable source of organic as well as inorganic nutrients and can be included in layer rations up to 10 per cent level.
Keywords: Egg production, Feed conversion ratio, Layers, Sugarcane press residue.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
R.S. Grewal, C.S. Ahuja, J.S. Lamba, P. Malhotra and S. Saijpaul*
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Sciences Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Ludhiana-141 004, India
Grewal, R.S., Ahuja, C.S., Lamba, J.S., Malhotra, P. and Saijpaul, S. 2015. Response of varying energy and rumen undegradable protein on growth, feed utilization and blood biochemical profile of crossbred heifers. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 273-282.
To evaluate the energy and UDP needs for optimum growth performance of crossbred heifers, three oat hay based complete rations of low (L) and high (H) energy and UDP i.e. (TMRLE/LUDP, TMRHE/ LUDP and TMRHE/HUDP) were formulated having 2.3, 2.5 and 2.5 Mcal ME/kg and UDP content of 26.6, 27.0 and 34.8% of total CP with CP ranging from 15.5-16.5% respectively. Fifteen crossbred heifers (average age 4 months) were grouped on average BW and randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments. Monthly BW changes were noted and blood samples were collected at 0 d and 120 d of experiment. According to the formulations the fiber was higher in TMRLE/LUDP and EE was higher in TMRHE/ LUDP and TMRHE/HUDP. The CP: ME ratio was highest in TMRLE/LUDP (67.9) and lowest in TMRHE/HUDP(62.0). Results from the in sacco degradability study indicated that the soluble fraction ‘a’ was lowest and potentially fermentable OM ‘b’ highest in TMRHE/HUDP but comparable in TMRLE/LUDP and TMRHE/LUDP. The rate of degradation and effective degradability remained similar in all the TMRs. There was no significant (P>0.05) difference in ADG due to varying energy and UDP content of diet although the DM intake as % of BW was (P<0.05) different (2.12, 2.95 and 2.55%) in tmrle />LUDP, TMRHE/LUDP and TMRHE/HUDP groups,respectively. Digestibility of DM was 69.86, 75.96 and 64.76% for TMRLE/LUDP, TMRHE/LUDP and TMRHE/HUDP respectively, and varied significantly (P<0.05). the digestibility of adf was lowest in tmrhe />HUDP (P<0.05) and highest in tmrhe />LUDP. The EE digestibility was similar between TMRLE/LUDP and TMRHE/LUDP (82.62 and 82.74%) but higher in TMRHE/HUDP (87.08%). The digestibility of CP and NDF remained unaffected by the energy and UDP levels. The blood concentration of serum total proteins and globulins in TMRHE/HUDP increased (P<0.05) due to higher udp content. it was concluded that tmr containing 15.5% cp with a cp:me of 62.0g cp per mcal of me may be optimum for rapidly growing heifers. besides, the cp me ratio can be a reliable indicator of energy protein needs of growing heifers.
Keywords: Crossbred, Heifer, Growth, Metabolizable energy, UDP.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
N.K.S. Gowda, A. Manegar, S. Verma, N.C. Valleesha, G. Maya, D.T. Pal and K.P. Suresh
ICAR-National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology Adugodi, Bangalore-560 030, India
Gowda, N.K.S., Manegar, A., Verma, S., Valleesha, N.C., Maya, G., Pal, D.T. and Suresh, K.P. 2015. Azolla (Azolla pinnata) as a green feed supplement for dairy cattle - an on farm study. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 283-287.
An on-farm study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Azolla as a green supplement in the diet of dairy cattle. Twenty crossbred dairy cows of 3-5th lactation were randomly distributed to two groups. The first group (n=10) in addition to the regular feeding schedule were supplemented with 40g of area specific mineral mixture (ASMM) and the second group (n=10), in addition to ASMM were fed fresh Azolla @ 2.0 kg/cow/day. The chemical analysis of Azolla showed that it was a good source of protein (21.9%) and most of the minerals. The concentration of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and sulphur were 1.4, 1.1, 0.74 and 0.21% respectively, while those of copper, zinc, iron, manganese, cobalt, and iodine were 22, 31, 755,130, 4.5 and 32 ppm, respectively, with appreciably higher level of chromium (127 ppb). Milk yield was improved in cows supplemented Azolla (Av. 8.7 vs. 8.3 L/cow/d) with a marginal increase of 4.8%. The milk composition (SNF and Fat) did not differ significantly between both the groups. Feeding fresh Azolla enhanced the milk production resulting in a net profit of Rs. 4.4/cow per day. It is concluded that Azolla can be used as a valuable green feed supplement, particularly under low input livestock production system.
Keywords: Azolla, Cow, Dairy, Green forage, Supplement.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
B.N. Paul* and S.S. Giri
Regional Research Centre, Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture Rahara, Kolkata-700 118, India
Paul, B.N. and Giri, S.S. 2015. Evaluation of plant-based attractants in the diets of Labeo rohita fingerlings. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 289-294.
Evaluation of the efficacy of select plant-based attractants in the diets of Labeo rohita fingerlings (av. weight 3.63±0.06g) was carried out for a period of 90d. The formulated feed contained mustard cake, soyabean meal, rice bran, vegetable oil, vitamin and mineral mixture without or with 1% feed attractants. The five different attractants used included viz. Ekangi (Kampferia galanga), Kharboj (Cucumis melo), Chotokakla (Piper cubeba), Tambul (Zanthoxylum acanthopodium) and Latakasturi (Abelmoschus moschatus) designated as A1, A2, A3, A4 and A%, respectively, in addition to a control diet with no added attractant (A0). The net weight gain (g) was 1.09±0.31, 2.05±0.05, 2.58±0.08, 0.95±0.55, 1.17±0.03 and 0.56±0.04, respectively, in dietary groups F0 to F6. The growth performance revealed that the net weight gain and specific growth rate were significantly higher (P<0.05) in rohu fingerlings fed a3 (kharboj) vis-à-vis other groups. carcass proximate composition did not differ significantly (p> 0.05) among the feed treatments. It is concluded from the study that supplementation of Kharboj (Cucumis melo) at 1% level can be incorporated as an effective plant attractant in the feed of rohu fingerlings.
Keywords: Attractants, Carcass composition, Growth performance, Labeo rohita.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
Manju Bala*, Surya Tushir, S.K. Tyagi and R.K. Gupta
ICAR-Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering and Technology Ludhiana-141 004, India
Bala, M., Tushir, S., Tyagi, S.K. and Gupta, R.K. 2015. Antinutrients in oilseed brassica: uses and potential applications. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 295-310.
Rapeseed- mustard is an important oilseed crop in India and worldwide. Rape-Mustard seed complement high oil content of about 35-45%, with a high value protein or meal product after oil extraction. The defatted meal obtained after oil extraction is rich in protein, but it also contains a number of antinutrients like glucosinolates, phytates, phenolics and fibre which limits the use of defatted meal as a source of protein in diet of animals, birds and fish. It also addresses the means of improving the nutritive value of rapeseedmustard meal through seed dehulling, development of low glucosinolate, low-fiber varieties, or application of feed enzymes. Moreover, these antinutrients have various potential applications which can be explored for different uses. As glucosinolates and their breakdown products, isothiocyanates have health protective effects, phytates are known to act as strong chelating agents, sinapic acid contributes to the product’s antioxidant activity and dietary fiber may contribute to the reduction in diseases. The present paper reviews antinutritional factors present in oilseed brassica, their effects on animal health and their potential applications.
Keywords: Antinutrients, Glucosinolates, Phenolic compounds, Phytate, Rapeseed- mustard.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Y.H. Cai, Y.M. Aguilar, L. Yu, Y. Wang, H.B. Liu, G. Liu*, J. Zhong, Y.B. Jiang and Y.L. Yin
Jordan University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Animal Production, P.O. Box 3005, Amman 11141, Jordan
Al-Beitawi, N.A. and El-Ghousein, S.S. 2015. Effect of essential oil mixture of selected medicinal plants on growth performance, antibody titer and hematological profile in male broiler chicken fed antibioticsfree rations. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 1-10.
The effect of feeding antibiotics-free ration supplemented with Pimpinella anisum, Nigella sativa seeds and Thymus vulgaris leaves oil mixture on vaccinated and non-vaccinated male broilers was studied. An experiment of 4 dietary treatments of 4 replicates X 30 chicks each, was conducted on Lohman male broilers from 1 to 42 days of age. The addition of medicinal plants oil mixture to the antibiotics-free ration significantly improved live body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of vaccinated male broilers at 42 days of age. Dietary oil mixture increased Heterophils, lymphocytes and Monocytes of vaccinated male boilers at 42 days of age. No significant differences were detected from the addition of 0.2% oil mixture to the antibiotics-free ration on WBC’s, RBC’s, and Hct count of vaccinated and non-vaccinated male broilers at 42 days of age. Addition of oil mixture to the antibioticsfree ration of VMB increased antibody titer (Ab’s) against Newcastle, infectious bronchitis and infectious bursal disease at 42 days of age. Meanwhile, significant differences were detected in Ab’s titer against infections bronchitis of non-vaccinated male broilers at 42 days of age as a result of oil mixture addition. These findings suggest that Pimpinella anisum, Nigella sativa seeds and Thymus vulgaris oil mixture had a positive effect on male broilers performance and immunity, but, further researches are needed to confirm these findings.
Keywords: Antibiotics, Essential oils, Immunity, Male broilers, Performance.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
D. Kirovski*, M. Adamovic, M. Radivojevic, H. Samanc, I. Vujanac, R. Prodanovic and Z. Sladojevic
Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Belgrade, Bulevar Oslobodenja 18, 11 000 Belgrade, Serbia
Kirovski, D., Adamovic, M., Radivojevic, M., Samanc, H., Vujanac, I., Prodanovic, R. and Sladojevic, Z. 2015. The effects of bentonite on weight gain, feed consumption, blood metabolites and ruminal protozoa in dairy calves. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 11-20.
In order to ascertain the effects of addition of bentonite as a pelleting medium in the feed mixture for calves, fourteen 30d-old calves were randomly distributed into two equal groups (CON and EXP). From 30 to 120d of age the EXP group was fed a feed mixture containing 1.5% of natural bentonite while the CON group was fed the same pellets without added bentonite. Body weight was determined before and at the end of the trial. Feed intake was measured daily. Health status was monitored daily. Blood and rumen content samples were taken at 50 and 90d of experiment and analyzed for select parameters. The addition of bentonite had no effect (P>0.05) on average daily gain, feed intake and health. Blood pH, total number and motility of ruminal protozoa in the EXP group were significantly (P<0.001, p<0.05 and P<0.05; respectively) higher than in CON group at both the periods. At 120d of age the EXP calves had a significantly (P<0.05, P<0.05 and P<0.01; respectively) higher serum total protein, albumin and triglyceride concentrations and lower iron and IGF-I (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively) concentrations than respective controls values. It is concluded that the use of pelleted feed containing bentonite tended to improve growth of calves as well as the activity of protozoa in the rumen. Additionally, the results indicate a positive influence of the function of hepatocytes concomitant to a reduction in serum iron and IGF-I concentrations.
Keywords: Bentonite, Blood metabolites, Calves, Ruminal protozoa, Weight gain.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
S.A. Bolu*, T.O. Babalola, N. Elelu1, R.N. Ahmed2, S.A. Oyetunde P.F. Ademola and S.A. Jiddah
Department of Animal Production, University of Ilorin, PMB 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria
Bolu, S.A., Babalola, T.O., Elelu, N., Ahmed, R.N., Oyetunde, S.A., Ademola, P.F. and Jiddah, S.A. 2015. Effects of aloe vera leaf extract on growth, clinical chemistry and histology of selected organs in turkey poults challenged with Escherichia coli. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 21-29.
A 6-weeks feeding trial was carried out to elucidate the effect of different levels of aloe vera leaf extract on the performance and health of turkey poults challenged with Escherichia coli. Sixty (60) turkey poults were randomly grouped into five treatments which were further replicated three times in a completely randomized design. The first group of poults was without infection and fed on the basal diet alone, and served as the positive control (P-CON). Out of the rest four infected groups, one was fed the basal diet alone to serve as the negative control (N-CON), while the others were fed the basal diet with tetramycin (ANT), or aloe vera at 2-mL (ALV2) and 3-mL (ALV3) per litre of water. The response of turkey poults to the challenge were assessed in terms of their growth performance, histology, haematology and serum constituents. The growth parameters, such as survival, weight gain, feed conversion efficiency were significantly (P<0.05) higher in poults given alv3. histological results of the organs (breast muscle, liver, spleen and ileum) showed normal morphological pattern for poults subjected to alv2 while those kept on alv3 showed normal for breast muscle, spleen and ileum but not for the liver. similarly, birds raised on ant showed normal organ morphology compared with the positive control. however, the birds challenged with e. coli without (n-con) showed abnormal morphological pattern for all the organs investigated. there were also no adverse effects of aloe vera leaf extract on turkey poults health, as determined from the analysis of various haematological parameters and serum metabolites. the results indicated that aloe vera leaf extract inclusion at 2ml (alv2) in drinking water could successfully replace antibiotics in the rearing of turkey poults.
Keywords: Aloe vera, Antibiotics, E. coli, Histology, Poults, Turkey.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
A.N. Dey* and N.P. Todaria
Department of Forestry, Faculty of Horticulture Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar-736 165, India
Dey, A.N. and Todaria, N.P. 2015. Variations in proximate and mineral composition in the leaves of twelve provenances of gamari (Gmelina arborea Linn Roxb.). Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 31-39.
A study was carried out to quantify the proximate and mineral content in terms of crude protein, soluble sugar, phenol, crude fibre, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium in the leaves of 12 provenances of Gmelina arborea. Irrespective of provenances, the harvested leaves contained an average of 14.40% crude protein, 16.88% soluble sugar, 0.076% phenol, 13.25% crude fibre, 0.206% phosphorus, 1.44% potassium, 1.014% calcium and 0.561% magnesium. Maximum and minimum crude protein content was recorded as 23.92 and 8.95% in Reti and Damdim provenances respectively. The highest soluble sugar was observed with Lataguri provenance (26.93%) and the lowest was with Atiamocher provenance (9.72%). The crude fibre content was higher and lower in Taptapani (16.55%) and Bhutabari (10.55%) provenances respectively. Among the mineral content it was found that potassium content was more than others. Variability estimates for proximate and mineral nutrient contents in leaf of different provenances was also computed. The differences between phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variability indicated that these parameters are sensitive to environmental changes. From the present investigation it is concluded that leaves of G. arborea vary greatly in their proximate and mineral content depending on the geographical regions and can be fed to the ruminants as an alternative feed resource without any supplement.
Keywords: Crude protein, Gmelina arborea, Potassium, Provenance, Variability.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
B.K. Ojha, Narayan Dutta*, A.K. Pattanaik, S.K. Singh and A. Narang
Centre of Advanced Faculty Training in Animal Nutrition ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India
Ojha, B.K., Dutta, N., Pattanaik, A.K., Singh, S.K. and Narang, A. 2015. Effect of pre-partum strategic supplementation of concentrates on colostrum quality and performance of buffalo calves. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 41-49.
Strategic concentrate mixture supplementation during pre-partum period was studied on 24 pregnant buffaloes (10-12 weeks before calving), randomly divided into two equal groups viz., control and treatment, to ascertain the effect on birth weight of calves, colostrum yield and quality, blood-biochemical profile, immune status and growth performance of calves. The pregnant buffaloes in control group, were fed as per farmers’ practice (0.5-1.0 kg concentrate), while in treatment group specially formulated concentrate mixture was provided at 2.0-2.5 kg per day along with the basal diet ad libitum wheat straw. Strategic supplementation of concentrate mixture in treatment group significantly (P<0.05) improved total dm intake as compared to control. colostrum yield was significantly (p<0.01) higher in treatment group and the chemical composition of colostrum was improved (P<0.01) as compared to control. Total immunoglobulins (Ig), IgG and IgM in colostrum and calf serum were significantly (P<0.05) higher in treatment group relative to control. The birth weight and average daily gain of calves up to 120 days of age were significantly (P<0.01) higher in treatment group. It may be concluded that the strategic supplementation of 2.0-2.5 kg of concentrate mixture to pre-partum buffaloes significantly improved the performance of dam as well as birth weight, immune status and growth performance of buffalo calves.
Keywords: Buffaloes, Calves, Concentrates, Pre-partum, Supplementation.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
S. Haunshi*, A.K. Panda, M.K. Padhi and S.K. Bhanja
Directorate of Poultry Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030, India
Haunshi, S., Panda, A.K., Padhi, M.K. and Bhanja, S.K. 2015. Effects of varying nutrient densities on production performance of Aseel layers. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 51-58.
The present study was carried out to find the effect of feeding different diets with varying nutrient densities on the production performance of the Aseel, a native chicken breed of India during 25 to 40 weeks of age. At 24 weeks of age, 90 birds were randomly distributed into three groups (30 birds with six replicates of five birds in each group) and reared individually in California cages. Three diets with different nutrient densities viz., low density (LD: 2400 kcal/kg ME and 14% CP), medium density (MD: 2600 kcal/kg ME and 15% CP) and high density (HD: 2800 kcal/kg ME and 16% CP) were formulated using maize and soybean as the main feed ingredients and fed to the birds till they attained 40 weeks of age. Results revealed no significant effects of variation in nutrient density on egg production, feed conversion ratio, egg weight, egg quality traits, liveability, immune competence traits and serum biochemical parameters (serum protein and total cholesterol). However, BW gain (25 to 40 weeks) was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the hd as compared to the ld diet. based on the overall performance, it is concluded that the die (ld) containing 2400 kcal />kg ME and 14% CP was adequate for Aseel breed of chicken to elicit optimum performance during 25-40 weeks of age.
Keywords: Aseel, Chicken, Growth, Nutrient density, Production.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
Avishek Biswas*, Divya, A.B. Mandal and Ram Singh
Avian Nutrition and Feed Technology Division Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India
Biswas, A., Divya, Mandal, A.B. and Singh, R. 2015. Effect of dietary supplementation of chromium picolinate on productive performance, egg quality and carcass traits in laying turkeys. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 59-66.
This experiment investigated the effects of dietary chromium picolinate (CrP) on production performance, egg quality traits and carcass traits of laying turkey. Seventy-two (72) female turkeys (16 wks old) were randomly distributed to four dietary treatment groups for a period of 24 weeks. Each treatment comprised three replicates, each containing 6 hens. Three experimental diets were supplemented with 250, 500 and 750 μg CrP/kg (T2, T3 and T4 respectively) with basal diet and diet T1 was considered as control. All hens were provided feed and water ad libitum. Production performance in terms of age at sexual maturity did not differ significantly (P>0.05), whereas egg production and egg mass differ significantly (P<0.05) in t4 group compared to control and the two crp treated groups (t2 and t3). egg quality traits in terms of shape index, albumin index and yolk index did not differ significantly (p> 0.05), whereas the Haugh unit score and shell thickness were significantly higher (P<0.05) in t4 treated groups than the control (t1) and other two treatment groups (t2 and t3). percentage of carcass traits did not differ significantly (p<0.05) except the percentage of bleeding loss, wings and giblets among the control and CrP treated groups. From this study, it can be concluded that higher levels of dietary CrP (750 μg CrP/ kg diet) may be beneficial for production performance (egg production and egg mass), some egg quality traits (Haugh unit score and shell thickness) in laying turkeys whereas, no significant differences were observed in percentage of carcass traits except the percentage of bleeding loss, wings and giblets.
Keywords: Carcass trait, Chromium picolinate, Egg quality trait, Performance, Turkey.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Gulab Chandra*, Anjali Aggarwal, Anil Kumar Singh and Muneendra Kumar
ICAR- National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132001, India
Chandra, G., Aggarwal, A., Singh, A.K. and Kumar, M. 2015. Effect of vitamin E and zinc supplementation on milk yield, milk composition, and udder health in Sahiwal cows. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 69-78.
Present study was conducted to assess the effect of vitamin E and zinc supplementation on milk yield, milk composition and udder health in Sahiwal cows. Thirty-two pregnant Sahiwal cows were selected at sixty days prepartum and divided into four groups namely control, T1, T2 and T3 of eight cows each. Cows under T1 were supplemented with Zn (60 ppm), while those under T2 were supplemented with vitamin E (1000IU); the cows under T3 were supplemented with a combination of vitamin E (1000 IU) and zinc (60 ppm) during day 60 prepartum to day 90 postpartum. After calving, milk yield of the experimental animals was recorded daily up to 120 days of lactation. Milk samples were collected fortnightly from all cows of all four groups for the estimation of milk composition (fat, protein, lactose and solid not fat), somatic cell count (SCC), and percentage of subclinical mastitis, vitamin E, and zinc. Dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, and fat corrected milk were observed higher (P<0.05) in t3 than control, t1 and t2 groups. milk composition did not differ significantly among the four groups. somatic cell count and percentage of subclinical mastitis was significantly (p<0.05) lower in T3 in comparison to control, T1 and T2 groups. Milk vitamin E was higher (P<0.05) in vitamin E supplemented groups (T2 and T3) than non-supplemented groups (control and T1). Milk zinc was found higher (P<0.05) in zinc supplemented groups (T1 and T3) than non-supplemented groups (control and T2). In the present study, vitamin E and zinc supplementation to Sahiwal cows increased the milk yield, vitamin E, and zinc contents in milk, and reduced the somatic cell count and percentage of subclinical mastitis.
Keywords: Clinical mastitis, Milk yield, Milk composition, Somatic cell count, Sahiwal cows.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
J.S. Lamba, M. Wadhwa and M.P.S. Bakshi*
Department of Animal Nutrition Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Ludhiana-141 004, India
Lamba, J.S., Wadhwa, M. and Bakshi, M.P.S. 2015. Enteric methane production potential of non-leguminous forages. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 79-89.
The present study was undertaken to assess the methane production potential of multi-cut nonleguminous forages viz. rye grass and guinea grass harvested through four cuts using in sacco degradation and in vitro gas production (IVGP) procedures. Results revealed that irrespective of cuts, rye grass had higher (P<0.01) rapidly soluble fraction than guinea grass, with a reverse trend (p<0.01) for insoluble but potentially degradable fraction and rumen undegradable fraction (UDF). The rate for the latter was highest (P<0.01) for the younger grasses (I cut) and lowest (P<0.01) for the III cut. The rumen UDF of DM increased (P<0.01) with advancement of cuts. Rye grass had higher (P<0.01) effective rumen degradable protein (ERDP) and lower (P<0.01) rumen undegradable protein (RUDP) than that in guinea grass. The RUDP as % of CP was higher (P<0.01) in guinea grass than that in rye grass. Almost similar trend (P<0.01) was observed in the digestion kinetic parameters for NDF degradability. The IVGP data showed that irrespective of cuts, rye grass produced higher (P<0.01) net gas, lower (P<0.01) methane resulting in higher (P<0.01) partitioning factor. The ME (P<0.01) was higher in rye grass. The young forage from I and II cuts showed higher (P<0.01) net gas production as compared to III and IV cuts. The methane production increased (P<0.01), while digestibility of OM and NDF decreased (P<0.01) with the increase in number of cuts. The availability of ME varied from 6.78 (IV cut) to 8.66 (II cut). Rye grass produced higher (P<0.01) TVFA, acetate, propionate and butyrate than that produced by guinea grass. It was concluded that irrespective of cuts, rye grass had higher nutritional worth with lower methane production as compared to that produced by guinea grass. The methane production increased, while the digestibility decreased with the increase in number of cuts.
Keywords: Forages, In vitro, In sacco, Methane production, Non-leguminous.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
A.K. Pathak, Narayan Dutta*, A.K. Pattanaik, A. Singh, A. Narang and K. Sharma
Centre of Advanced Faculty Training in Animal Nutrition ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India
Pathak, A.K., Dutta, N., Pattanaik, A.K., Singh, A., Narang, A. and Sharma, K. 2015. Effect of condensed tannins supplementation from tanniferous tree leaves on methane production and efficiency of microbial biomass production in vitro. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 91-100.
Effect of graded levels (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0% of DM) of condensed tannins (CT) from tanniferous tree leaves of A. heterophyllus, E. jambolana, F. infectoria; F. glomerata and P. guajava supplementation on gas production, methane production, substrate degradation and efficiency of microbial biomass production was studied on wheat straw based substrate using in vitro gas production test. Gas volume in 24 hours (ml/200 mg) was reduced (26.59-22.74) significantly (P< 0.05) as the CT level increased from 1.0-3.0%. Methane produced in 24 hours (ml/g DM) was also reduced (22.90-18.34) significantly (P<0.05) with ct supplementation from 1.0-3.0% levels. average ch4 (ml />g DM) produced in 24 hours was significantly higher in E. jambolana (22.45) followed by comparable CH4 production among F. infectoria, P. guajava and F. glomerata (20.65, 20.61 and 20.58) and lowest methane production in A. heterophyllus (18.36) leaves. The percent reduction in methane production was highest (P<0.05) in p. guajava (17.21) followed by f. infectoria, a. heterophyllus and e. jambolana (14.25, 8.98 and 6.64) and least ch4 reduction was evident in f. glomerata (3.36). supplementation of ct at 1.0% level did not exert any adverse (p<0.05) effect on (46.96) truly degradable organic matter in rumen (TDOMR, %) irrespective of sources, however, CT levels from 1.5-3.0% significantly (P<0.05) reduced (43.50 - 40.18) the TDOMR (%). Efficiency of microbial biomass production (EMP) and partitioning factor (PF) were significantly (P<0.05) higher in A. heterophyllus (39.85 and 3.66). From present study it can be concluded that supplementation of condensed tannins from tanniferous tree leaves at 1 to 3% levels considerably reduces the gas production and methane production in in vitro gas production test.
Keywords: Condensed tannins, In vitro gas production, Methane production, Tree leaves.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
P. Manikya Rao, A. Ravi* and J. Suresh
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupati-517 502, India
Rao, P.M., Ravi, A. and Suresh, J. 2015. Milk urea nitrogen of healthy and repeat breeder buffaloes reared under two different feeding systems. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 101-110.
Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) measurement is a convenient and non-invasive method to assess the protein and energy nutrition of dairy cattle. The present study was taken up with 36 lactating buffaloes maintained under two different feeding systems i.e. 18 each from intensive (dairy farm) or semi-intensive (on-farm, field) conditions to study the effect of production, managemental and nutritional variables on baseline MUN. Milk sample were collected from both systems for 8 weeks from 6 buffaloes each in early (0-45), mid (46-150) and late (>150 days in milk) stages of lactation. The milk samples were collected on alternate days i.e. from morning milking on 1st and 5th day and from evening milking on 3rd and 7th day. Additionally, MUN was estimated for 7d from 6 animals with history of repeat breeding in each system. The system wise nutrient profile of feedstuffs, animal performance data along with environmental profile were fed into CNCPS version 5.0 to evaluate the diets and to formulate optimized diets for repeat breeding animals. Subsequently, the effect of feeding such diets on MUN levels and post AI conception was studied. The baseline MUN levels were influenced by production, nutritional and managemental variables. The average baseline MUN (mg/dl) vs. the MUN in repeat breeding buffaloes (P<0.01) was 12.89±0.14 vs. 19.39±0.42 (farm buffaloes) and 11.89±0.22 vs. 10.43±0.69 (field buffaloes, p> 0.05). The feeding of optimized (using CNCPS version 5.0) rations resulted in a significant (P<0.05) decrease in the mun (mg />dl) in repeat breeding farm (10.73±0.27) and field (8.12±0.24) buffaloes and four out of six farm buffaloes and two out of six field buffaloes have conceived after feeding the test diet. It is concluded that MUN can be employed as a potential tool to evaluate protein nutrition of dairy buffaloes.
Keywords: Buffaloes, CNCPS system, Milk urea nitrogen, Optimum feeding.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
S. Vaithiyanathan*, S. Saravanakumar, P. Baswa Reddy and C. Ramakrishna
National Research Centre on Meat Boduppal, Hyderabad-500 092, India
Vaithiyanathan, S., Saravanakumar, S., Baswa Reddy, P. and Ramakrishna, C. 2015. Seasonal variation in fibre degrading enzymes activities in the rumen contents of slaughtered sheep, goat and buffalo. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 111-120.
An experiment was conducted to determine the fibre degrading enzyme activities in the rumen contents (waste) of slaughtered animals during different months. The rumen contents from the spent animals slaughtered were collected from three animals in each species (sheep, goat, and buffalo) in the second week of every month for 12 months, and analyzed for various fibre degarding enzymes such as carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), amylase and xylanase. An average of 59.44, 190.58 and 158.42 CMCase, amylase and xylanase (U/L) activities, respectively were found in sheep. While in goat they were 63.53, 215.17 and 148.00 and in buffalo they were 49.56, 129.17 and 240.83. Rumen fibre degrading enzymes viz., CMCase, amylase and xylanase were significantly (P<0.05) affected by the month of collection of rumen content. in sheep the peak values of cmcase and amylase activities were found in november while xylanase activity was found in june. in goat, the peak values of cmcase and amylase activities were found in january while xylanase activity was found in july. in buffalo, the peak values of cmcase and xylanase activities were found in december while amylase activity was found in june. the overall results appear to suggest that clarified rumen liquor could provide a material that holds promise as a good alternative source of feed enzymes.
Keywords: Buffalo, Enzymes, Fibre degrading, Goat, Rumen, Season, Sheep.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
R. Loganathan, P. Shamsudeen*, K. Mani, S.C. Edwin and K. Rajendran
Department of Poultry Science, Veterinary College and Research Institute Namakkal-637 002, India
Loganathan, R., Shamsudeen, P., Mani, K., Edwin, S.C. and Rajendran, K. 2015. Utilization of ghee residue in the diet of broiler chicken. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 121-128.
Ghee residue (GR) is a by-product of dairy-industry involving in manufacture of ghee. An experiment was conducted to assess utilization of ghee residue in broiler chicken. Ghee residue was included in broiler diet at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 per cent concentration and fed to 210 broiler chickens divided into seven dietary groups (each containing three replicates of 10 chicks) from 0 to 42 d of age. The diets for all the groups were isocaloric and isonitrogenous and contained similar levels of lysine and methionine. The moisture, CP, EE, lysine and methionine content of GR were 9.81, 25.71, 51.35, 0.98 and 0.51%, respectively, with no crude fibre. The TME value was 5839 kcal/kg. Dietary inclusion of GR at 5% significantly increased the BW gain when compared to other groups including control, while inclusion of GR at 10, 15, 20 and 25% resulted in similar BW gain as that of the control. However, dietary inclusion of GR at 30% lowered the BW gain compared to the control. Feed consumption was not affected by inclusion of GR. The FCR of the birds was not affected with dietary inclusion of GR up to 25%. However, dietary inclusion of GR at 30% induced significantly (P<0.01) lower fcr than control. there was no effect of gr inclusion on the livability or carcass quality of broiler. supplementation of gr at all the levels resulted in higher return over feed cost when compared to the control and the highest return over feed cost was recorded with 25% gr diet. it is concluded that ghee residue could be included in the diet of broiler chicken as an energy as well as protein source up to 25% level.
Keywords: Broiler, Carcass quality, Ghee residue, Performance, Utilization.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Manobhavan M., Manpal Sridhar, Sreeja Ajith, Divya Shet, D.T. Pal, N.K.S. Gowda and A.V. Elangovan*
National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bangalore-560 030, India
Manobhavan M., Sridhar, M., Ajith, S., Shet, D., Pal, D.T., Gowda, N.K.S. and Elangovan, A.V. 2015. Efficacy of fungal phytase on growth performance and bone mineralization in broiler chicken. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 129-136.
A feeding trial was conducted to assess efficacy of phytase of fungal (Aspergillus foetidis)-origin in broiler chicken fed on a maize-soybean based diet in terms of growth performance, blood minerals, bone morphometry and mineralization. Partially purified phytase of Aspergillus foetidis (MTCC 11682) was used for feeding. A feeding trial of five weeks duration was conducted involving 126 chicks, divided into three dietary treatments with six replicates having seven chicks in each following a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments consisted of one normal phosphorus (NP) group without any phytase enzyme (0.45% available P during starter and 0.40% during finisher phase), two low phosphorus groups LP500 and LP1000 (0.32% available P during starter and 0.28% during finisher phase) with supplemented laboratory phytase at 500 and 1000 FTU/kg, respectively. Growth performance of broilers was lower (P<0.01) in lp500 group of birds. growth performance and mineral retention was similar (p> 0.05) in broiler chickens fed on NP and LP1000 diets. The bone ash and mineral content of tibia was similar (P>0.05) among the groups. It may be concluded that immobilized partial purified fungal phytase at 1000FTU/kg was effective in replacing 0.12% non-phytate phosphorus in the diet for growth performance and mineral utilization in broiler chicken.
Keywords: Bone, Broiler, Growth, Mineralization, Phosphorus, Phytase.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
A.A. Khan and D. Konwar*
Division of Livestock Production and Management Faculty of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology R.S. Pura, Jammu-181102, India
Khan, A.A. and Konwar, D. 2015. Effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on physiological and blood biochemical parameters in goats during summer. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 137-143.
Twelve adult male goats (1-1½ years old, 15-20 kg BW) were randomly divided into three groups namely T0, T1 and T2 comprising 4 animals in each group. Ascorbic acid was supplemented orally after dissolving in water @ 0, 50 and 100 mg/kg BW in T0, T1 and T2 groups, respectively, to see its effect on physiological, haematological and blood biochemical parameters in adult male goats during summer. The ambient temperature, relative humidity and temperature humidity index (THI) ranged from 24.5 to 37.16°C, 47.66 to 77.83% and 72.08 to 85.59, respectively, during the study period. Average rectal temperature (RT), pulse rate (PR) and respiratory rate (RR) ranged from 39.68±0.12 to 40.46±0.13°C; 58.75±1.93 to 72.25±4.20 and 107.33±1.53 to 118.13±1.69, respectively, which were significantly (P<0.01) reduced in t1 and t2 groups than control group (t0). however, no difference was seen between t1 and t2 groups. similarly, overall mean haemoglobin (g />dL) and packed cell volume (PCV) value ranged from 8.37±0.30 to 10.23±0.55 and 24.08±1.31 to 28.25±1.04, respectively, which was higher (P<0.05) in t1 and t2 groups than control. there were no significant differences among the treatment groups for plasma glucose, potassium, alanine amino transferase (alt) and aspertate amino transferase (ast). mean plasma total protein and sodium level were significantly higher (p<0.01) in T1 and T2 groups than control group. However, mean plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level significantly reduced (P<0.01) in T1 and T2 groups than control, but values were similar in T1 and T2 groups. From the present study it is concluded that supplementation of either 50 or 100 mg/kg BW of ascorbic acid is equally effective in reducing RT, PR and RR as well as increasing haemoglobin and PCV in goats during summer.
Keywords: Ascorbic acid, Blood metabolites, Goat, Physiological parameters.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
A.M. Ganai*, T. Sharma and R.K. Dhuria
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and Animal Science Rajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bikaner-334 001, India
Ganai, A.M., Sharma, T. and Dhuria, R.K. 2015. Effect of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) supplementation on ruminal digestion of bajra (Pennisetum glaucum) straw and bajra straw-based complete feed in vitro. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 145-153.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae) supplemented to bajra straw at dose level of 0, 106, 107, 108 and 109 colony forming units (cfu) per gram dry matter on digestibility of DM, OM and NDF as well as total gas production (TGP) using goat rumen liquor. There was significant (P<0.01) improvement in nutrient digestibility of dm, om and ndf in bajra straw and tgp production showing maximum values at supplementation of yeast at the dose rate of 108 cfu />g of DM. Second in vitro trial was performed to evaluate the effects of optimum level of yeast (108 cfu/g) on rumen fermentation characteristics in complete feed containing bajra straw 60 parts and concentrate mixture 40 parts. A significant (P<0.01) improvement in digestibility of dm, om, ndf, tgp was observed on supplementation of yeast. addition of yeast did not change ph of rumen liquor, however, there was increase in total nitrogen (p<0.05) and TVFA (P<0.01) and decrease in ammonia nitrogen (P<0.05) in in vitro rumen fluid compared to control.
Keywords: Bajra straw, Complete feed, In vitro digestibility, Rumen fermentation, SaccharomycesYeast.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
S. Anandharaj, T.M. Prabhu*, M.P. Shashidhara, K. Chandrapal Singh, R.G. Glori Doss, Y.B. Rajeshwari and B.N. Suresh
Department of Animal Nutrition, Veterinary College Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University Hebbal, Bengaluru-560 024, India
Anandharaj, S., Prabhu, T.M., Shashidhara, M.P., Singh, K.C., Doss, R.G.G., Rajeshwari, Y.B. and Suresh, B.N. 2015. Effect of long term feeding of salt treated castor bean meal based concentrate mixture on the performance of lambs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 155-160.
The present study was conducted to find out the effect of long term feeding of salt treated castor (Ricinus communis) bean meal (SCBM) based concentrate mixture on the performance of stall-fed lambs. Ten male non-descript lambs (3-4 months old) were assigned equally to two dietary treatments in a completely randomized design and fed iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric concentrate mixture containing 18% groundnut cake (GNC; Control diet) and 25% SCBM replacing 100% GNC nitrogen (Test diet) along with ad libitum Rhodes (Chloris gayana) hay for 168d. The DM intake was 562 and 573 g/d for control and test groups, respectively. The digestibility of proximate principles (DM, OM, CP, EE, CF and NFE) and fiber fractions (NDF and ADF) was similar (P>0.05) between control and test diets. The nutritive value in terms of DCP was comparable between the two diets. However, the TDN value was significantly (P<0.05) lower in the test diet (54.82%) compared to control diet (62.09%). the lambs on test diet grew (61.71±4.88 g />d) at par with those on control diet (61.45±1.56 g/d). The efficiency of utilization of DM for live weight gain was also similar in both the groups. Thus, the castor bean meal, after processing with common salt, was found to be a satisfactory protein substitute to spare 100% nitrogen moiety of groundnut cake in the diet of lambs.
Keywords: Castor bean meal, Digestibility, Growth, Lambs, Salt treatment.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Mamta Sharma*, Ram Singh and A.B. Mandal
Avian Nutrition and Feed Technology Division Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India
Sharma, M. Singh, R. and Mandal, A.B. 2015. Effect of methionine supplementation in ameliorating aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 161-169.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of methionine (Met) in combating the experimental aflatoxicosis (AF) in broiler chickens. Two hundred and forty, day-old broiler chicks were divided into six treatment groups containing five replicates of 8 birds each (T1: control; T2: T1+250 ppb AFB1; T3: T1+0.05% Met; T4: T1+0.1% Met; T5: T2+0.05% Met; T6: T2+0.1% Met) and the experiment was continued for 42d. During this period (0-6 weeks), the BW gain (BWG) of broilers in control group (T1) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of aflatoxin alone fed group (t2). the bwg in t3, t4 and t6 was statistically similar to that of control, however, the bwg in t5 was significantly (p<0.05) lower than that of control (T1). Supplementation of 0.1% Met in AF contaminated diet significantly (P<0.05) improved the BWG. The overall feed intake (FI) in groups (T3, T4, T5 and T6) was statistically similar to that of control group (T1), however, the FI in group T2 was significantly (P<0.05) reduced compared to control (T1). The overall FCR in AF fed group (T2) was higher (P<0.05) than that of control. The FCR in all other treatment groups was statistically similar to that of control group (T1) barring treatment T5. Feeding of AF increased (P<0.05) the relative weights of liver and spleen while decreased in weight of bursa. These effects of AF were ameliorated by supplementation of 0.1% Met. It was concluded that 250 ppb aflatoxin in broiler diet impaired the performance in terms of BW gain, feed intake, FCr and relative organ weights. Supplementation of 0.1% methionine to the aflatoxin contaminated diet had pronounced ameliorative effect on performance of the birds.
Keywords: Aflatoxin, Methionine, Broiler.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
M. Syam Prasad and P. Vasan*
Department of Animal Nutrition, Veterinary College and Research Institute Tamilnadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Namakkal-636 002, India
Syam Prasad, M. and Vasan, P. 2015. Effect of different physical forms of feed on the performance of commercial broilers. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15: 171-178.
Day old (Cobb 400) broiler chicks (n=180) were used in the present study to determine the effect of mash, pellet and crumble form of feeds on the production performance of broilers. The birds were distributed randomly into 18 replicates of 10 chicks each with each of the three dietary treatment comprising of six replicates. First group (MG) was fed with mash feed; second group (PG) with pellet feed and the third group (CG) crumble feed. All the three forms of experimental diets (mash, pellet and crumble) were made isocaloric and isonitrogenous and fed ad libitum. During the six weeks experimentation growth performance and development of digestive and vital organs were studied. The total feed consumption per bird was significantly (P<0.05) higher in pg and cg groups when compared to mg. similarly the live bw was higher (p<0.05) in PG and CG groups as compared to MG group. The BW gain of birds receiving CG feed were markedly higher (P<0.01) than those receiving MG feed. Similarly, the BW gain of birds fed PG feed were 12.30% (P<0.01) higher than the birds fed MG feed. Overall, the feed conversion was significantly higher (P<0.05) in PG and CG groups as compared to MG group. The various carcass parameters viz., live weight, de-blooded weight, de-feathered weight and dressed weight of birds fed with either PG or CG feed were higher (P<0.01) than that of birds fed with MG feed. The production cost was markedly lower (P<0.01) in MG group when compared to PG or CG group. It is concluded that despite higher production cost, crumble/pellet feed seems to be more advantageous due to higher live BW at marketing age when compared to mash feed fed birds.
Keywords: Broiler, Crumble feed, Mash feed, Pellet feed.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
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