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2016 Issues


DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00033.0

Effects of Feeding Ficus polita Foliage-based Complete Rations with Varying Forage: concentrate Ratio on Performance and Ruminal Fermentation in Growing Goats

O.A. Olafadehan*, A.A. Njidda, S.A. Okunade , M.K. Adewumi , K.J. Awosanmi, T.O. Ijanmi and A. Raymond

Department of Animal Science, University of Abuja, Abuja 23409, Nigeria


Olafadehan, O.A., Njidda, A.A., Okunade, S.A., Adewumi, M.K., Awosanmi, K.J., Ijanmi, T.O. and Raymond, A. 2016. Effects of feeding Ficus polita foliage-based complete rations with varying forage:concentrate ratio on performance and ruminal fermentation in growing goats. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 373-382.
A study was conducted to investigate the effects of forage to concentrate ratio (F:C) on voluntary feed intake, total tract digestibility, N utilization, ruminal fermentation, microbial protein supply and growth in goats in a 91-day experiment excluding the adjustment period. Twenty-one goats, with an initial similar body weight of 12.3±0.59 kg, were randomly assigned to one of three F:C ratio diets containing 70:30, 60:40 or 50:50 in a completely randomized design. Dry matter and nutrient intakes, apparent digestibility of fibre fractions, digestible crude protein (DCP) and digestible organic matter (DOM), digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME), ruminal total N, N retention, feed conversion ratio and average daily gain were not (P>0.05) affected by the treatments. Intakes of DCP, DOM, DE and ME, organic matter digested in the rumen, microbial protein supply, total volatile fatty acids, apparent digestibility of crude protein and organic matter, and N absorbed linearly increased (P<0.05) with decreasing f:c ratio. apparent dm digestibility, digestible dm, digestible dm intake, ruminal ph and nh3 -n had a positive linear increase (p<0.01) with increasing level of concentrate. The results indicate that tannin-containing Ficus polita forage can be included in complete diet of goats up to 700 g/kg DM without compromising the performance of the animals.

Keywords: Complete diet, Microbial protein, N utilization, Tannin-containing forage.

*Corresponding author: oaolafadehan@yahoo.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00034.2

Comparative Study of Mustard, Soybean and Rice Bran Oil: Effects on Nutrient Utilization, Growth Performance and Blood Metabolites in Growing Murrah Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Heifers

V. Kale, Sachin Kumar, N. Kewalramani, Veena Mani, Nitin Tyagi and A.K. Tyagi*

Rumen Biotechnology Lab, Division of Dairy Cattle Nutrition ICAR-National dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132 001, India


Kale, V., Kumar, S., Kewalramani, N., Mani, V., Tyagi, N. and Tyagi, A.K. 2016. Comparative study of mustard, soybean and rice bran oil: Effects on nutrient utilization, growth performance and blood metabolites in growing Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) heifers. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 383-392.
To compare the effect of dietary supplementation of different vegetable oils on nutrient utilization, growth performance and blood metabolites, 15 Murrah buffalo heifers were randomly allotted into three groups (T1 , T2 and T3 ) of five in each on the basis of their average body weight and age. All the animals were given concentrate, green fodder and wheat straw in 50:40:10 ratios, respectively, as per Kearl (1982) feeding standard. In addition, mustard oil, soybean oil and rice bran oil @ 3.5% of concentrate mixture were supplemented in groups T1 , T2 and T3 respectively. Body weight in T2 and T3 was higher (P<0.05) by 4.43 and 3.66% than that of t1 . average daily gain in t2 and t3 was higher (p<0.05) by 10.39 and 9.19% than that of T1 . The digestibilities of the nutrients and blood metabolites remained uninfluenced (P>0.05) among all the groups. Thus it may be concluded that the addition of soybean and rice bran oil @ 3.5% in concentrate mixture improves growth performance of the buffalo heifers as compared to mustard oil. In addition to this, no adverse affect was reported on nutrient utilization and the blood metabolites profile among all the groups in buffalo heifers.

Keywords: Blood metabolites, Growth, Murrah buffalo heifers, Nutrient utilization, Vegetable oils.

*Corresponding author: amrishtyagi1963@yahoo.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00035.4

Effect of Plant Extract YGF251 on Growth Performance, Reproductive Performance and Insulin Like Growth Factor Secretion in Primiparous and Multiparous Sows

S.D. Upadhaya, J.W. Park and I.H. Kim*

Department of Animal Resource and Science, Dankook University Anseodong, Cheonan, Choongnam 330-714 South Korea


Upadhaya, S.D., Park, J.W. and Kim, I.H. 2016. Effect of plant extract YGF251 on growth performance, reproductive performance and insulin like growth factor secretion in primiparous and multiparous sows. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 393-402.
Two experiments were conducted simultaneously to evaluate the effects of dietary plant extract supplement (YGF251) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF- 1) secretion and reproductive performance in sows. A total of 15 primiparous sows [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc] and their litters were used in Exp. 1, and 15 third-parity sows [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc] and their litters were used in Exp. 2. Sows were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments with 5 replicates per treatment. The dietary treatments were as follows: 1) CON (basal diet), 2) PE1 (CON + plant extracts 0.5g/kg diet) and 3) PE2 (CON + plant extracts 1g/kg diet). In Exp. 1, the sows fed PE diet showed linear increase in the dry matter (P=0.03) and energy content (P=0.04) in colostrum compared with CON. Dry matter content in the milk of sows fed PE diets was also linearly increased (P=0.04) and energy content tended to increase (P=0.06) with the increase in the level of supplemented plant extract. Sows fed PE supplemented diet linearly increased IGF-1 concentration (P=0.04) with the increase in the dosage of supplemented plant extract. In Exp. 2, the body weight loss of third-parity sows was decreased linearly (P=0.04) at weaning with PE2 treatment showing lower body weight loss. Multiparous sows fed PE diet showed linear decrease (P=0.02) in back fat thickness loss. Sows fed PE diet showed linear increase in dry matter (P= 0.03) and energy content (P= 0.02) in the colostrum and there was a tendency of increase in fat (P=0.08) and energy content (P=0.06) in milk. In conclusion, plant extracts supplementation partially had positive effects in sows serum IGF-1, dry matter and energy content in colostrum in both first and third parity sows.

Keywords: Insulin like growth factor 1, Litters, Plant extract, Parity, Sows.

*Corresponding author: inhokim@dankook.ac.kr

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00036.6

Landscape and Seasonal Effects on Crude Protein, Fibre and In Vitro Fermentation Characteristics of Common Grass Species in Semi-arid Communal Grazing Lands of South Africa

A. Kwaza, S.T. Beyene*, V. Mlambo1 and K. Mopipi

Department of Livestock and Pasture Science, Faculty of Science and Agriculture University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice, 5700, South Africa


Kwaza, A., Beyene, S.T., Mlambo, V. and Mopipi, K. 2016. Landscape and seasonal effects on crude protein, fibre and in vitro fermentation characteristics of common grass species in semi-arid communal grazing lands of South Africa. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 403-416.
This study investigated the influence of season and landscape on the nutritive value of common grass species growing in two (Highland and Lowland) communal rangelands of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Grass samples were harvested from three landscape gradients (upland, sloping and bottomland) over four seasons (summer, autumn, winter and spring) for crude protein (CP) and fibre contents determination, and over two seasons (autumn and winter) for in vitro ruminal fermentation analysis. In the Highland, Cynodon dactylon had significantly the highest CP content (6.5%), while Eragrostis plana (3.9%) and Sporobolus africanus (4.0%) had the least. Grasses harvested in the winter season had the least CP, while those harvested in autumn and summer had the highest. In the Lowland, CP content in winterharvested grass ranged from 2.7% (S. africanus)- 4.8% (C. dactylon). Of the three main factors, only season had a significant effect on in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters in both study areas. Ruminal degradability was lower in winter-harvested compared to autumn-harvested grasses. It was concluded that generally seasonal variation imposed greater influence on nutritive value of grass herbage than spatial variation. Crude protein content of grass herbage in both communal grazing areas was likely to be inadequate for maintenance of ruminant animals, but the severity depends mainly on season. This urges the need for protein supplementation in order to improve animal productivity.

Keywords: Highland, Lowland, Natural pastures, Nutritive value, Partition factor, Rumen degradability

*Corresponding author: teferabeyenesolomon@yahoo.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00037.8

Effect of Dietary Incorporation of Fish Oil on Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Meat Fatty Acid Profile and Sensory Attributes of Meat in Broiler Chickens

A.K. Panda*, K. Sridhar, G. Lavanya, B. Prakash, S.V. Rama Rao and M.V.L.N. Raju

ICAR-Directorate of Poultry Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030, India


Panda, A.K., Sridhar, K., Lavanya, G., Prakash, B., Rama Rao, S.V. and Raju, M.V.L.N. 2016. Effect of dietary incorporation of fish oil on performance, carcass characteristics, meat fatty acid profile and sensory attributes of meat in broiler chickens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 417-425.
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) rich fish oil (FO) supplementation to broiler chicks during finisher (21-42 days) phase on performance, carcass characteristics, meat fatty acid profile and sensory attributes of meat in broiler chickens. A total of 240, one-day-old Krishibro broiler chicks were reared under uniform managemental conditions in battery brooder during starter (1-21 days) phase. At 21 days of age, the broiler chicks were individually weighed and distributed into 40 replicates with 6 birds per replicate. Basal finisher (3000 kcal ME/kg and 20% CP) diet (control) was prepared using sunflower oil (SFO) at 3% level. Subsequently 3 test diets were prepared to contain 2% SFO and 1% fish oil (FO), 1% SFO and 2% FO or 3% FO. Fish oil supplementation at either 2 or 3% in the diets significantly improved the body weight gain in broiler chickens. The relative carcass parameters were not affected due to dietary incorporation of FO in the diet. However, abdominal fat contents were significantly reduced by incorporating 2 or 3% FO in the diet. The saturated fatty acid content decreased and poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content increased linearly in breast and thigh meat by replacement of SFO with FO at graded levels. The dietary replacement of SFO with FO completely resulted in an increase in the accumulation of n-3 long chain PUFA particularly LNA, EPA and DHA in the muscle tissues. The highest concentration of n-3 FA and lowest concentration of n-6 FA in breast and thigh meat was observed in the diet where LO was completely replaced with FO in the diet. The ratio of n6 to n-3 FA also decreased linearly with increasing the levels of FO in the diet. The sensory attributes in the cooked meat as judged by the sensory panel were not adversely affected by dietary incorporation of fish oil (upto 3%) in the diet of broiler chickens. It is concluded that dietary incorporation of FO at 3% level during finisher phase enriched the meat with n-3 FA without affecting the sensory attributes of meat; in addition, it improved the bird’s performance.

Keywords: Broiler chickens, Carcass characteristics, Fish oil, Growth, Meat fatty acid profile.

*Corresponding author: akpanda59@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00039.1

Comparative Efficacy of Nutritional and Hormonal Interventions on the Reproductive Performance of Cows

Sujit Das*, C.R. Pradhan , S.K. Mishra , R.K. Swain , P.C. Mishra , G. Sahoo , K. Sethy and G.P. Mohanty

College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar-751 003, India


Das, S., Pradhan, C.R., Mishra, S.K., Swain, R.K., Mishra, P.C., Sahoo, G., Sethy, K. and Mohanty, G.P. 2016. Comparative study on nutritional and hormonal interventions on the reproductive performance of cows. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 427-438.
One hundred cows having reproductive disorders were randomly distributed in 5 treatment groups. The five treatment groups were: group I: control group, group II: group I+ area specific mineral mixture (ASMM) @ 50 g/day/animal, group III: group I+ by-pass fats supplementation @ 100 g/day/animal, group IV: group I + treatment with prostaglandins (PGF2α) and GnRH (Doublesync), Group V: Group I+ treatment with prostaglandins (PGF2α), GnRH and Estradiol benzoate (Estra-Doublesync). During survey, feed and fodder samples were collected for assessing nutrient composition. Also nutrient availability to the cows was assessed from the feeding practices followed by the farmers. Blood biochemical and mineral status of the animals were determined at 0 day and 60th day of experimental period. The conception rate of the animals was determined at the end of the experiment. The survey on nutrient availability revealed that 35-60% animals were getting lower TDN than requirement. In comparison to TDN, the percentages of animal observed to be deficient in DCP was lower (30-45%). The serum mineral status revealed no significant (P>0.05) difference between the treated groups at 0 day of experiment. Similarly, at 60 day of experiment, except phosphorus (P), no significant (P>0.05) difference was observed in serum mineral levels between the treated groups. The serum P level of group II was found to be significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of all other treated groups. no significant (p> 0.05) difference was observed in serum biochemical levels between the treated groups at 0 day and 60th day of experimental period. Highest pregnancy percentage of the experimental cows was recorded in group V (60%) followed by group IV (45%). The pregnancy percentages of group I, II and III were 10, 35 and 20, respectively. From this experiment, it may be concluded that nutritional supplementation (ASMM or bypass fat) improved the conception rate of crossbred cow by 20-35% over unsupplemented cows while the hormonal protocol (either double synch or estra double synch) improved the conception rate of crossbred cows by 45-60%.

Keywords: Area specific mineral mixture, Bypass fat, Crossbred cows, Hormone, Pregnancy.

*Corresponding author: sujitdas.vet@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00040.8

Effect of Foliage Supplementation to Heteropogon contortus Based Diets on Nutrients Digestibility, Gas and Metabolites Production in Sheep and Goat Inoculums

Sultan Singh*, A. Gupta and B.B. Singh

Plant Animal Relationship Division Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi-284 003, India


Singh, S., Gupta, A. and Singh, B.B. 2016. Effect of foliage supplementation to Heteropogon contortus based diets on nutrients digestibility, gas and metabolites production in sheep and goat inoculums. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 439-450.
In present study 20 diets were formulated using Heteropogon contortus (HC) grass with 5 tree leaves (Hardwickia binata-HB, Albizia lebbek-AL, Grewia optiva-GO, Anogeissus pendulla-AP and Leucaena leucocephala-LL) and 5 shrubs (Dichrostachys cineria-DC, Securengia virosa-SV, Zizyphus xylophyrusZX, Helictris isora-HI and Acacia catechu-AC) in 75:25 and 50:50 ratios, which were evaluated for their nutritional composition and in vitro nutrients digestibility, fermentation and gas production in sheep and goat rumen inoculums to select grass: tree leaves/shrubs species and their ratio for silipastoral system of small ruminants. Diets differed significantly (P<0.05) in cp, ndf, adf, cellulose and lignin contents. diets with 50:50 and 75:25 ratios of hc grass with foliage also differed significantly (p<0.05) in CP and fiber contents. Nutrients degradability differed significantly (P<0.05) amongst diets in rumen inoculums of both sheep and goats and were similar between HC-foliage diets in 50:50 and 75:25 ratios. Sheep and goats had similar nutrients degradability, while sheep and goats tended to degrade more nutrients at 75:25 than 50:50 ratios, respectively. Diets degradability values for DM, CP, NDF and ADF were 62.73, 57.90, 47.22 and 42.75 in sheep and 63.22, 62.06, 49.22 and 42.77% in goats, respectively. Diets differed significantly (P<0.05) for in vitro TVFA, total N and ammonia N concentration in rumen inoculum of sheep and goats. Total-N and ammonia-N was higher (P<0.05) from diets with 50:50 ratio of HC grassfoliage diets than 75:25 ratio. Mean TVFA, total-N and ammonia-N contents were 62.38, 40.20 and 9.31 in sheep and 63.40 meq/l, 41.72 mg/100 ml and 9.45 mg/100 ml in goat’s rumen liquor. Diets differed significantly (P<0.05) in IVDMD, gas production and partition factor in both species. Gas production tended to be more in sheep (156.73) than goats inoculums (142.76 ml/g). Results showed that HC:LL and HC:GO diets are superior in nutrients content, digestibility and metabolites production, while sheep and goat exhibited relatively higher nutrients utilization and more total volatile fatty acid production at 75:25 and 50:50 ratios of HC-tree foliage diets, respectively.

Keywords: Foliage, Gas production, Metabolites, Nutrients degradation, Sheep and goat inoculums

*Corresponding author: singh.sultan@rediffmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00042.1

Effect of Swine-based Probiotic on Growth Performance, Nutrient Utilization and Immune Status of Early-weaned Grower-Finisher Crossbred Pigs

R. Dowarah, A.K. Verma, Neeta Agrawal and Putan Singh

Centre of Advanced Faculty Training in Animal Nutrition ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India


Dowarah, R., Verma, A.K., Agrawal, N. and Singh, P. 2016. Effect of swine-based probiotic on growth performance, nutrient utilization and immune status of early-weaned grower-finisher crossbred pigs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 451-461.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Pediococcus acidilactici FT28 (isolated from the faeces of piglet in the author’s laboratory) and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC-15 (obtained from the dairy culture collection) on growth performance, nutrients utilization and immune status of early weaned grower-finisher pigs. Thirty six early weaned (28 days of age) piglets were allotted to three dietary treatments in complete randomized design. Dietary treatments included; T0 (control-basal diet), T1 (basal diet + L. acidophilus NCDC-15) and T2 (basal diet + Pediococcus acidilactici FT28). The probiotics were offered in the form of fermented feed at the rate of 200 g/pig/day. Two digestion trials were conducted each at grower (50 kg BW) and finisher (80 kg BW) phase. The net weight gain, average daily gain, DM intake and feed conversion ratio were significantly (P<0.05) higher in probiotics supplemented groups as compared to control for entire experimental period (180 days). during grower phase, the digestibility of dry matter (dm), crude protein (cp) and ether extract (ee) was higher (p<0.05), whereas, during finisher phase, digestibility of organic matter (OM) and crude fibre (CF) was also higher in pigs fed P. acidilactici FT28 as compared to control. The intake of GE (kcal/d), DE and ME was also higher (P<0.05) in P. acidilactici FT28 fed animals but digestibility of GE was not affected by any of the probiotics. The cell-mediated and humoral immune response was significantly higher (P<0.001) in probiotics fed animals, however, swine based probiotic had better (P<0.001) response as compared to dairy based probiotic. The results indicated that both the probiotics tested were effective in improving the growth performance and immunity status of piglets but, P. acidilactici FT28 was superior to L. acidophilus NCDC-15 in terms of nutrients utilization and immune status in grower-finisher pigs.

Keywords: Grower-finisher, Immunity, Performance, Swine origin probiotic.

*Corresponding author: vermaak62@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00048.2

Growth and Physiological Performance of Growing Rabbits Fed Diets with Multi Enzymes Extracts

H. Gado, A.Z.M. Salem* and T.S.T. Seleem

Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, México


Gado, H., Salem, A.Z.M. and Seleem, T.S.T. 2016. Growth and physiological performance of growing rabbits fed diets with multi enzymes extracts. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 463-474.
A total number of three hundred and twelve Hy-Plus rabbits were used to evaluate the performance as affected by different levels of enzymes extracts (EE) of ZADO® in diets. Animals were divided into four experimental groups. The first group was kept untreated and fed a commercial diet (0 kg enzymes extracts (EE0), while the 2nd; 3rd and 4th groups were fed the same diet but supplemented with 1 (EE1), 3 (EE3) and 5 (EE5) kg of enzymes extracts/ton, respectively. Increased weekly gains (P≤0.05) were observed with increasing EE in the diets. A higher (P≤0.05) body weight, daily feed intake, and daily weight gain were with all groups of EE specially that of 5 kg. The best feed conversion ratio expressed as feed intake/ weight gain were observed with EE groups. Carcass weight, dressing weight were increased (P≤0.05) with increasing level of EE addition. Higher (P≤0.05) concentrations of blood parameters with lower (P≤0.05) blood NH3 , urea N, GOT and GPT were observed with increasing levels EE in the diet. It can be concluded that supplementation of EE to rabbit diets enhanced growth performance, carcass traits and decreased mortality rate, during growing period, and enhanced immunity and liver and kidney functions.

Keywords: Blood, Enzyme, Carcass, Growth, Rabbits

*Corresponding author: asalem70@yahoo.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00043.3

Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Yucca schidigera Extract on the Performance and Litter Quality of Broilers in Winter Season

S.P. Sahoo*, D. Kaur, A.P.S. Sethi, Chandrahas, A.L. Saini and M. Chandra

Department of Livestock Production Management, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-141 004, India


Sahoo, S.P., Kaur, D., Sethi, A.P.S., Chandrahas, Saini, A.L. and Chandra, M. 2016. Effect of dietary supplementation of Yucca schidigera extract on the performance and litter quality of broilers in winter season. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 475-484.
The present experiment was designed to study the effect of dietary supplementation of Yucca schidigera extract (YSE) on growth, litter quality, the general health and hygiene in broiler rearing over a six-week period. Day-old broiler chicks (n=120) of equal sex ratio were randomly divided into two dietary groups (YSE and Control); each treatment had three replications of 20 chicks each. The rearing conditions were similar for both the groups, and were as per the standard practices in vogue. Data pertaining to growth of birds, pathogen load of litter and general health and sanitation outlook was recorded. The average BW at 6th week of the experiment was significantly (P<0.05) higher in yucca group (1995 g) than the control group (1822 g) with lesser feed intake in yucca group than control group, which ultimately proves better feed conversion rate, protein efficiency ratio, and energy efficiency ratio in broiler production. the total bacterial count was reduced significantly (p<0.05) due to supplementation of YSE. Foot pad and breast blister score was almost nil in both the group. Intensive cake formation of litter in control group was more than that of treatment group. Dietary manipulation with Yucca improved the desirable traits like weight gain and feed efficiency. Litter quality was improved due to better micro-climatic conditions. Hence, it is concluded that Yucca extract could be safely used at a level of 125 mg per kg BW without any adverse effect on growth and health of broilers.

Keywords: Broiler, Dietary supplementation, Litter quality, Yucca schidigera.

*Corresponding author: drsaradasahoo@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00045.7

Comparative Nutritional Evaluation of Raw and Detoxified Karanj (Pongamia glabra) Cake by In vitro Gas Production Technique

V.K. Paswan, Narayan Dutta*, A.K. Pattanaik and K. Sharma

Centre of Advanced Faculty Training in Animal Nutrition ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India


Paswan, V.K., Dutta, N., Pattanaik, A.K. and Sharma, K. 2016. Comparative nutritional evaluation of raw and detoxified karanj (Pongamia glabra) cake by in vitro gas production technique. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 485-494.
Karanj (Pongamia glabra) cake is an important proteinaceous feeding resource for livestock available as by-product from biodiesel industry. However, its use in livestock feeding is restricted due to the presence of toxic principles. A suitable method of detoxification of karanj cake was evolved which resulted into substantial removal of major toxins viz., karanjin, pongamol and trypsin inhibitors while preserving its nutrients. Further, both raw and detoxified karanj cake were subjected to in vitro study by incorporation at 0 (control), 12.5, 25.0, 37.5, 50.0, 62.5, 75.0, 87.5 and 100 percent levels by replacing soybean meal in the concentrate mixtures (22% CP) on protein equivalent basis. Concentrate mixtures and fine ground wheat straw (1:1 on weight basis) was used as substrate for in vitro study. The substrate degradation in terms of gas volume produced in 24 h (ml/200 mg), truly degradable organic matter in rumen (TDOMR; mg/200 mg), TDOMR%, partitioning factor, microbial biomass production (MBP; mg/200 mg) and efficiency of microbial biomass production (MBP/100 mg TDOMR) were found to be comparable (P>0.05) for both raw and detoxified karanj cake. It may be concluded that complete replacement of soybean meal with either raw or detoxified karanj cake in vitro did not exert any adverse effect on substrate degradation and efficiency of microbial biomass production.

Keywords: Detoxification, In vitro gas production, Karanj, Pongamia

*Corresponding author: dutta65@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00046.9

Effect of Supplementing Streptococcus gallolyticus Strain TDGB 406 on Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Profile of Goats Fed on Oak Leaves

Kaushalendra Kumar, L.C. Chaudhary*, N. Agarwal and D.N. Kamra

Rumen Microbiology Laboratory, Animal Nutrition Division ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India


Kumar, K., Chaudhary, L.C., Agarwal, N. and Kamra, D.N. 2016. Effect of supplementing Streptococcus gallolyticus strain TDGB 406 on rumen fermentation and microbial profile of goats fed on oak leaves. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 495-503.
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of supplementation of tannin degrading bacteria (Streptococcus gallolyticus strain TDGB 406) on rumen fermentation and microbial profile of goats fed on oak (Quercus semicarpifolia) leaves. Three adult male goats (average body weight 27.5±1.0 kg) fitted with permanent fistula were distributed into three groups (switch over design). The animals of group 1 served as control (C) while animals of group T1 and T2 were given autoclaved and live culture of isolate TDGB 406 (106 cells/ml), respectively @ 5 ml/kg live weight. The animals were fed measured quantity of dry oak leaves as the main roughage source and ad libitum maize hay along with fixed quantity of concentrate mixture. The feeding of live culture of isolate TDGB 406 as probiotic did not show any effect on the rumen fermentation pattern viz. pH, total nitrogen, TCA ppt-N, NPN, lactic acid, total volatile fatty acids production and the activities of carboxymethylcellulase, xylanase, protease and tannase. However, the production of NH3 -N was higher (P<0.05) in live culture fed animals as compared to control group. the population of rumen protozoa, total bacteria and fungi were similar in all the three groups, whereas, tannin degrading bacteria population was higher in t2 where the live culture of tdgb 406 was fed. the results of the study indicated that tdgb 406 can modify rumen microbial eco-system when used as probiotic in goats without disturbing the rumen environment.

Keywords: Goats, Microbial profile, Quercus semicarpifolia, Rumen fermentation, Tannin degrading bacteria.

*Corresponding author: lcchaudhary1@rediffmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00047.0

Methane Mitigation Potential of Tannins and their Impact on Digestibility of Nutrients In-vitro

J.S. Hundal, M. Wadhwa and M.P.S. Bakshi*

Department of Animal Nutrition, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Science University, Ludhiana- 141 004, India


Hundal, J.S., Wadhwa, M. and Bakshi, M.P.S. 2016. Methane mitigation potential of tannins and their impact on digestibility of nutrients in-vitro. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 505-513.
The study was taken up to assess the effect of the pure tannins viz. catechin hydrate, gallic acid, tannin acid and ellagic acid supplemented individually at 1 to 5% levels of the substrate DM (wheat straw) on the in vitro methane production and fiber degradation in a 4x7 factorial design. Irrespective of the type of tannin, the net gas production (NGP) in positive control and tannin supplemented groups (1-5% level) was higher (P<0.01) than normal control. the ngp and partitioning factor (pf) of positive control and tannin supplemented groups up to 4% level were similar, but depressed (p<0.01) at 5% level. The digestibility of NDF and true OM was depressed (P<0.01) at all the levels of tannin supplementation. However, ME availability was not affected by tannin supplementation. The effect of tannins, irrespective of its level revealed that the NGP was depressed (P<0.01), while digestibility of nutrients and ME availability were depressed numerically (P>0.05) in the ellagic acid supplemented group, as compared to other tannins supplemented groups. Irrespective of type of tannins, the TVFAs, acetate and A:P ratio were higher (P<0.01) in positive control than normal control. The TVFAs, acetate and propionate production in tannin supplemented groups was lowest (P<0.01) at 1% level as compared to positive control. Irrespective of the level of tannins, the TVFAs, acetate and propionate production was higher (P<0.01), while A:P ratio was lowest (P<0.01) from catechin hydrate as compared to other tannin supplemented groups. Beyond 2% there was significant depression (P<0.01) in methane production as compared to positive control. Between 3 and 4% levels, there was no difference, but again at 5% there was depression (P<0.01) in methane production. Irrespective of level of tannins, methane production was lowest (P<0.01) in the ellagic acid supplemented group, while the highest (P<0.01) was observed in catechin hydrate supplemented group. It was concluded that ellagic acid supplemented at 3% of substrate mitigated the methane production, depressed the digestibility and VFA production, but without affecting ME availability.

Keywords: In-vitro digestibility, Methane, Volatile fatty acids, Wheat straw

*Corresponding author: bakshimps@yahoo.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00041.X

Ensiling Fruit Byproducts with Inoculum of Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains

Y. Uyeno*, R. Konaka, M. Shirota and S. Kobayashi

Faculty of Agriculture, Shinshu University Minamiminowa, Nagano 399-4598, Japan


Uyeno, Y., Konaka, R., Shirota, M. and Kobayashi, S. 2016. Ensiling fruit byproducts with inoculum of lactic acid bacteria strains. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 515-519.
We conducted laboratory-scale ensiling experiments to evaluate the effects of lactic acid bacteria inoculant for making fruit byproduct silage with the aim of long-term storage stability. Four strains of lactic acid bacteria were applied as inoculants for apple pomace, grape pomace, and persimmon skin silage. After four weeks of anaerobic fermentation, Lactobacillus buchneri exhibited a prominent effect in decreasing yeast count in apple pomace silage and persimmon skin silage, whereas Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis also contributed to increased lactic acid production compared to control silage. Aerobic stability tests of silage samples, which were anaerobically ensiled for six weeks, indicated that the addition of L. buchneri or L. plantarum suppressed the temperature increase of the silage. Our results suggest that inclusion of selected lactic acid bacteria species may be a practical means of producing high quality fruit byproduct silage.

Keywords: Aerobic stability, Ensiling, Fruit byproducts, Lactic acid bacteria

*Corresponding author: ytkuyeno@shinshu-u.ac.jp

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00044.5

Evaluation of Water and Feed Intake and Growth Performance of Goat (Capra hircus) at High Altitude

Prabhat Kumar, V.K. Bharti*, S.E. Jadhav, Guru Charan, D. Gogoi and R.B. Srivastava

Division of Animal Science, Defence Institute of High Altitude Research (DIHAR), DRDO, Ministry of Defence, C/o 56 APO, Leh-194 101, India


Kumar, P., Bharti, V.K., Jadhav, S.E., Charan, G., Gogoi, D. and Srivastava, R.B. 2016. Evaluation of water and feed intake and growth performance of goat (Capra hircus) at high altitude. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 521-526.
At high altitude, due to extreme climatic conditions, high altitude (HA) stress coupled with poor nutritional status adversely affects the animal’s health and productivity. These poor health and low productivity may be due to poor feed and water intake that affect animal metabolism and thereafter their animal’s performance. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to know daily water and feed intake, and growth performance of native and exotic goat of plain areas at high altitude (Leh-Ladakh; 11500 ft above from mean sea level) under semi-intensive rearing system. For this, eight adult female of each breed viz. Sirohi, Black Bengal (exotic breed from plain areas), and Changthangi goat (native breed) were selected from newly introduced flocks of animals. All the animals were observed for weekly water and feed intake and fortnightly gain in body weight up to eight weeks period. Result indicated significantly (P<0.05) higher water and feed intake and body weight gain during the entire period of experiment in changthangi goat as compared to sirohi and black bengal goats. there was no difference in water intake per kilogram feed intake among the breeds. similarly, there were no significant change in daily and weekly water and feed intake between sirohi and black bengal goats. whereas, significantly (p<0.05) higher total weight gain was recorded in Sirohi as compared to Black Bengal goats during the entire experimental period and at fortnightly interval. Interestingly, there was no significant change in daily gain in body weight among the breeds. These findings indicate the adverse effect of high altitude stress on water and feed intake and growth performance of exotic goat breeds at high altitude. This study will help in farm management (feeding/ watering) of exotic goats reared at high altitude and ration/feed formulation for optimum productivity.

Keywords: Black Bengal, Changthangi, Feed intake, Growth, High altitude, Sirohi, Water intake.

*Corresponding author: vijaykbharti@rediffmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00038.X

Insect Meal as a Source of Protein in Animal Diet

M.F. Al-Qazzaz* and D.B. Ismail

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture University Selangor, 43400, Malaysia


Al-Qazzaz, M.F. and Ismail, D.B. 2016. Insect meal as a source of protein in animal diet. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 527-547.
The increasing, worldwide demand for fishmeal due to the development and expansion of the poultry industry raises the market price of fishmeal. Insects can be a perfect alternative as a source of protein in poultry diets due to the high percentage of protein (55-70%) they contain, along with a highquality profile of amino acids. In addition, insects greatly improve chicken meat quality and decrease the cost of production. However, the use of insects as a source of protein in animal diets is still prohibited due to different feed safety and quality laws. Insect protein is only allowed in fish or shellfish feed in Europe; however, the purified fat extracted from larvae is allowed to be used in animal diets. In conclusion, insects have proven to be a sustainable source of protein, are of an attractive quantity and quality, and have acceptable nutritive properties. The use of insects as a potential protein-rich feed ingredient in diets is practical and creates new perspectives in mono-gastric animal feeding.

Keywords: Insect meal, Nutrition, Poultry, Protein.

*Corresponding author: mohfa77@hotmail.com


DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00017.2

Impact of Feed Processing Technology on Nutritional Value of Pigs Feed: A Review

J.S. Kim, S.L. Ingale, S.K. Baidoo and B.J. Chae*

Southern Research and Outreach Center, University of Minnesota, Waseca, MN 56093, USA


Kim, J.S., Ingale, S.L., Baidoo, S.K. and Chae, B.J. 2016. Impact of feed processing technology on nutritional value of pigs feed: A review. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 181-196.
Feed industries are seeking new ways to cope with increased raw material costs, and one approach is application of feed processing technology for physical and chemical changes of the feed ingredients and to improve the nutrient quality, stability and hygiene. During last few decades, feed processing has evolved from simple “grind and mix” to more advanced thermal processes such as pelleting, expanding, and extruding which involves mechanical and thermal processing of feed ingredients. Feed processing results in physical and chemical changes of the feed ingredients such as particle size and molecular structure of feed components, which may increase or decrease the nutritional value of the feed ingredients. Thermal processing generally improves starch gelatinization and utilization, protein denaturation, fiber solubalization and improves the nutrient digestibility and performance of pigs. However, processing at high temperature and longer duration also have negative impacts such as Maillard reactions, oxidation of lipids, loss of vitamins and supplemented feed additives, which results into reduced nutritive quality of processed feeds. Therefore, feed miller should consider the interaction between processing and animal nutrition prior to creating formal recommendations for processing parameters. Present review highlights the most commonly used feed processing technology in modern feed industry and its impact on nutritional quality of swine feed.

Keywords: Feed processing, Pig feed, Profermance, Technology.

*Corresponding author: bjchae@kangwon.ac.kr

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00018.4

Effect of Varying the Crop Residue, Cultivar and Physical form on Intake and Nutrient Utilization in Deccani Sheep Fed Complete Diets

A.A. Khan, M. Sai, Butcha Rao, D. Ravi, K.V.S.V. Prasad, S. Anandan, Y. Ramana Reddy* and M. Blumme

International Livestock Research Institute, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics Patancheru-502 324, India


Khan, A.A., Sai, M., Rao, B., Ravi, D., Prasad, K.V.S.V., Anandan, S., Reddy, Y.R. and Blummel, M. 2016. Effect of varying the crop residue, cultivar and physical form on intake and nutrient utilization in Deccani sheep fed complete diets. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 197-208.
Four crop residue based complete diets (60R:40C) with Andhra hybrid and Telangana sorghum stover, paddy straw and sweet sorghum bagasse with leaf residue (SSBLR) as sole roughage were formulated and processed into either mash or block form to study the effect of crop residue, cultivar and physical form on intake, nutrient utilization and N balance in growing Deccani ram lambs through metabolism trial. Fifty six Deccani ram lambs were randomly divided into eight groups of seven each and offered either block or mash form of the four crop residue based diets for a period of 25 d. DMI (g/d, g/kg BW or g/kg W0.75) of complete diet was not influenced by the type of crop residue or cultivar. Physical form of the diet had significant influence on DMI being higher (20-29%) in lambs fed mash than block diets irrespective of crop residue and cultivar. Digestibility of DM, OM, CP and cell wall constituents (NDF and ADF) was influenced by the type of crop residue and cultivar but physical form (mash vs. block) of the diet had no significant effect on nutrient digestibility except CP. Intake of OM, DOM, CP (g/d) and ME (MJ/d) was significantly higher in sheep fed mash form of diets than block form irrespective of cultivar and crop residue in the diet. Type of crop residue has no influence on nutrient intake except DOMI but cultivar in the complete diet had influence on nutrient intake either significantly (DOM, CP; P<0.05) or non-significantly (om, me) being higher in andhra hybrid sorghum stover than telangana stover based diet. n balance was influenced by the type of crop residue, cultivar and physical form of the diet. n balance was significantly (p<0.05) higher in mash than block, Andhra hybrid than Telangana cultivar and SSBLR and sorghum stover based diets than those fed paddy straw based diets. The results of the present study revealed that type and cultivar (quality) of crop residue and physical form of the diet had influence either significantly or non-significantly on intake, nutrient utilization and N balance in growing Deccani sheep fed complete diets.

Keywords: Crop residues, Cultivar, Physical form, Nutrient utilization, Sheep

*Corresponding author: r.ramana@cgiar.org

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00019.6

Mineral Concentration and Standing Crop Yield Dynamics of Forages in Semi-arid Communal Grazing Lands of South Africa: Effect of Landscape and Season

K. Ayanda, S.T. Beyene*, V. Mlambo1 and K. Mopipi

Department of Livestock and Pasture Science, Faculty of Science and Agriculture University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice, 5700, South Africa


Ayanda, K., Beyene, S.T., Mlambo, V. and Mopipi, K. 2016. Mineral concentration and standing crop yield dynamics of forages in semi-arid communal grazing lands of South Africa: Effect of landscape and season. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 209-226.
Semi-arid African rangelands are characterized by heterogeneous topography and distribution of grazing forages. In these ecosystems, grasses are the main sources of livestock feed with few species contributing to the bulk of the nutrient intake. Forage yield and elements availability play a significant role in determining the adequacy of nutrients intake and fodder flow plan, but limited information is available on their dynamics for the semi-arid South African communal rangelands. There is also little data on factors influencing concentrations of forage minerals throughout the year. We investigated the standing crop yield (DM) and element concentrations of major forages and evaluated their spatial and temporal variations. We conducted the study in two semi-arid (Highland and Lowland) communal rangelands in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa. Herbages for major forage species were harvested from three landscape positions (upland, slopping and bottomland) over four seasons (summer, autumn, winter and spring) in 2012/2013 to determine DM, macro and micro element concentrations. Our results confirm great variations in DM and mineral contents between grass species, across landscapes and seasons. Compared to the Lowland, more elements in the Highland showed interaction effects between species, landscape or seasons. While species variations are attributed mainly to biotic and anthropogenic factors, spatial and temporal variations may be due to topographic, edaphic and/or climatic variations. Minerals most likely to be found deficient were P, Mg, Zn, Cu and K, but this depends on seasons and landscapes. Their amendments through supplementation may deserve utmost consideration.

Keywords: Forage yield, High altitude, Low altitude, Macro and microelements, Vegetation type.

*Corresponding author: teferabeyenesolomon@yahoo.com, sbeyene@ufh.ac.za

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00020.2

In vitro Evaluation of Plant Derived Dietary Fibers as Prebiotic for Indian Leopard (Panthera pardus fusca)

S.K. Pradhan, N. Dutta , S.S. Kullu, M. Saini, A.K. Pattanaik , A.K. Sharma and A. Das*

Centre for Wildlife Conservation, Management and Disease Surveillance ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India


Pradhan, S.K., Dutta, N., Kullu, S.S., Saini, M., Pattanaik, A.K., Sharma, A.K. and Das, A. 2016. In vitro evaluation of plant derived dietary fibers as prebiotic for Indian leopard (Panthera pardus fusca). Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 227-237.
An in vitro experiment was conducted to determine the prebiotics potential of plant derived fibres (Jerusalem artichoke (JA) and chicory (CH)) and animal derived substrates (ADS) (chicken cartilage (CC) and goat tendon (GT)) as compared to positive control of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). Eleven Indian leopards fed meat only diets were used as donor animals. Pooled faecal samples were diluted 1:20 (w/v), 30 ml of buffered faecal suspension and 250 mg substrate were placed into 100 ml fermentation glass syringe and incubated for 24 h. Each substrate was incubated in quadruplicate, repeated three times at weekly interval. Cumulative gas production (CGP) was measured at 0, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. The CGP, and concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactate were higher (P<0.01), with simultaneous decrease (p<0.01) in concentration of ammonia, branched chain fatty acids and pH when plant derived substrtaes (PDS) were incubated as compared to ADS. It is evident that the PDS are better fermentation substrate than ADS. Beneficial effects of using PDS as substrates included decreased pH and ammonia level, and increased concentration of butyrate and lactate. Between the PDS, JA showed the best response in terms of reduction of pH, ammonia and improvement in the concentration of butyrate and lactate. It was concluded that JA has the potential to be used as prebiotic in the diet of captive Indian leopard fed meat only diets.

Keywords: Chicory, End product profile, Fermentation substrate, Jerusalem artichoke, Obligatory carnivores.

*Corresponding author: drasitdas@rediffmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00021.4

Milk Production, Methane Emission, Metabolic Profile and Drinking Water Use Efficiency of Lactating Animals Fed Balanced Rations

P.L. Sherasia*, M.R. Garg, B.T. Phondba, S.A. Hossain and B.P. Patel

Animal Nutrition Group, National Dairy Development Board, Anand-388 001, India


Sherasia, P.L., Garg, M.R., Phondba, B.T., Hossain, S.A. and Patel, B.P. 2016. Milk production, methane emission, metabolic profile and drinking water use efficiency of lactating animals fed balanced rations. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 239-250.
A field study on early lactating crossbred cows (n=7) and buffaloes (n= 21) was conducted in Rupnagar district of Punjab state. Feeding practices revealed that dietary intake of protein, energy and calcium were higher by 36.6, 22.8 and 29.5% in cows and 20.0, 28.7 and 36.9% in buffaloes, whereas, phosphorus intake was lower by 21.6 and 36.5% in cows and buffaloes, respectively, than their requirements. Balanced feeding improved (P<0.05) fat corrected milk by 0.6 and 0.7 kg />animal/day, whereas, feeding cost reduced (P<0.05) by 14 and 18% in cows and buffaloes, respectively. enteric methane emission, in terms of g />day was reduced by 7.2 (P<0.05) and 10.3% (p<0.01), whereas, in terms of g/kg milk yield was reduced (P<0.05) by 18.8 and 13.4% in cows and buffaloes, respectively, on feeding a balanced ration. Intestinal flow of microbial nitrogen (N) was increased (P<0.05) by 7.1% and 17.3%, whereas, faecal N loss was reduced (P<0.05) by 9.0 and 18.1%; and concentration of faecal archaeol by 16 and 18% in cows and buffaloes, respectively. Parasitic load interm of eggs per gram of faeces reduced (P<0.05) from 173 to 96 and 146 to 73 in cows and buffaloes, respectively. Level of immunoglobulin IgG increased (P<0.05) from 33.1 to 38.0 and 32.4 to 36.9 mg/mL in cows and buffaloes, respectively, whereas, other blood metabolites i.e. blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and uric acid were not affected. Drinking water use efficiency before and after feeding balanced rations was 0.12 and 0.15, respectively, indicating significant improvement in efficiency of utilization of drinking water for milk production.

Keywords: Environment, Dairy animals, Methane, Productivity, Ration balancing.

*Corresponding author: pankajs@nddb.coop

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00022.6

Temporal Changes in the Hindgut Health Markers of Labrador Dogs in Response to a Canine-origin Probiotic Lactobacillus johnsonii

Sachin Kumar, A.K. Pattanaik*, Tony Jose, Shalini Sharma and S.E. Jadhav

Centre of Advanced Faculty Training in Animal Nutrition, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India


Kumar, S., Pattanaik, A.K., Jose, T., Sharma, S. and Jadhav, S.E. 2016. Temporal changes in the hindgut health markers of Labrador dogs in response to a canine-origin probiotic Lactobacillus johnsonii. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 251-269.
To study the temporal changes in the hindgut health markers in response to a canine-origin probiotic Lactobacillus johnsonii, 15 Labrador adult female dogs were distributed into three equal groups. Dogs in control group (CON) received a placebo MRS broth in the homemade basal diet as per the NRC recommendations. In other two groups, dogs received either canine-origin probiotic (Lactobacillus johnsonii isolated from dog faeces) developed at our laboratory (cPRO) or dairy-origin probiotic (Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC-15; dPRO) in the same basal diet The experimental duration of 13-weeks in which feeding of probiotics discontinue after 9-weeks, had experimental protocol involving 3-d digestion trial following 0, 30, 60, 75 and 90 d of feeding to ascertain physical, biochemical and microbial assessment of faecal markers. The digestibility of DM remained similar (P>0.05) irrespective of dietary treatments. Faecal biochemical attributes including pH, lactate and ammonia implied positive influence of probiotic supplementation and the positive influence were more evident in canine-origin probiotic supplemented group. Faecal acetate was higher (P<0.05) in dogs of cpro group as compared to con, however intermediate values were recorded in dpro group. faecal propionate remained unaffected (p> 0.05) among all the groups. There was significant (P<0.01) increase in faecal butyrate in both the probiotics fed groups as compared to con. the faecal concentrations of total vfas and scfas in fresh faeces were higher (p<0.05) in cPRO compared to other two groups. Faecal count of health-positive and healthnegative bacteria revealed that lactobacillus count exhibited higher (P<0.05) values in cPRO, intermediate in dPRO and lower value in CON, with the bifidobacteria population showing highest (P<0.05) value in the both the probiotics supplemented animals. There was a reducing effect in the health-negative clostridia and coliforms in cPRO and dPRO compared to CON. Overall, the results concluded that Probiotic supplementation was effective in improving the hind gut health, antioxidant and metabolic response in dogs. However, the present results are indicative of the superiority of canine-origin probiotic (cPRO) over the dairy-origin (dPRO) one, so far as its application for canines is concerned.

Keywords: Canine-origin probiotic, Dogs, Hindgut health markers, Lactobacillus johnsonii.

*Corresponding author: pattanaikak1@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00023.8

Faecal Matter as Inoculum for In Vitro Gas Production Technique

C.S. Pandian*, T.J. Reddy, K. Sivaiah, M. Blummel and Y.R. Reddy

Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science, Rajendra Nagar, Hyderabad-500 030, India


Pandian, C.S., Reddy, T.J., Sivaiah, K., Blümmel, M. and Reddy, Y.R. 2016. Faecal matter as inoculum for in vitro gas production technique. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 271-281.
Rumen inoculum (RI) was replaced by fresh faecal inoculum (FI) on microbial nitrogen equivalent. Microbial nitrogen in FI was estimated as total N minus N bound to neutral detergent in stover-fed bullocks and 2.8 gram of FI provided similar (6.4 mg) microbial N to that of 10 ml of RI. Extent and rate of in vitro gas production (IVGP) of 200 mg of standards of sorghum stover and hay was measured in syringes containing a total of 30 ml of medium with 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 or 4.0 g FI and compared with incubations containing 10 ml of RI in 30 ml of medium. Faecal concentration had little effect on extent of gas production but rate of gas production increased from 2.5 to 3.5 g but decreased from 3.5 to 4.0 g. However, rates of gas production in 3.5 g of FI were only about 60-65% of the rates observed with RI. Ranking between FI and RI agreed for rates but not always for extents of gas production. To conclude, similar amounts of microbial N provided by either rumen or faecal inoculum do not result in similar degradative potential in vitro. However, in the present scenario, FI can be used as an alternative inoculum to RI for IVGP technique.

Keywords: Faecal inoculum, In vitro gas production, Microbial nitrogen.

*Corresponding author: vetsenthamil@yahoo.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00024.X

Evaluation of Carvacrol in Ameliorating Aflatoxin induced Changes with Reference to Growth and Oxidative Stress in Broiler Chickens

M. Sridhar*, V. Thammaiah and R.U. Suganthi

National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bengaluru-560 030, India


Sridhar, M., Thammaiah, V. and Suganthi, R.U. 2016. Evaluation of Carvacrol in ameliorating aflatoxin induced changes with reference to growth and oxidative stress in broiler chickens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 283-296.
A study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of supplementation of carvacrol (CL), a phytochemical, in ameliorating changes in growth performance and oxidative stress induced by aflatoxin B1 in male broiler chicken fed with maize-soy based diets. The feeding trial of five week duration was conducted with 120 chicks which were divided into 5 dietary treatments with 3 replicates having 8 chicks in each following a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments consisted of: basal diet without any supplement (G1), basal diet supplemented with 1.0% CL (G2), diet contaminated with 1.0 ppm toxin (G3), diet contaminated with 1.0 ppm toxin and supplemented with 1.0% CL (G4), and diet contaminated with 1.0 ppm toxin and supplemented with 0.5% each of CL and HSCAS (G5). The growth performance and FCR of broiler chicken supplemented with CL was poor than birds fed basal diet and AFB1 contaminated feed. The weight of liver in AFB1 group of birds showed an increase while in CL supplemented groups it was comparatively low. Activity of serum enzymes ALT, AST were observed to be high and activity of the oxidative stress marker enzymes CAT, SOD and GSR low in AFB1 group birds. A reverse trend in activity of these enzymes was obtained in CL and binder supplemented groups which was not significant in case of GSR. CL supplemented group of birds recorded higher TAC, protein and glucose and lower MDA, TC and triglyceride compared to AFB1 group birds. The severity and degree of the liver lesions obtained in microscopic observation in CL supplemented birds was far less compared to livers of birds fed aflatoxin contaminated feed. It can be concluded that CL is effective in ameliorating aflatoxin induced changes with regard to oxidative stress in broiler chickens but had no positive impact on growth performance.

Keywords: Aflatoxin, Broiler, Growth, Phytochemical, Oxidative stress.

*Corresponding author: manpalsridhar@yahoo.co.uk

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00025.1

Source of Carbohydrates from Different Grains on Rumen Microbial Protein and Milk Production in Native Dairy Cows

A.P. Singh and B. Srinivas*

Dairy Production Section, National Dairy Research Institute, Bengaluru-560 030, India


Singh, A.P. and Srinivas, B. 2016. Source of carbohydrates from different grains on rumen microbial protein and milk production in native dairy cows. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 297-306.
Objective of the study was to evaluate effect of carbohydrates from maize, sorghum and oats grains on rumen microbial protein (MBP), milk yield and milk composition in dairy cows. Total soluble sugars (TSS) present in grain were 3 to 4% which were non-reducing sugars. Soya meal contained 5% TSS. Deoni breeds of zebu cows were fed ad libitum finger millet straw (Elusine coracana) as basal roughage. Sixteen cows were randomly divided in 4 × 4 Latin square design and supplemented with concentrate (CS) consisted of soya meal without any grain as control (CG) and maize (T1), sorghum (T2) or oats (T3) as grain source of energy. Although CS intake in CG, T1, T2 and T3 was 0.71, 1.17, 1.39 and 1.55 kg/d, respectively (P<0.01), no significant difference observed in total dry matter intake. among 3 grains, mbp was lesser on maize and higher on sorghum. mbp production on oats and sorghum was statistically comparable. sorghum was used more efficiently than oats grain. mbp flow to duodenum was 124 g />d in CG and only 9% lesser than T1 while, 51% and 42% lesser than T2 and T3 which was due to difference in CS intake. Efficiency of MBP, gN/MJ ME intake, was 3.34 in T2 compared to 2.53, 2.5 and 1.92, respectively in T1, T3 and CG (P<0.05). repeated measure analysis indicated no significant difference within fortnights and among groups for 4% fcm yield and milk composition. milk fat in cg was only 3.80% while it was more than 4% in tgs (p<0.05). In conclusion, addition of sorghum grain in CS had significant impact on rumen MBP and milk fat %. MBP production was more efficient on sorghum grain. Oats grain was statistically comparable to sorghum and had more impact on milk yield than milk composition. Milk yield and milk SNF constituents were affected without grain source in CS.

Keywords: Grains, Indigenous breed, Microbial protein, Milk, Starch, Sugars.

*Corresponding author: bandla_srinivas@rediffmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00026.3

Growth Performance, Nutrient Utilization and Haemato-biochemical Profile in Ven-cobb Broiler Chicken as Influenced by Dietary Supplementation of Crude Soy Lecithin

Meenu Dubey*, S.P. Tiwari, M.K. Gendley and Raina Doneria

Department of Animal Nutrition College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anjora, Durg-491 001, India


Dubey, M., Tiwari, S.P., Gendley, M.K. and Doneria, R. 2016. Growth performance, nutrient utilization and haemato-biochemical profile in Ven-cobb broiler chicken as influenced by dietary supplementation of crude soy lecithin. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 307-315
Day old Ven cobb broiler chicks (n= 288) were randomly allocated to 6 treatment groups (T1 - T6 ) with 4 replicates of 12 chicks in each. The starter (0-14 d), grower (14-28 d) and finisher (28-42 d) diets contained 23, 21.5 and 20% CP and 2900, 3025 and 3100 kcal ME/kg, respectively. Group T1 was control, T2 -T6 contained graded levels (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3% of diet, respectively) of crude soy lecithin (CSL). The average body weight at 6 week was higher in birds fed diet containing 3% CSL. Birds of all the treatment groups consumed less feed as compared to control, however, there was no significant effect on the feed conversion ratio. The Dry matter metabolizability was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the birds of group t6 as compared to t1 , t2 and t3 . the apparent metabolizable energy as percent of ge was significantly (p<0.05) higher in group T6 as compared to other treatment groups. Birds in all the groups were in positive N, Ca and P balance. Inclusion of different levels of CSL did not influence the Hb and PCV concentration and also the activity of liver enzymes viz. alkaline phosphatase and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase at 35 d amongst the birds of different groups. The serum cholesterol concentration was low in T6 as compared to control and there was increase in HDL-cholesterol concentration in the groups T4 , T5 and T6 as compared to control. The total lipid in breast and thigh muscle was not affected. The cholesterol content of thigh and breast muscles decreased significantly (P<0.05) in the groups fed CSL at 2% level or above as compared to control. It is concluded that crude soy lecithin at a level of 3% of the diet was found beneficial with higher body weight and better FCR.

Keywords: Broiler, Soy lecithin, Growth performance, Nutrient utilization

*Corresponding author: drmeenu.dubey@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00027.5

Replacement of Concentrate Mixture with Dried Azolla on Milk Yield and Quality in Barbari Does

Ravindra Kumar*, P. Tripathi, U.B. Chaudhary, R.B. Sharma and M.K. Tripathi

Division of Nutrition, Feed Resources and Product Technology, ICAR-Central Institute for Research on Goats Makhdoom, Farah, Mathura-281 122, India


Kumar, R., Tripathi, P., Chaudhary, U.B., Sharma, R.B. and Tripathi, M.K. 2016. Replacement of Concentrate Mixture with Dried Azolla on Milk Yield and Quality in Barbari Does. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 317-324.
Twelve Barbari goats in 2-3rd lactation at post weaning stage were fed with complete pellet (control and treatment) for 6 wks using CRD with six does per treatment. Control pellet was having gram straw and concentrate mixture in 60:40 while in treatment pellet a part of concentrate was replaced with sundried azolla. Digestion trial was conducted after 4 wks of experimental feeding. Blood and rumen fluid was collected at the end of experimental feeding. Daily feed intake and milk production was recorded. The digestibility of dry matter and organic matter was statistically similar in control (60.67 and 62.63) and treatment group (54.07 and 56.48) of goats. The digestibility of other nutrients was also statistically similar for both the group of goats. Ruminal pH, TVFA and various nitrogenous fractions (Ammonia-N, TotalN, TCA-ppt N and Non protein-N) were similar in control and treatment group of lactating goats. Serum protein and their fractions were within normal range in both the group of lactating goats. The feed intake was statistically similar in both the group. The average milk production (ml/day) in treatment group (490.78) was 19.87% more as compared to control group of goats (409.43) during experimental feeding. The different milk constituents like fat, SNF, protein lactose were also similar in both the group. Present study concluded that sundried azolla meal can be incorporated in the ration of lactating goat.

Keywords: Lactating goats, Nutrient digestibility, Serum metabolites

*Corresponding author: ravindra.srivastava@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00028.7

Evaluation of Acacia nilotica Seeds for Protein and Carbohydrate Fractions, Gas Production, Energy Value and Mineral Contents from Diverse Locations in India

Sultan Singh*, S.P. Ahlawat, U.Y. Anele and R.B. Kumar

Plant Animal Relationship Division, Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi-284 003, India


Singh, S., Ahlawat, S.P., Anele, U.Y. and Kumar, R.B. 2016. Evaluation of Acacia nilotica seeds for protein and carbohydrate fractions, gas production, energy value and mineral contents from diverse locations in India. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 325-335.
In many parts of India, more animals feed on shrubs and trees than on surface fodders like grasses and grass-legume pastures. The objective of the study was to evaluate the Acacia nilotica seeds collected from different locations in India for chemical composition, carbohydrate and protein fractions, energy value, mineral contents, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and gas production. Seeds were sampled from 20 locations in 2003 and from 9 locations in 2005 from different states of country. Crude protein content ranged from 114 to 218 g/kg DM. Seeds from Rewari also had the least neutral detergent fibre (NDF), hemicellulose, and lignin contents (data not shown). A. nilotica seeds harvested in Damoh had the greatest NDF, acid detergent fibre, and cellulose contents. The proportion of degradable CP fractions ranged from 0.97 to 0.99 of total CP. Wide variations were also noted in total carbohydrates and the fractions. There were differences in the cumulative gas volume of the seeds. Rate of gas production ranged from 1.19 to 2.48 ml/h. Seeds from Mandla had the highest IVDMD of 679 versus 507 g/kg DM for seeds harvested in Jhajjar. Wide variations were noted in total phenolics content, with seeds from Rewari having the least value compared with seeds from Sagar, which were more than 16-fold greater. Variation in the gross energy of A. nilotica seeds was less than 3 MJ/kg. As observed in the chemical composition of the seeds, the mineral composition of A. nilotica varied among the different locations, with Ca ranging from 2.19 to 6.30 g/kg DM in Wardha and Coimbatore, respectively. Results revealed that A. nilotica seeds have a high potential as protein and energy supplements for ruminants and that their feeding value is similar to that of the widely used soybean meal and rapeseed meal. Variations in nutritional attributes among A. nilotica seeds from the different locations could be used in tree breeding to develop nutritional superior Acacia cultivars.

Keywords: Acacia seeds, Nutrient composition, Ruminant production, Mineral contents, Supplementation.

*Corresponding author: singh.sultan@rediffmail.com, sultan.igfri@icar.org.in

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00029.9

Acidulated Sunflower Soapstock as an Energy Source in the Diet of Broiler Chickens

A.K. Panda*, K. Sridhar, B. Prakash, S.V. Rama Rao and M.V.L.N. Raju

ICAR-Directorate of Poultry Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030, India


Panda, A.K., Sridhar, K., Prakash, B., Rama Rao, S.V. and Raju, M.V.L.N. 2016. Acidulated sunflower soapstock as an energy source in the diet of broiler chickens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 337-344.
Acidulated soapstock is a by-product of the vegetable oil refining process and is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary incorporation of acidulated sunflower soapstock (ASS) in broiler chicken diet as an energy source on their performance, carcass characteristics, and quality and immune response. A corn-soybean basal starter (0-3 wk, 2900 kcal ME/ kg and 22% CP) and finisher (4-6 wk, 3000 kcal ME/kg and 20% CP) diet was prepared using sunflower oil (SFO) as an energy source (Control group). Subsequently 3 experimental diets were prepared by replacing SFO with ASS at 25, 50 and 100% level. Each diet was fed ad libitum at random to10 replicates of 5 chicks in each throughout the experimental period (0-6 wk) reared in stainless steel battery brooders under uniform management conditions. Dietary incorporation of ASS replacing SFO at either partially or completely had no adverse effect on body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass characteristics (relative weight of dressed yield, liver, giblet and abdominal fat), relative weight of immune organs (bursa and spleen) and humoral immune response (antibody titres against sheep RBC) of broiler chickens. The protein and fat contents of breast and thigh meat of broilers were also not influenced by the incorporation of ASS in the diets. The TBARS (mg malondialdehyde/g tissue) concentration in the breast meat was not affected, however, TBARS concentration was significantly (P<0.05) increased in thigh meat in the diet in which sfo was completely replaced by ass. it is concluded that acidulated sunflower soapstock can be used as an energy source in the diet of broiler chickens.

Keywords: Acidulated sunflower soapstock, Broiler chickens, Carcass characteristics, Growth performance, Immune response.

*Corresponding author: akpanda59@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00030.5

Growth Performance, Hemato-biochemical Profile and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens Fed a Diet Supplemented with a Natural Blend of Herbs

V.B. Singh, V.K. Singh*, D. Tewari, S. Gautam and D. Dwivedi

Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj-224 229, Faizabad, India


Singh, V.B., Singh, V.K., Tewari, D., Gautam, S. and Dwivedi, D. 2016. Growth performance, hematobiochemical profile and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens fed a diet supplemented with a natural blend of herbs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 345-353.
To assess the efficacy of a herbal blend on growth performance, hemato-biochemical changes and carcass characteristics of broilers, two hundred fifty Vencobb 400Y day old chicks were distributed equally into five groups of 50 chicks each, which were further divided into five replicate of ten chicks each. The chicks were placed on one of five dietary treatments i.e. basal diet without any supplement (NCON) or with antibiotic (PCON) and NARGROPHYT at 1.0% (NGP-1.0), 1.5% (NGP-1.5) and 2.0% (NGP- 2.0). The effect of these supplements on feed intake, weight gain, gain:feed ratio, hemato-biochemical profile, carcass characteristics and on economic return was assessed in a six week study. The herbal group broilers showed significantly higher weight gain and G:F ratio than NCON group broilers. The weight gain and G:F ratio were highest in NGP-2.0 group and similar to PCON group broilers. H:L ratio was lower in herbal supplemented birds than NCON and serum cholesterol level was also lower in the groups supplemented with NARGROPHYT in comparison to PCON group birds. No significant (P>0.05) effect of NARGROPHYT were observed on carcass characteristics of broilers. The net profit per bird was significantly (P<0.05) higher in ngp-2.0 group than ncon, however highest profit was found in pcon group birds. the outcome of this study indicated that 2% nargrophyt powder had no deleterious effect on bird’s health and it improves the weight gain, feed efficiency and economic return in broiler production.

Keywords: AGP, Broiler, Growth promoter, Phytogenic.

*Corresponding author: vksinghnduat@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00031.7

Evaluation of Live Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC 15 and Curd as Probiotic on Growth Performance and Nutrient Utilization in Early Weaned Crossbred (Landrace x Desi) Piglets

Kalpana Dhruw, A.K. Verma*, Neeta Agarwal, B.H.M. Patel and P. Singh

ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India


Dhruw, K., Verma, A.K., Agarwal, N., Patel, B.H.M. and Singh, P. 2016. Evaluation of live Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC 15 and curd as probiotic on growth performance and nutrient utilization in early weaned crossbred (Landrace x Desi) piglets. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 355-361.
An experiment was conducted to assess the growth performance and nutrient utilization of early weaned piglets fed on diets supplemented with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC 15 or curd. Thirty six piglets, weaned at 28 d were divided in to three groups (T1, T2 and T3) with 12 piglets in each group having 4 replicates with equal male female ratio of three animals in each replicate following completely randomized design. Piglets were fed concentrate mixture as per NRC (1998). The T1 group was fed basal diet without probiotic, T2 and T3 groups were fed basal diet supplemented with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC 15, (1.7x109 cfu/g feed) and curd (2.0x109 cfu/g feed), respectively. Supplementation of either of the probiotics, improved total feed intake (P=0.011), average dry matter intake (P=0.013) and various nutrients (DM, OM, CP, EE, CF and NFE) intake (P<0.05) as compared to control piglets. the dm and cp digestibility was significantly (p<0.05) higher in animals of T2 and T3 as compared to control. The total body weight gain and ADG was significantly higher (P<0.001) with better feed efficiency (P=0.008) in the animals of T2 and T3 groups as compared to T1 group. The data indicate that both the probiotics tested were able to ameliorate weaning stress in early weaned piglets as there was improvement in the nutrient utilization and growth performance of probiotic fed piglets. The response of the animals to L. acidophilus and curd was similar therefore curd can also be used as probiotic to make pig farming more profitable.

Keywords: Curd, Early weaned piglets, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC 15, Nutrient utilization

*Corresponding author: vermaak62@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00032.9

Methane Production Potential of Fruit and Vegetable Wastes In Vitro

J.S. Lamba, M. Wadhwa and M.P.S. Bakshi*

Department of Animal Nutrition Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Ludhiana-141 004, India


Lamba, J.S., Wadhwa, M. and Bakshi, M.P.S. 2016. Methane production potential of fruit and vegetable wastes in vitro. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 363-372.
The main aim of this study was to assess the methane production potential and nutritional worth of fruit and vegetable wastes (FVWs) as livestock feed by in-vitro/in-sacco techniques. The selected FVWs [cabbage leaves (CabLs), cauliflower leaves (CauLs), empty pea pods (PPs), sarson saag waste (SSW) and fruit juice waste without peels (FJW)] were rich in protein varying from 14.6% (SSW) to 20% (CabLs); and EE varying between 2.2% (CauLs) to 3.2% (PPs). The SSW had the highest and CauLs had the lowest amount of cell wall components. The net gas production (NGP) was the highest (P<0.01) from fjw followed by pea pods and lowest in caul. the methane production expressed either as percent in ngp, as ml />100mg DM or as ml/100mg digestible OM at t½ was the highest (P<0.01) in pea pods and lowest in cauls and cabls. the digestibility of ndf and true om in cabls was comparable with that of fjw, cauls and peapods, but significantly higher than ssw. the availability of me was highest from fjw (11.7 mj />kg DM) followed by that from PPs and lowest was observed in CauLs (7.73 MJ/ kg DM). Amongst the FVW evaluated, the total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs) and individual VFA production were observed to be significantly higher from FJW, followed by SSW and CauLs and lowest was from that of pea pods. The acetate: propionate ratio varied significantly from 3.3 (CabLs, SSW and FJW) to 4.05 (CauLs). The digestion kinetics parameters of DM, CP and NDF revealed that the degradation rate (except that of NDF), effective degradability, true digestibility, potential and apparent extent of digestion were observed to be significantly higher in FJW and SSW; and lowest values of these parameters were observed in CabLs. Reverse but significant trend was observed with respect to rumen fill values, which is inversely proportional to potential voluntary DM intake. The results conclusively revealed that amongst the tested FVWs, sarson saag waste and fruit juice waste followed by cauliflower leaves and pea pods have great potential as livestock feed and can serve as alternate feed resources for livestock and can supplement or replace the costly feedstuffs.

Keywords: In-vitro/In-sacco evaluation, Fruit and vegetable wastes, Methane production.

*Corresponding author: bakshimps@yahoo.com


DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00001.9

Nitrogen Use Efficiency for Milk Production on Feeding a Balanced Ration and Predicting Manure Nitrogen Excretion in Lactating Cows and Buffaloes under Tropical Conditions

M.R. Garg, P.L. Sherasia*, B.M. Bhanderi and H.P.S. Makkar

Animal Nutrition Group National Dairy Development Board, Anand-388 001, India


Garg, M.R., Sherasia, P.L., Bhanderi, B.M. and Makkar, H.P.S. 2016. Nitrogen use efficiency for milk production on feeding a balanced ration and predicting manure nitrogen excretion in lactating cows and buffaloes under tropical conditions. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 1-12.
A field study on 7090 lactating cows and 4534 lactating buffaloes was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding a balanced ration on milk production, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and to develop models for predicting manure nitrogen excretion (NE). Data were collected from 529 villages, under ration balancing programme being implemented in different states of India. Based on the days of lactation, animals were categorized as early (<100 d), mid (100-200 d) and late (> 200 d) stages of lactation. On feeding a balanced ration, milk yield increased (P<0.05) by 6.2, 4.5 and 5.9% in early lactating local cows, crossbred cows and buffaloes, respectively. milk yield was not affected in the mid stage of lactation, however, it improved by 3.7, 2.3 and 5.9% during the late stage of lactation in local cows, crossbred cows and buffaloes, respectively. average milk fat increased by 1.2, 0.9 and 1.8 g />kg, while cost of milk production reduced (P<0.05) by 24, 16 and 14% in local cows, crossbred cows and buffaloes, respectively. average dietary nitrogen intake (ni) reduced (p<0.05) by 14.1% on feeding a balanced ration. Percent dietary NE in manure reduced (P<0.05) from 81.6 to 78.0%, indicating improved NUE from 0.18 to 0.21 in all species. Linear regression equations were developed to predict the manure NE and revealed a strong positive correlation between dietary NI and manure NE, indicating dietary NI as the best predictor for manure NE (r2 =0.97). Available N models were also compared with our models and Weiss (2009) model fits with our models for predicting manure NE (0.21 kg/d) in lactating animals. Result demonstrates that balanced feeding improved NUE for milk production, by way of improving nutrient utilization and reducing its excretion in manure.

Keywords: Balanced feeding, Efficiency, Nitrogen excretion, Productivity, Regression equation.

*Corresponding author: pankajs@nddb.coop

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00002.0

Multi-goal Optimization Process for Formulation of Daily Dairy Cow Rations on Organic Farms: A Slovenian Case Study

J. Prisenk*, J. Turk and K. Pazek

University of Maribor, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences Pivola 10, 2311 Hoce, Slovenia


Prisenk, J., Turk, J. and Pazek, K. 2016. Multi-goal optimization process for formulation of daily dairy cow rations on organic farms: A slovenian case study. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 13-24
A model for the optimization of daily feed rations for dairy cows on organic farms was developed and tested on a real case study (organic farm) from Slovenia. The methodological approach was based on a combination of linear programming (LP) and weighted goal programming (WGP) techniques. For the formulation of balanced rations, penalty function intervals were introduced. The model took into account five different nutritional and mineral requirements and it precisely calculated the daily rations for dairy cows. This model was used to calculate winter and summer rations using two different scenarios (WGPSC1 and WGPSC2), where the net energy for lactation and the total cost of the rations each had a significantly different importance in the optimization process. The results show the WGPsc2 feed rations are more expensive (summer for 1.19 • and winter for 1.10 •) and more balanced compare to WGPsc1 and LP feed rations. WGPsc1 feed rations have the same costs and also more balanced compare to LP feed rations. The balance of the feed rations confirms the fact that deviations from the daily nutrient requirements (never exceeded more than 1%) in the WGP are much lower in comparison to the LP rations.

Keywords: Dairy cow ration, Linear programming, Organic farming, Weighted goal programming.

*Corresponding author: jernej.prisenk@um.si

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00003.2

Effect of Varying Levels of Concentrate Feeding on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits, Blood Parameters and Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Goat Kids

Tanuja Kushwaha, M.K. Tripathi*, P. Tripathi, D.K. Sharma1, U.B. Chaudhary and V. Rajkumar

Division of Nutrition Feed Resource and Product Technology Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom-281 122, India


Kushwaha, T., Tripathi, M.K., Tripathi, P., Sharma, D.K., Chaudhary, U.B. and Rajkumar, V. 2016. Effect of varying levels of concentrate feeding on growth performance, carcass traits, blood parameters and gastrointestinal nematodes in goat kids. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 25-36.
An experiment on 27 Barbari kids (67d old; 5.9±1.52 kg LW) in three equal groups assessed the influence of increasing concentrate level at 10 (10-C), 20 (20-C) g/kg LW or ad libitum (Ad-C) on performance, gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes and haemato-biochemicals for 120d with free access to water, dry and green roughage. Concentrate feeding enhanced average daily gain (P<0.001), with the similar total feed dm intake in the three groups. however, dm intake through roughage and green reduced (p<0.005) with higher concentrate feeding. Feed efficiency for gain improved by concentrate feeding and the best FCR (4.7 kg feed/kg gain) was observed in Ad-C kids. Total ME and protein intake was similar, while efficiency of ME (MJ/kg gain; P<0.001) and protein (g/kg gain; P<0.082) increased with higher concentrate feeding. Rumen fluid pH and NH3 -N were different while TVFA were similar among three groups. Faecal egg count (FEC) in different groups showed a linear trend (P=0.075) of low prevalence with increase in concentrate feeding. The mean FEC was 2.6 times higher in 10-C kids (6891 eggs/g), 1.7 times in 20-C kids (4529 eggs/g FEC) compared to Ad-C kids (2609 eggs/g). Plasma protein and albumin reduced (P<0.05), while globulins, and plasma urea did not change, whereas blood Hb levels had increased (P<0.05), while WBC reduced (P<0.05) with higher concentrate levels. Concentrate feeding improved (P<0.05) carcass traits. It was concluded that, higher concentrate feeding promoted growth and lowered GI nematodes burdens, where animals consumed 57% concentrate in total diet.

Keywords: Concentrate level, GI nematodes, Performance, Haemto-biochemicals, Kids

*Corresponding author: mktripathi@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00004.4

Immunological Responses of Laying Hens to Dietary Crude Protein and Threonine

E. Moghaddas, A.H. Mahdavi*, A.H. Samie and M. Mehri

Department of Animal Sciences, College of Agriculture Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran


Moghaddas, E., Mahdavi, A.H., Samie, A.H. and Mehri, M. 2016. Immunological responses of laying hens to dietary crude protein and threonine. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 37-49.
An experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) and threonine (Thr) on immunological responses of laying hens. The 48-wk old layers fed 9 experimental diets consisting of 3 levels of dietary CP (90, 95, and 100% of Hy-Line W-36 recommendations) and Thr (100, 110, and 120% of Hy-Line W-36 recommendations) throughout experiment. Statistical analysis showed that dietary CP did not significantly affect the pattern of serum protein, leukocyte count (LC), humoral and mucosal immunity, relative weight of pancreas, liver, and spleen. However, feeding low-CP diets reduced total protein (P=0.17), albumins (P<0.01) and beta-globulins (p<0.05) in the serum. Increasing dietary levels of Thr in low-CP diets increased the proportion of serum gamma globulins, secondary immune response against sheep red blood cell (SRBC) antigen, goblet cell number and relative weight of pancreas (P<0.05). Supplementing low-CP diet with highest level of Thr linearly increased antibody production against SRBC (P<0.05). The results indicated that although decreasing dietary CP had no adverse effects on the immune functions of laying hens, the optimal systemic and mucosal immunity might be achieved by increasing dietary Thr in low-CP diets.

Keywords: Laying hen, Crude protein, Threonine, Systemic immunity, Mucosal immunity.

*Corresponding author: mahdavi@cc.iut.ac.ir

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00005.6

Effect of Shrimp Head Silage Hydrolysate and Distiller’s Dried Corn Grain on Digestibility and Growth of Red Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)

F.J. Valdez-González#, M. García-Ulloa, A. Hernández-Llamas, G.A. Rodríguez-Montes de Oca and H. Rodríguez-González*

Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigación para el Desarrollo Integral Regional (CIIDIR) Unidad Sinaloa, Instituto Politécnico Nacional Guasave, Sinaloa, 81101, México


Valdez-González, F.J, García-Ulloa, M., Hernández-Llamas, A., Rodríguez-Montes de Oca, G.A. and Rodríguez-González, H. 2016. Effect of shrimp head silage hydrolysate and distiller’s dried corn grain on digestibility and growth of red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 51-60.
We studied the effect of shrimp head silage protein hydrolysate (SHSP) and distillers dried corn grain (DDCG) as ingredients on the digestibility of diets for Oreochromis mossambicus. Three diets containing 30% protein, 10% lipid, and 4.9 kcal/g calorific value were prepared: a reference diet and two based on the inclusion of 84.0% of the reference diet, 15% of SHSP or DDCG, and 1% of chromic acid as a marker. Six fish (45.5±2.5g) were introduced in each culture unit (60 L). There were significant differences (P<0.05) for the apparent dry matter digestibility among the diets. the shsp diet obtained the higher dry matter digestibility (86.33±0.8%). while, no differences (p<0.05) in the apparent protein digestibility were observed among the diets and ingredients. The mean final weight (58.77±3.8g) was similar for the three experimental treatments. It can be conclude concluded that the red tilapia is able to efficiently consume diets containing these animal and plant-derived ingredients.

Keywords: Digestibility, Distillers dried grain, Extrusion, Oreochromis mossambicus, Protein hydrolysate.

*Corresponding author: hrodriguezg@ipn.mx, hervey23@hotmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00006.8

Effect of Formulated Feeds with Different Nutrient Levels on Growth and Reproductive Performance of Molly, Poecilia sphenops (Valenciennes)

Abhed Pandey*, Vaneet Inder Kaur, Abhishek Srivastava, S.N. Datta and Avtar Singh

College of Fisheries, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Ludhiana-141 004, India


Pandey, A., Kaur, V.I., Srivastava, A., Datta, S.N. and Singh, A. 2016. Effect of formulated feeds with different nutrient levels on growth and reproductive performance of molly, Poecilia sphenops (Valenciennes). Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 61-69.
Molly fish (Poecilia sphenops) were reared for 100 days under four dietary treatments (D1 to D4) with varying crude protein levels. Experimental diets (D1, D2, D3 and D4) were formulated from locally available feed ingredients having crude protein percentage of 25.5, 26.35, 27.8 and 28.8, respectively. Effect of the four diets was studied in terms of growth and reproductive performance based on growth parameters, gonadal development and fry production. Fish fed diet D4 with highest protein level resulted in significantly (P<0.05) higher final weight, weight gain and specific growth rate (1.29±0.01%, 1.74±0.02%, 1.88±0.04% and 2.10±0.02% in treatment d1, d2, d3 and d4, respectively) along with significantly (p<0.05) lower FCR (2.60±0.02, 2.14±0.02, 1.98±0.03 and 1.62±0.02 in treatment D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively). The ovary weight, ovary volume, absolute fecundity and mean gonadosomatic index (154.57±9.85, 159.69±5.47, 174.38±2.42 and 212.15±9.58% in treatment D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively) of molly fed on the diet D4 were significantly (P<0.05) higher in comparison to D1, D2 and D3. The number of fry produced (49.39±0.59, 68.04±0.29, 74.90±0.87 and 108.12±1.16 in treatment D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively) and their survival (83.69±0.61, 84.85±0.63, 88.69±0.49 and 93.38±0.53 in treatment D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively) were also significantly (P<0.05) higher in fish fed D4 compared to other three diets. Hence, it can be concluded that 28.8% protein is adequate for growth and reproductive performance of molly.

Keywords: Broodstock nutrition, Fecundity, Formulated feed, Growth, Poecilia sphenops.

*Corresponding author: pandeyabhed@yahoo.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00007.X

Effect of Concentrate Feed and Crop Residue Based Complete Feed Block on Nutrient Utilization, Growth and Physiological Performance of Beetal Kids under Stall-fed Conditions

S. Saijpaul, Chandrahas* and A.L. Saini

College of Veterinary Sciences, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-141 004, India


Saijpaul, S., Chandrahas and Saini, A.L. 2016. Effect of concentrate feed and crop residue based complete feed block on nutrient utilization, growth and physiological performance of beetal kids under stall-fed conditions. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 71-81.
To study the effect of two concentrate feed (20% CP, TC (Control) vs 25% CP, THP) and a crop residue based feed block (TFB) on nutrient utilization, growth and physiological performances, 18 Beetal kids of 3.5 months were randomly divided into three groups with 6 animals in each. Kids of TC and THP were fed with green fodder ad lib and wheat straw @ 5% of fodder offered, whereas, kids of TFB were fed only crop residue based complete feed block. After 180 days, the body weight gain of TC and THP were similar but significantly (P<0.05) higher than tfb. the digestibilities of om, cp, ndf and total carbohydrates were also higher in kids of tc and thp than tfb. the dcp intake and nitrogen retention was higher in tc and thp kids. the total nitrogen outgo remained similar in all the groups. barring few exceptions, haematological and biochemical profiles among various treatment groups were almost similar and within normal range. both t3 and t4 had elevated trend in thp and tc, whereas, it declined in tfb group. it was concluded that optimum feed utilization and growth can be obtained in goat kids fed with concentrate mixture with 20% cp along with ad lib green fodder under stall-fed conditions. further, increasing the cp content in concentrate mixture has no additional advantage and crop residue based complete feed can meet only the maintenance and partial growth requirements of the animals.

Keywords: Beetal kids, Biochemistry, Feed block, Growth, Haematology, Hormone.

*Corresponding author: drchandrahas2003@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00008.1

Isolation and Characterization of Lipase Producing Bacteria for Potential Application in Piglet Feed

W. Tapingkae*, S. Pakdee and M. Yachai

Department of Animal and Aquatic Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 Thailand


Tapingkae, W., Pakdee, S. and Yachai, M. 2016. Isolation and characterization of lipase producing bacteria for potential application in piglet feed. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 83-95.
The objectives of this study were to screen the most effective lipase producing microorganism suitable for triacylglycerols containing medium chain fatty acid degradation. The isolates were characterized for their potential of lipase activity, stability in pig’s digestive tract, feed pelleting temperature, and antimicrobial activity under simulated pig gastric conditions. Microorganisms were isolated from samples of coconut milk, palm, bamboo seed, fermented soybean, and hot spring soil. The total of 235 isolates were screened on agar medium containing coconut oil. Using p-nitrophenyl laurate as substrate, MHS- 4 showed maximum lipase activity of 630 U/ml and most stable under digestive tract conditions and feed pelleting temperature (85°C). Besides lipase activity, the crude enzyme expressed amylase, cellulase, xylanase, and protease activities. The enzyme product was not toxic to rat intestine epithelial cell and mouse subcutaneous connective tissue. Isolate MHS-4 was identified as Bacillus licheniformis MHS-4 based on the 16S rRNA sequences. Moreover, coconut oil emulsion with exogenous lipase from B. licheniformis MHS-4 exhibited inhibition zone on agar plates against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella choleraesuis, and Clostridium butyricum. The combination also revealed a significant (P<0.05) depressive effect on piglet small intestinal and hindgut microbiota. the lactic acid and volatile fatty acids indicating the fermentation activity of the microbiota was lowered (p<0.05). Therefore, the results indicated that addition of coconut oil with exogenous lipase of B. licheniformis MHS-4 could be used in the diet of weaned piglets to promote the growth.

Keywords: Bacillus licheniformis, Coconut oil, Digestive tract, Lipase, Medium-chain fatty acids

*Corresponding author: wanaporn.t@cmu.ac.th

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00009.3

Performance of Goat Kids Fed Detoxified Honge (Pongamia glabra Vent) Seed Meal Based Concentrate Mixtures

Temjennungsang, Sonal Thakur, T.M. Prabhu*, B.S.V. Reddy, R.G. Gloridoss and B.N. Suresh

Department of Animal Nutrition, Veterinary College Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Sciences University Hebbal, Bengaluru-585 401, India


Temjennungsang, Thakur, S., Prabhu, T.M., Reddy, B.S.V., Gloridoss R.G. and Suresh, B.N. 2016. Performance of goat kids fed detoxified honge (Pongamia glabra Vent) seed meal based concentrate mixtures. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 97-106.
A long term study was conducted to assess the effect of solvent extracted honge seed meal (SHSM) or alkali (1% NaOH w/w) treated SHSM (AHSM) in the diet on growth performance, nutrient utilization and blood biochemical parameters of goat kids. Twenty male kids (3-4 months old) were assigned equally in completely randomized design to five isonitrogenous and isocaloric concentrate feed mixtures containing GNC as protein source (T1; Control) or SHSM (T2 and T3) or AHSM (T4 and T5) replacing 25% and 50% GNC, respectively. The respective CFMs were offered to meet 80% of their protein requirements while chaffed finger millet straw was offered ad libitum to all kids. The results revealed that daily dry matter intake (g/head) was significantly lower at 50% level of inclusion of HSM as compared to that of 25% inclusion level or control. However, daily body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were comparable among different groups. Metabolizability of various nutrients, retention of nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus balances also remained similar among different groups. There were also non-significant differences in hemoglobin, serum protein fractions viz., total proteins, albumin and globulin, serum enzymes viz., SGPT, SGOT and AP among different groups at different time intervals. Concentration of ammonia N and TCA soluble N in rumen liquor were lower (P≤0.05) in SHSM or ASHM based diet fed groups, while total N, TCA perceptible N and total volatile fatty acids concentration remained comparable among different groups. It was concluded that SHSM or ASHM can be incorporated in the concentrate feed mixture replacing conventional protein supplements to meet up to 25% of nitrogen requirement without any adverse effect on performance of goat kids.

Keywords: Goat kids, Growth, Honge seed meal, Nutrient utilization, Serum enzymes.

*Corresponding author: prabhupmann@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00010.X

Effect of Dietary Energy on Productive and Reproductive Performance of Algerian Local Rabbit Does and Their Litters

D. Saidj*, H. Ainbaziz, O. Salhi1, J.L. Hornick and N. Moula

Veterinary Sciences Institute, Saad Dahlab University, Blida, Algeria


Saidj, D., Ainbaziz, H., Salhi, O., Hornick, J.L. and Moula, N. 2016. Effect of dietary energy on productive and reproductive performance of Algerian local rabbit does and their litters. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 107-117.
Local rabbit reared in Algeria is well adapted to the climate of the country while being characterized by a variable phenotype and prolificacy. The present work was carried out to study the effects of dietary energy content on productive and reproductive performance of local does and their litters during their first two lactations. A total of 75 nulliparous rabbit does were separated in three equal groups and received isoproteinous diets (15% CP) differing in their digestible energy (DE) contents viz. 2300, 2450 and 2600 kcal DE/kg for dietary groups LE, ME and HE, respectively. Diets were supplied ad libitum between parturition and weaning which was performed at age 28 d. Dietary energy didn’t show any effects on does live weight, weight gain and milk yield, but decreased significantly (P<0.001) feed intake during all weeks post partum. total feed intake during 28 d post partum were than significantly higher (7635 g for le vs. 6860 g for me vs. 5872 g for he) (p<0.001). We observed no significant difference between diets and parities for litter size and litter weight from birth to weaning. Milk production was on average 7.37% higher at the second parity (P<0.019). Litter weight was higher the two first weeks of live at the second parity (P<0.05). Does and their litters were more responsive to diet energy at the second parity. In the limit of this experiment, dietary energy has an influence on feed intake of local does but not on female weight and litter performance during the first two cycles of reproduction.

Keywords: Energy content, Lactation, Litter, Performance, Rabbit does.

*Corresponding author: dyhiasdj1@yahoo.fr

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00011.1

Dietary Supplementation of Catechin: Effect on Performance, Faecal Quality, Mineral and Malondialdehyde Levels in Belgian Malinois Puppies

K. Kara*, A.E. Sarikaya and E. Aktug

Department of Animal Nutrition and Nutritional Diseases Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Erciyes University, 38039, Kayseri, Turkey


Kara, K., Sarikaya, A.E. and Aktug, E. 2016. Dietary supplementation of catechin: effect on performance, faecal quality, mineral and malondialdehyde levels in Belgian Malinois puppies. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 119-128.
The present study examined the effects of catechin administration on performance, faecal quality, mineral, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in 12 Belgian Malinois puppies at 6 months of age. Dietary supplementation of catechin was not observed to have a significant (P>0.05) effect on live weight, faecal pH, DM, ether extract, crude fiber, ash, and faeces score. The catechin significantly (P<0.05) decreased plasma mda concentration. serum ca, k, mg, fe, zn, cu, cr, mn, and co levels were not affected (p> 0.05) by the catechins; however serum Se levels were determined at a high level (P<0.05) compared to the control group. the levels of zn (p<0.05), Mg (P<0.01), and Cu (P<0.05) in the faeces increased significantly but there were no differences (P>0.05) in the levels of other minerals. It may be concluded that administration of catechins together the diet of Belgian Malinois puppies showed antioxidant effects without imparting any negative effects on live weight, feed intake, faecal quality, and serum trace and macro mineral levels, however elimination via faeces of Zn, Mn, and Cu increased with catechin addition.

Keywords: Antioxidant, Belgian Malinois, catechins, Faeces, Mineral

*Corresponding author: karakanber@hotmail.com, kanberkara@erciyes.edu.tr

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00012.3

Effect of Zinc Supplementation from Inorganic and Organic Sources on Blood Biochemical, Serum Enzyme, Minerals, Vitamin and Hormones in Kids

Anju Kala, R.S. Dass* and A.K. Garg

Mineral and Vitamin Nutrition Laboratory Centre of Advanced Faculty Training in Animal Nutrition ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India


Kala, A., Dass, R.S. and Garg, A.K. 2016. Effect of zinc supplementation from inorganic and organic sources on blood biochemical, serum enzyme, minerals, vitamin and hormones in kids. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 129-142.
An experiment was conducted to elucidate the effect of zinc supplementation from inorganic (zinc sulphate) and organic (zinc methionine) sources on blood biochemical, serum enzyme, minerals, vitamins and hormones in 15 kids divided randomly into three groups (n=5) based on body weights. Group I and II were supplemented with 40 ppm of zinc from zinc sulphate and zinc methionine, respectively, whereas 20 ppm zinc (zinc methionine) was given in group III for 135 days. Blood samples were collected at 0 d followed by 45 days interval for estimation of hematological, blood biochemical, and serum enzymes, minerals, vitamins and hormones. Results revealed that hematological and biochemical parameters did not differ due to supplementation of different sources of Zn except haemoglobin and glucose. Blood hemoglobin (g/dl) was higher (P<0.05) in gp ii than i and iii. serum glucose (mg/dl), was higher (P<0.01) in group i and iii than ii. activity of enzymes and minerals were similar in three groups, except zinc and enzyme sod showing higher (p<0.05) activity in Gp II than I and III. Concentration of serum hormones and vitamins were unaffected by zinc supplementation. It may be concluded that 40 ppm of organic zinc in diet of kids was better as compared to inorganic zinc as it enhanced hemoglobin, SOD activity, serum zinc concentration and decreased serum glucose. Also 20 ppm of organic zinc was as effective as 40 ppm inorganic zinc as hemoglobin, glucose, SOD activity and serum zinc concentration were similar in these groups.

Keywords: Blood biochemical, Immune response, Inorganic zinc, Kids, Organic zinc.

*Corresponding author: rsd@ivri.up.nic.in

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00013.5

Effect of Substitution of Soybean Meal by Detoxified Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) Cakes on Diet Digestibility, Kids Growth and Nutrient Efficiency

D. Kumar*, S. Parnerkar, G.R. Patel and H. Thube

Animal Nutrition Research Department Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388 110, India


Kumar, D., Parnerkar, S., Patel, G.R. and Thube, H. 2016. Effect of substitution of soybean meal by detoxified Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) cakes on diet digestibility, kids growth and nutrient efficiency. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 143-154.
In order to know the effect of feeding detoxified jatropha cake (dJC) on voluntary feed intake, digestibility, growth performance, rumen fermentation and blood parameters in growing kids (Capra hircus), eighteen Marwari male kids of 6-8 months old (BW 16.82±0.37 kg) were randomly allotted to three groups of six in each for 120 days experimental period. The group dJC-0 served as control, whereas, dJC-25 and dJC-75 group were fed detoxified jatropha cake replacing dietary soybean protein at 25 and 75% level in the concentrate and the jowar hay was fed ad libitum. The dJC is higher in protein (57.4%), fibre (9.6%), ash (3.0%), Ca (0.9) and P (1.9) compared to soybean meal. The digestibility coefficient of various nutrients did not differ among the treatment groups. All the animals were in positive N, Ca and P balance, which did not differ among treatments. Intake of dry matter was statistically similar and ranged between 3.50 and 3.77 kg/100 kg body weight. The daily water ingested by the growing kids ranged between 2.17 and 2.36 kg/kg DMI. The average daily gain was 91±3, 87±3 and 82±4g, respectively in dJC-0, dJC-25 and dJC-75 groups (P>0.05). The average increase in heart girth, height and length was statistically similar (P>0.05). The efficiency of nutrient utilization in terms of DM, protein (CP and DCP) and energy (TDN) were not influenced by inclusion of detoxified jatropha cake. The ruminal pH, concentration of TVFA and different nitrogen fractions were statistically similar. There was no significant difference in blood parameters and cell mediated immunity. It was concluded that the detoxified jatropha cake can be incorporated in concentrate mixture by replacing soybean meal protein up to 75% level without affecting digestibility, total nutrients intake, growth performance, feed conversion efficiency, rumen fermentation and health of growing kids.

Keywords: Detoxified jatropha, Digestibility, Immunity, Goat, Growth, Rumen parameters.

*Corresponding author: drdharmendravet2310@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00014.7

Synergistic Effects of Dietary Vitamin C, E and Selenomethionine on Growth Performance, Tissue Mercury Content and Oxidative Biomarkers of Juvenile Olive Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck & Schlegel) Toxified with the High Dietary Methylmercury

G. Park, M. Moniruzzaman, H. Yun, S. Lee, Y. Park and S.C. Bai*

Department of Marine Bio-Materials and Aquaculture Feeds & Foods Nutrition Research Center Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737, Republic of Korea


Park, G., Moniruzzaman, M., Yun, H., Lee, S., Park, Y. and Bai, S.C. 2016. Synergistic effects of dietary vitamin C, E and selenomethionine on growth performance, tissue mercury content and oxidative biomarkers of juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck & Schlegel) toxified with the high dietary methylmercury. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 155-164.
A 10-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the tissue level synergistic effects of dietary vitamin C, E and selenomethionine (SeMet) on dietary methylmercury (MeHg) toxicity in juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Eight semi-purified diets were formulated to contain two different vitamin C levels as L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate (400 and 800 mg AMP/kg diet), two vitamin E levels as DL-α-tocopheryl acetate (100 and 200 mg TA/kg diet) and two selenium (Se) levels as selenomethionine (2 and 4 mg SeMet/kg diet) on the constant mercury (Hg) level (20 mg MeHg/kg diet). Eight experimental diets, in a 2×2×2 factorial design (C400E100Se2 , C400E100Se4 , C400E200Se2 , C400E200Se4 , C800E100Se2 , C800E100Se4 , C800E200Se2 and C800E200Se4 ) were fed to triplicate group of fishes averaging 3.12±0.04g (mean±SD) in the semi-recirculation system. After 10 weeks of feeding trial, weight gain (WG) of fish fed diets containing C400E200Se4 , C800E100Se2 and C800E200Se2 were significantly higher than those of fish fed diets containing C400E100Se2 and C400E100Se4 (P<0.05). feed efficiency (fe), specific growth rate (sgr), protein efficiency ratio (per) showed a similar trend as wg. the most significant depleting trend of mercury accumulation was found in kidney tissue. tissue oxidative biomarkers like superoxide dismutase (sod) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (tbars) in liver and kidney tissues improved up to higher levels of vitamin c, e and se. therefore, these findings indicated that the best combinations of dietary antioxidant levels could be c400e200se4 or c800e200se2 diet based on wg by analysis of variance (anova) test in terms of reducing tissue mehg content in juvenile olive flounder.

Keywords: Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenomethionine, Methylmercury, Olive flounder.

*Corresponding author: scbai@pknu.ac.kr

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00015.9

Effect of Replacing Maize with Bakery Waste on the Performance of Growing Crossbred Pigs

Keshab Barman*, M.K. Tamuli, D.K. Sarma, S. Banik, Mohan N.H., R. Thomas, Gokuldas P.P., S.R. Pegu and P. Kaushik

ICAR-National Research Centre on Pig, Rani, Guwahati-781 131, India


Barman, K., Tamuli, M.K., Sarma, D.K., Banik, S., Mohan N.H., Thomas, R., Gokuldas, P.P., Pegu, S.R. and Kaushik, P. 2016. Effect of replacing maize with bakery waste on the performance of growing crossbred pigs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 165-169.
Eighteen crossbred (HS x Ghungroo) grower pigs (about 2 months age, weighing from 5.95±0.33 to 6.03±0.53 kg) were divided into three groups of six each in a randomized block design. The pigs were fed on three different experimental diets by replacing maize with bakery waste at 0, 25 and 50% in T1, T2 and T3 groups, respectively. The pigs were fed on the experimental grower rations twice daily. The average dry matter intake (g/d) was ranged from 635.0 in T1 to 690.5 in T3 , respectively and same was increased (P<0.01) with increase level of bakery waste in the diets. the digestibility of dm, om and nfe were similar (p> 0.05) across the treatments, while digestibility of CP and EE were higher with both the bakery waste containing diets T2 and T3 when compared to T1 . The digestibility of crude fiber decreased significantly (P<0.05) with incorporation of bakery waste in the diet. the average dm intake was 635.0±3.08, 661.6±4.07 and 690.5±3.07 g/d, respectively in T1, T2 and T3 groups which was improved (P<0.01) significantly with increasing level of bakery waste in the diets. the adg was 227.6±15.5, 230.6±5.33 and 218.4±11.69 g/d, respectively in T1, T2 and T3 groups showing similar values among the groups. Similarly, FCR was also found similar across all the treatments. The cost of production per kg LW (Rs.) ranged from 46.97±2.92 in T3 to 53.22±3.11 in T1 group which was similar across all the treatments. It was reduced (P>0.05) by Rs. 3.71 and Rs.6.25 in T2 and T3 groups, respectively in comparison to T1 group. It is concluded that maize can be replaced up to 50% with bakery waste for formulation of economic ration without affecting the growth, FCR and feed cost per kg gain in crossbred pigs.

Keywords: Bakery waste, Economy, FCR, Growth, Maize, Nutrient utilization, Replacement.

*Corresponding author: barman74@rediffmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2016.00016.0

Fermentation Pattern in Murrah Buffalo Bulls Fed Crop Residue Based Complete Rations vis-a-vis Conventional Feeding System

R.K. Konka*, D. Srinivas Kumar, J.V. Ramana, A. Ravi and E. Raghava Rao

Department of Animal Nutrition, NTR College of Veterinary Science Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Gannavaram-521 102, India


Konka R.K., Srinivas Kumar, D., Ramana, J.V., Ravi, A. and Raghava Rao, E. 2016. Fermentation pattern in murrah buffalo bulls fed crop residue based complete rations vis-a-vis conventional feeding system. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 16: 171-179.
The experiment compared the effect of feeding complete rations with conventional feeding system on rumen fermentation pattern of Murrah buffalo bulls. Four adult rumen fistulated buffalo bulls (5 y; 331±9.36 kg BW) were divided into four groups in a 4 x 4 Latin square switch over design and offered three isonitrogenous complete rations comprising of locally available crop residues viz. maize stover (T1 ), red gram straw (T2 ) and black gram straw (T3 ), and concentrate mixture in 60:40 ratio, respectively, and a conventional ration (C) for a period of 28 days. The rumen- N fractions (NH3 -N, TCA-insoluble nitrogen, Residual nitrogen), TVFA and pH were higher (P<0.01) in the srl of animals fed rations t1 to t3 when compared to those animals fed c. the total n, food and protozoal n was similar among the treatment groups. it is therefore, concluded that feeding of complete rations comprising of locally available crop residues as roughage source provided conducive rumen environment for better nitrogen utilization and higher tvfa production than conventional ration.

Keywords: Crop residues, Complete rations, Conventional feeding, Rumen fermentation.

*Corresponding author: dr_rajakishore@yahoo.co.in


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