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2017 Issues


DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00037.3

Influence of Diet Physical Form and Fines Proportions in Pellet Diet on Feed Quality, Performance and Microbial Population in Digestive Organs of Broiler Chickens

Y.H. Shim1, J.S. Kim, A. Hosseindoust, Y.H. Choi, M.J. Kim, S.M. Oh, H.B. Ham, A. Kumar, S.J. Ohh and B.J. Chae*

College of Animal Life Sciences Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, 24341, Republic of Korea


Shim,Y.H., Kim, J.S., Hosseindoust, A., Choi, Y.H., Kim, M.J., Oh, S.M., Ham, H.B., Kumar, A., Ohh, S.J. and Chae, B.J. 2017. Influence of diet physical form and fines proportions in pellet diet on feed quality, performance and microbial population in digestive organs of broiler chickens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 389-398.
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of physical forms and fine proportions in pelleted diets (simple pellet and expanded pellet) on the performance of broilers. In Exp. 1, 360 one day old male chicks were used to evaluate the effects of different physical forms on performance and microbial population in the digestive organs. Body weight (BW) gain of broiler chickens fed pelleted diets was improved. Pellet physical quality analysis showed a lower pellet hardness and pellet durability index for simple pellet compared with expanded pellet (P<0.05). Moreover, the fines rate in expanded pellet was lower than simple pellet. Regardless of pelleting method, broilers fed pelleted diets exerted lower relative weight of gizzard, higher pH in gizzard and lower pH in jejunum, ileum and cecum than those of broilers fed mash. Broilers fed simple pellet diet had higher jejunal weight than the expanded pellet diet. Pellet fed broilers had lower numbers of coliforms in cecum than mash fed broilers. In Exp. 2, 480 one day old male Ross 308 chicks were used to evaluate the effect of fine proportion in pellet diet on performance and microbial population in different digestive organs. The BW gain of broilers decreased linearly as the fine proportion increased. Feed conversion ratio was tended to be linearly higher (P=0.057) with decreasing proportion of fines. Collectively, our data indicate that high quality pellet has the potential to improve growth performance, but no difference between simple pellet and expanded pellet diet. Furthermore, increasing the rate of fines linearly decrease the growth performance of broilers.

Keywords: Broiler chicken, Expansion, Feed processing, Pellet quality, Simple pellet.

*Corresponding author: bjchae@kangwon.ac.kr

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00038.5

In vitro Evaluation of Calcium Nitrate and a Blend of Plants Containing Secondary Metabolites for their Impact on Methanogenesis and Feed Fermentation

V.P. Gupta, D.N. Kamra*, Neeta Agarwal and L.C. Chaudhary

ICAR National Professorial Chair, Animal Nutrition Division ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India


Gupta,V.P., Kamra, D.N., Agarwal, N. and Chaudhary, L.C. 2017. In vitro evaluation of calcium nitrate and a blend of plants containing secondary metabolites for their impact on methanogenesis and feed fermentation. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 399-408.
Two blends of plant parts containing plant secondary metabolites; BPa - blend of fruit pulp ofTerminalia chebula (harad), fruit pulp of Terminalia bellerica (bahera), seed cake of Madhuca longifolia (mahua), seed cake of Azadirachta indica (neem) mixed in equal proportion and BPb – a blend of fruit of Phyllanthus emblica (amla ), seed of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel ) and seed of Trachyspermum ammi (ajwain) mixed in equal proportions were tested at 0, 10 and 20% of the substrate along with 0, 5 and 10% of calcium nitrate (CN) for their effects on in vitro methane production and feed fermentation. Inclusion of BPa (20%) + CN (10%) and BPb (20%) + CN (10%) did not affect gas production and feed digestibility but there was a significant (P<0.05) reduction (65 and 83.4 per cent) in methane production. Total volatile fatty acids were not affected by any of the treatments, whereas, acetate was increased and propionate and butyrate were significantly reduced resulting in increased acetate to propionate ratio by increasing the level of nitrate. Ammonia production was significantly increased by inclusion of CN irrespective of BPa doses but not affected when CN was used along with PBb. The results indicated that inclusion of CN was detrimental but when combined with either BPa or BPb, the values for in vitro feed digestibility were at par with control. However, BPb seems to be better than BPa, as inclusion BPb with CN maintained feed digestibility better than BPa and BPb also maintained ammonia nitrogen levels unchanged. The mixture of CN and BPb can be used as a feed additive for inhibition of methanogenesis in buffaloes without affecting feed fermentation.

Keywords: Buffalo rumen liquor, In vitro true digestibility, Methane, Nitrate, Plant secondary metabolites.

*Corresponding author: dnkamra@rediffmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00039.7

Effect of Various Carbohydrate Additives on Silage Quality of Bio-Digester Slurry-Irrigated Pennisetum purpureum

M.W. Lubisi*, J.J. Baloyi, J. Mzezewa, and S. Katsande

Department of Animal Science, University of Venda Thohoyandou, 0950, South Africa


Lubisi, M.W., Baloyi, J.J., Mzezewa, J. and Katsande, S. 2017. Effect of various carbohydrate additives on silage quality of bio-digester slurry-irrigated Pennisetum purpureum. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 409-422.
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of carbohydrate additives on the silage quality of Napier (Pennisetum purpureum) fodder harvested from fields irrigated with and without cattle bio-digester slurry (BDS). The already established Napier fodder was harvested manually at about 15 cm above the ground and the height of the grass ranged between 1.2 to 1.5 meters tall. Three carbohydrate additives namely, molasses, brown sugar, maize meal were added during the silage making at 10% level along with a control, and each treatment was replicated four times. Approximately 600 g of the chopped grass materials were mixed thoroughly with the additives and ensiled in bottle jars and stored for six weeks at room temperature. The physical properties of the ensiled Napier fodder did not differ significantly (P>0.05) among the treatments. There were no significant differences observed for NH3 and NSC of the silages (both BDS and no BDS) after ensiling the Napier grass for 42 days. The DM, CP, NDF, ADF and ash contents did not differ. All silages were slightly moist with maize additive (without BDS) scoring the highest. The colour of silage is of good quality, since the pH of these silages show that there was adequate fermentation except that of the control which was with a pH of 6.2. All the silages had low pH values (3.5-4.5) except for the control which had a pH of 6.2, reflecting lower quality silage. The minerals concentrations of the silages were not significantly different except for Mn which was significantly (P<0.05) higher in maize treated silage compared with the rest of the silages. It is concluded that application of carbohydrate additives during ensiling of Napier fodder has positive results. However BDS Napier grass did not differ with no BDS on the quality of the silage in all the additives. The additives (molasses, sugar and maize) were added at 10% of the total weight of the chopped material and showed a positive effect in the fermentation quality of silage.

Keywords: Additives, Bio-digester slurry, Napier, Silage.

*Corresponding author: hucfgyg@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00040.3

Relative Feed Value and Digestibility of Caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. Caramba) for Ruminants

A.E. Goktepe1 and Z. Selcuk*

Department of Animal Nutrition and Nutritional Diseases Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit Campus 55139, Atakum, Samsun, Turkey


Goktepe, A.E. and Selcuk, Z. 2017. Relative feed value and digestibility of caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. Caramba) for ruminants. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 423-431.
The aim of present study was to determine relative feed value and estimate the in vitro digestibility of caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. Caramba), a variety of Italian ryegrass, for ruminants. Caramba was harvested at the five times when the plant height was about 42 cm for each harvesting. The fresh and dry herbage yields of caramba obtained from the first, second, third and fourth harvests were similar and higher (P<0.001) than those of the fifth harvest. The highest and lowest CP yields were obtained from the first and fifth harvests at 39.43±1.96 and 10.18±0.39 kg/da, respectively. While CP and ME contents of caramba decreased (P<0.001) depending on increasing in harvest number, crude fiber, ADF, NDF and ADL values increased (P<0.001). The relative feed value (P<0.001) along with the in vitro true dry matter digestibility and in vitro true NDF digestibility were decreased (P<0.001) with increasing in harvest number. The highest values (P<0.001) of in vitro true DM digestibility and in vitro true NDF digestibility for caramba obtained from the first harvest were 87.02±0.43 and 44.18±0.50%, respectively. In vitro true DM digestibility and in vitro true NDF digestibility values of caramba for the mean of five harvests were 80.45±1.09 and 41.55±0.37%, respectively. As a result, considering all of the investigated parameters in the present study, it may be deduced that harvesting of caramba was possible up to five times in a year. Although, the chemical composition, relative feed value and in vitro true digestibility of caramba obtained from the first fourth harvests were higher than those of the fifth harvest, it could be said that caramba obtained from each of the five harvests possess the potential as a roughage for ruminant depending on the specific situation.

Keywords: Caramba, Digestibility, In vitro, Nutrients, Relative feed value.

*Corresponding author: zselcuk@omu.edu.tr

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00041.5

Effect of Allium hookeri on Fat Accumulation and Serum Biochemical Changes in Rats Fed High Fat Diet

N.Y. Lee, R.M. Lee1 and C.H. Lee*

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea


Lee, N.Y., Lee, R.M. and Lee, C.H. 2017. Effect of Allium hookeri on fat accumulation and serum biochemical changes in rats fed high fat diet. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 433-443.
In this study, we determined the relationship between Allium hookeri (Ah) supplementation as dietary source and high-fat diet-induced weight gain and obesity. In order to do that, randomly divided twenty 7-week old Slc:SD strain male rats were fed control diet (CON), or a high-fat diet (HFD), each without or with 1% of Ah (HA and HFA). Rats were sacrificed after 8 weeks of study and body and organ weight as well as blood were collected at the time of sacrifice. The effects of Ah on weight gain of rats, organ, and adipose tissue weight were measured. Furthermore, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and amino acid in serum were measured, as well. The mRNA expression levels were determined to detect lipid metabolism-related parameters. As a result, total saturated fatty acid was reduced in serum of HFD rats fed supplementation with 1% of Ah (P<0.01). The Ah supplementation increased contents of monounsaturated fatty acid (P<0.001), polyunsaturated fatty acid (P<0.05), and total w3 (P<0.05) in the serum. Relative mRNA expression levels of CYP7A, BSEP, FXR, PXR, and SCD1 were significantly increased by Ah supplementation. Adipogenic and detoxificationrelated genes were upregrulated in the livers of the HFA compared to those in the HFD. Our results suggest that the beneficial effects of dietary Ah on HFD are mediated via activation of certain genes related to detoxification and increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids in the liver and serum of rats.

Keywords: Allium hookeri, Fatty acid metabolism, High-fat diet, Obesity, Supplementation.

*Corresponding author: leech@konkuk.ac.kr

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00042.7

Effects of the Inclusion of Yeast Culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in the Diet of Holstein Cows on Milk Yield and Composition in Early Lactation

M.M. El-Adawy, M.H. Yacout, H.E.M. Kamel, A.Z.M. Salem1*, A.A. El-Magdoub, M. Mellado2, L.M. Camacho3 and H.N. Alsersy

Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt


El-Adawy, M.M., Yacout, M.H., Kamel, H.E.M., Salem, A.Z., El-Magdoub, A.A., Mellado, M., Camacho, L.M. and Alsersy, H.N. 2017. Effects of the inclusion of yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in the diet of Holstein cows on milk yield and composition in early lactation. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 445-455.
The effect of including a yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae; 1010 cfu/g; YC) in diets for lactating Holstein cows was evaluated. One hundred thirty-eight cows in early lactation were randomly assigned into two groups of 69 cows each, according to their days in milk and parityand were fed a basal diet without (CTRL diet) or with the addition of 15 g YC/cow/d (yeast diet) for 7 weeks. The basal diet contained 17.7% CP and 31.8% NDF on DM basis. The inclusion of YC increased (P=0.04) feed intake compared to the CTRL diet. The YC did not affect (P>0.05) serum total protein, albumin and globulin concentration, as well as albumin/globulin ratio, and urea-N. The YC increased serum glucose concentration (P=0.002) and decreased serum cholesterol (P=0.001) levels compared to CTRL group. Addition of YC did not affect (P>0.05) actual and energy corrected milk yields and daily milk total solids, solids-notfat, protein, and milk energy content and output; however, YC increased milk fat (P=0.04) and lactose (P=0.028) daily yields. Increased milk fat concentration (P=0.027) and lactose (P=0.004) were observed in cows fed the yeast diet. It was concluded that YC at 15 g/cow/d during the first 7 weeks of lactation increased feed intake, and milk fat concentration and lactose without affecting daily milk yield and milk efficiency.

Keywords: Globulin, Feed utilization, Milk yield, Yeast.

*Corresponding author: asalem70@yahoo.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00043.9

Evaluation of Chemical Composition of Cluster Bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.) Meal as an Alternative to Soybean Meal

W. Biel and A. Jaroszewska1*

Department of Pig Breeding, Animal Nutrition and Food West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Szczecin-71460, Poland


Biel, W. and Jaroszewska, A. 2017. Evaluation of chemical composition of cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.) meal as an alternative to soybean meal. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 457-467.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional value of cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba; guar) meal with particular emphasis on the fiber fractions, macro- and micro-elements, and anti-nutrients, as an alternative source of animal feed compared to the popular genetically modified soybean meal. The research material consisted of three types of guar meal (GM) namely, raw guar meal (GMR), roasted guar meal (GMT) and extracted guar meal (GME) purchased in India and soybean meal (SBM) produced from genetically modified soya beans. The samples were analyzed for the levels of fiber fractions, minerals and anti-nutrients. The extracted guar meal (GME) proved to be the richest source of Ca, Ptotal, Pavailable, Na, Mn, Cr, Mn, Mo and Ni. In addition, it contained the lowest amount of NO3 (196.4 mg/kg DM) and anti-nutrients, compared to the other two guar meals and the soybean meal. The results of the study indicate that guar meal (especially GME) can be an attractive source of nutrients for animals, as an alternative or complement to the popular food industry by-products used in animal feeding.

Keywords: Anti-nutrients, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L., Dietary fibre, Minerals, Soybean.

*Corresponding author: anna.jaroszewska@zut.edu.pl

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00045.2

Potential of Tartaric Acid in Combination with Infrared–Microwave Heating as a Method for Aflatoxin Reduction in Maize

C.A. Alcántar-Barrios1 and A. Méndez-Albores*

National Autonomous University of Mexico–Superior Studies Faculty at Cuautitlan (UNAM–FESC), Multidisciplinary Research Unit L14 (Food, Mycotoxins and Mycotoxicosis), CP 54714, Cuautitlan Izcalli, Mexico


Alcántar-Barrios, C.A. and Méndez-Albores, A. 2017. Potential of tartaric acid in combination with infrared–microwave heating as a method for aflatoxin reduction in maize. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 469-478.
To evaluate the effect of acidification in combination with a non-ionizing radiation treatment on the stability of B-aflatoxins (AFB1 and AFB2), samples of maize flour (particle size of <420 μm) contaminated with B-aflatoxins (140 ng/g) were chemically treated with tartaric acid at three different levels, and subsequently, thermally-treated in an infrared-microwave coupled system. The flour moisture content (MC) was adjusted at 35 and 40% by means of aqueous tartaric acid at 0, 2 and 4% (w/w). The effects of the two variables (MC and organic acid addition) were analyzed as a completely randomized factorial 2×3 design. The combination of non-ionizing radiation with MC and tartaric acid, significantly affected (P<0.01) the extent of aflatoxins reduction in the processed maize. The recovered aflatoxins decreased with an increase in MC and tartaric acid content (P<0.01). The maximum percentage of aflatoxins degraded in the physicochemically treated milled maize ranged from 43 to 87%. Even when using a short time during the thermal treatment (3 min), acceptable pH and MC in the processed flours were obtained. According to these results, physicochemical inactivation appears to be a promising method for aflatoxin degradation in maize.

Keywords: Aflatoxins, Aspergillus flavus, Infrared–microwave coupled system, Maize, Tartaric acid.

*Corresponding author: albores@unam.mx

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00044.0

Performance of Lactating Buffaloes Fed Palm Press Fibre Based Rations

P.K. Repalle*, E. Raghava Rao1 and D.V.G. Krishna Mohan

Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030, India


Repalle, R.K., Raghava Rao, E. and Krishna Mohan, D.V.G. 2017. Performance of lactating buffaloes fed palm press fibre based rations. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 479-486.
Sixteen lactating buffaloes, divided randomly into four equal groups, were fed rations based on untreated paddy straw (R1), untreated palm press fibre (PPF; R2), urea-treated PPF along with concentrate mixture (R3) and urea-treated PPF with green fodder and concentrate mixture (R4) to study their nutrient utilization and production performance. The digestibility coefficients of CP, cellulose and hemicelluloses were significantly (P<0.01) higher by 6.44, 7.18 and 0.97; 13.01, 12.89 and 0.59, 10.68, 16.16 and 8.70 and 17.51, 16.16 and 8.71 percentage units, respectively, in buffaloes fed R3 and R4 as compared to R1 and R2. There was no significant difference in nutrient digestibility between R3 and R4. The DCP and TDN values of R3 and R4 were significantly (P<0.01) higher than paddy straw and untreated PPF (R1 and R2) based rations. Milk yield of lactating buffaloes did not differ significantly among the four groups. The fat and total solids contents were significantly (P<0.05) higher in milk of buffaloes fed with R3 and R4 as compared to R1 and R2. However, there were no significant differences in fat and total solids of milk produced by buffaloes fed on urea treated PPF containing rations (R3 vs R4). It is concluded that urea-treated PPF can replace paddy straw completely without affecting productivity of lactating buffaloes. The cost of feed/kg milk production was lower in rations containing urea-treated PPF than untreated PPF indicating that urea treatment reduces the investment incurred in concentrate mixture.

Keywords: Buffaloes, Milk yield, Nutrient digestibility, Palm press fibre.

*Corresponding author: repalleprasannakumar@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00046.4

Effect of Dietary Herbal Oligosaccharides on Growth Performance and Nutrient Utilization of Crossbred Pigs

L. Borah*, R. Bhuyan, D.N Sarmah, B.N. Saikia and D. Kalita

Department of Animal Nutrition College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University Guwahati-781 022, India


Borah, L., Bhuyan, R., Sarmah, D.N., Saikia, B.N. and Kalita, D. 2017. Effect of dietary herbal oligosaccharides on growth performance and nutrient utilization of crossbred pigs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 487-492.
An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of dietary herbal oligosaccharides on the growth performance of crossbred pigs. Twenty-four crossbred (Hampshire × Assam local) piglets (12±0.81 kg; ~2 M) were randomly divided into four dietary groups, and fed a basal diet alone (control, CON) or diet supplemented with ammercial herbal oligosaccharide (Indian Herbs Research and Supply Co. Ltd) at 0.1 (T1), 0.2 (T2) and 0.3 (T3) percent in the feed. During the feeding trial of 182 days, total BW gain, average daily gain and feed conversion efficiency were significantly (P<0.01) increased in T1 and T2 groups as compared to the CON group. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) among the treatment groups with respect of feed intake. The digestibility of DM, OM, CP, CF, EE and NFE was significantly (P<0.01) increased in T1 and T2 groups than the CON group. This was accompanied by higher (P<0.01) retention of nitrogen and phosphorus in the T1 and T2 groups. The retention of calcium remained similar (P>0.05) among the three groups. The study revealed that the supplementation of te heral oligosaccharide product at 0.2% level in the piglets is beneficial in terms of growth performance and nutrient utilization.

Keywords: Crossbred pigs, Growth performance, Nutrient utilization, Oligosaccharides.

*Corresponding author: jyotivet97@yahoo.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00047.6

Apparent Metabolizable Energy Value of Rice Based Dry Distiller’s Grains with Solubles (DDGS) with or without Enzyme Supplementation in Cockerels

S.L. Gupta*, Pramod K. Tyagi, A.B. Mandal, Praveen K. Tyagi, J.J. Rokade, D.B. Bhaisare and S. Gogoi

Division of Avian Nutrition and Feed Technology Central Avian Research Institute, Izatangar-243 122, India


Gupta, S.L. , Tyagi, P.K., Mandal, A.B., Tyagi, Praveen K., Rokade, J.J., Bhaisare, D.B. and Gogoi, S. 2017. Apparent metabolizable energy value of rice based dry distiller’s grains with solubles (DDGS) with or without enzyme supplementation in cockerels. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 493- 499.
Nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy values (AMEN) content of rice based dry distiller’s grains with solubles (DDGS) in relation to dietary addition of feed enzymes (0 or 0.5 g/kg diet) in cockerels was evaluated by a total diet replacement (total collection) method in a 2 × 2 factorial design. A metabolic trial was conducted at two substitution levels (200 and 400 g/kg of reference diet) of DDGS with or without supplementation of commercial enzyme preparation in 9 groups of cockerels. The duration of the trial included a 10 d preliminary feeding period (on conventional grower diet) followed by a 12-days adaptation period (on reference and test diets) and a 3-days collection period. The calculated AMEN value of DDGS for cockerels was 2883 kcal/kg without enzyme supplementation. The AMEN value of DDGS was significantly (P<0.05) increased with enzyme supplementation, from 2883 to 2961 kcal/kg DM.

Keywords: Cockerels, Enzyme, N-corrected AME, Rice dry distiller’s grains with soluble.

*Corresponding author: drsneha.44@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00048.8

Stylosanthes Production, Processing and Utilization Technologies for Animal Production – A Review

D.R. Palsaniya*, Sunil Kumar, B.G. Shivkumar1, S.N. Ram and P.K. Ghosh

ICAR-Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute Jhansi-284 003, India


Palsaniya, D.R., Kumar, S., Shivkumar, B.G., Ram, S.N. and Ghosh, P.K. 2017. Stylosanthes production, processing and utilization technologies for animal production – A review. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 501-514.
Stylosanthes popularly known as stylo, is among the most versatile, widely adapted, highly productive and fast growing tropical pasture legume commonly grown in a number of agricultural systems in many countries with a tropical or subtropical climate. Being a leguminous fodder, Stylosanthes is rich in nutrients and on an average, it contains 15-25% DM, 15-20% CP, 10-15% CF, 1-2% ether extract and 50-60% nitrogen free extract. In India, it is the most important tropical legume for semi-arid and arid regions, where it is mainly used as cut-and-carry fodder, a pasture and/or range crop, a cover crop to suppress weeds and control soil erosion, an inter-crop in agro-forestry and grass-legume mixture, a green manure to enhance soil fertility and nitrogen, protein banks, fallow crops, hay, a pioneering coloniser of problem soils and, more recently, a cash crop to produce dried leaf meal as an ingredient of animal feed formulations for poultry and fish. The surplus Stylosanthes can be processed as leaf meal and feed blocks and can be stored for lean period utilization. These can be sufficient for maintenance requirement of sheep and goats during scarcity period. The review provides a comprehensive account of Stylosanthes research for production, processing and utilization in India during last five decades.

Keywords: Animal feed, Leaf meal, Management, Processing, Production, Stylo.

*Corresponding author: drpalsaniya@gmail.com


DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00020.8

Effect of a Blend of Essential Oils on Buffalo Rumen Microbial and Enzyme Profiles and In Vitro Feed Fermentation

Anju Kala, D.N. Kamra*, Neeta Agarwal and L.C. Chaudhary

Center of Advanced Faculty Training in Animal Nutrition ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India


Kala, A., Kamra, D.N., Agarwal, N. and Chaudhary, L.C. 2017. Effect of a blend of essential oils on buffalo rumen microbial and enzyme profiles and in vitro feed fermentation. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 189-200.
Three rumen-fistulated adult Murrah buffaloes (BW 426±45 kg) were arranged in a 3×3 LSD. The treatments involved supplementation of a blend (BEO-CL) of clove bud oleoresin and lemongrass oil (in 1:1 ratio) at the rate of 0, 0.75 and 1.5 % of BW. After 20d of feeding, the rumen liquor and rumen contents were sampled before (0h) and 4h after feeding and analyzed for various parameters. There was neither any effect of feed additive nor sampling time on the concentration of VFAs, NH3 -N, lactic acid and activities of select enzymes (carboxymethylcellulase, avicelase, xylanase, amylase, β-glucosidase, α-glucosidase and acetyl esterase). The population of rumen bacteria, fungi, ciliate protozoa, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Ruminococcus albus and methanogens were not affected by BEO-CL supplementation. In vitro gas production test to evaluate various feedstuffs namely hays (berseem, oat and maize); dry roughages (wheat straw, paddy straw and sugarcane bagasse) complete feeds with 20:80, 35:65 and 50:50 concentrate: roughage ratio) as substrates was conducted using rumen liquor of these buffaloes as inocula. There was an increase in gas production with rumen liquor of BEO-CL supplemented buffaloes irrespective of substrate. Methane production was decreased with 0.75 % BEOCL supplemented inoculum but not with paddy straw and sugarcane bagasse. The in vitro true digestibility (IVTD) of feed was increased with BEO-CL inoculum only with complete diet having 20:80 concentrate:roughage ratio as substrate. It is concluded that BEO-CL at the level of 0.75% of BW did not affect rumen characteristics and major microbial populations but inhibited in vitro methane production; hence, it can be further explored for its use as a feed additive to mitigate methane emission in buffaloes.

Keywords: Buffaloes, Enzymes, Essential oils, Feed additive, Methane, Rumen microbes.

*Corresponding author: dnkamra@rediffmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00021.X

Boron Supplementation Influences Bone Mineralization by Modulating Expression of Genes Regulating Calcium Utilization

T. Vijay Bhasker, N.K.S Gowda*, S. Mondal, D.T. Pal1, H.P. Aithal, A.K. Pattanaik, S.V. Rama Rao and S. Karthik Bhat

Division of Animal Nutrition, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute Izatnagar-243 122, India


Vijay Bhasker, T., Gowda, N.K.S, Mondal, S., Pal, D.T., Aithal, H.P., Pattanaik, A.K., Rama Rao, S.V. and Bhat, S.K. 2017. Boron supplementation influences bone mineralization by modulating expression of genes regulating calcium utilization. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 201-215.
The influence of dietary boron (B) supplementation on bone mineralization in rats with or without dietary calcium (Ca) restriction was studied in a feeding trial of 90d. Wister strain male rats (n=84; ~3- 4 wks of age) were divided into seven dietary groups (4 replicates of 3 each) namely, Normal-Ca (100%) basal diet alone (NC, control; 1.69 ppm B) or supplemented with B at 5 (NCB-5), 10 (NCB-10), 20 (NCB- 20) and 40 ppm (NCB-40) levels; low-Ca (50%) basal diet alone (LC) or supplemented with 40 ppm B (LCB-40). After 90d of experimental feeding, a 5d digestibility trial was conducted to estimate gut absorption of minerals. Eight rats from each group were sacrificed to collect blood for estimation of minerals, femur bone for assessment of minerals, bone breaking strength and radiography, and liver for appraisal of relative mRNA abundance of calmodulin (CAL), vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) and thyroid receptor binding protein (TRBP). Boron supplementation to Ca adequate diets improved (P<0.05) the gut absorption efficiency of ca (at 5 and 10 ppm b) and ca content in serum (at 20 at 40 ppm b). the ca content in femur bone, its (bone) breaking strength and cortical index were observed to be lowest (p<0.05) in the LC group, and were improved (P<0.05) with B-supplementation (40 ppm). Supplementation of B improved (P<0.01) the relative mRNA expression levels for VDBP (at 10 ppm B) and CAL (at 10, 20 and 40 ppm B) in liver tissue as compared to control. The present study indicates a positive and supportive role of B in Ca utilization with both normal and restricted level of dietary Ca and bone mineralization which was mediated through modulation of Ca regulating genes.

Keywords: Bone, Boron, Calcium, Gene Expression, Mineralization.

*Corresponding author: nksgowda@rediffmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00022.1

Comparative Assessment of Lipid and Fatty Acids of Nine Crop Species During Plant Growth

P.G. Peiretti* and F. Gai

Institute of Science of Food Production, National Research Council Largo P. Braccini 2, 10095, Grugliasco (TO), Italy


Peiretti, P.G. and Gal, F. 2017. Comparative assessment of lipid and fatty acids of nine crop species during plant growth. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 217-228.
The aim of the present work was to compare the lipid and fatty acid (FA) contents of nine different crops belonging to seven botanical families during their different growth stages. The compared plant species were: Carthamus tinctorius L. and Helianthus annuus L. (Fam. Asteraceae), Camelina sativa L. and Brassica campestris L. var. Oleifera (Fam. Brassicaceae), Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Fam. Chenopodiaceae), Guizotia abyssinica Cass. (Fam. Compositae), Perilla frutescens L. (Fam. Lamiaceae), Salvia hispanica L. (Fam. Labiatae), and Linum usitatissimum L. (Fam. Linaceae). Overall, 134 samples of these green crops, which were collected in nine studies, at progressive morphological stages, from 2004 to 2013, have been used in this comparison. The lipid content ranged from 10 to 47 g/kg of DM. The FA values disclosed quantitative differences between the crops and the plant stages. All the samples were characterized by a high percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as linoleic (LA) and α- linolenic acid (ALA). These two FAs, together with palmitic (PA), stearic (SA) and oleic acid (OA), were present in all of the examined crops during all of their growth stages. Further, ALA and LA were the most abundant FAs, and ranged from 309 to 649 and from 98 to 218 g/kg of total FA, respectively. Moreover, PA, SA and OA ranged from 85 to 133, from 8 to 116 and from 1 to 167 g/kg of total FA, respectively. These results allow us to identify the crop and growth stage that are the richest in terms of lipid and PUFA contents and therefore potentially more favorable for nutritional purposes.

Keywords: Fatty acid, Lipid, Growth cycle, Stage, Crop, Nutritive value.

*Corresponding author: piergiorgio.peiretti@ispa.cnr.it

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00023.3

Nutritional Characteristics of Available Feed Resources in Maradi Area of Niger

N. Abdou*, A.S. Gouro and I.V. Nsahlai

Department of Animal and Poultry Science School of Agricultural Earth and Environmental Science University of KwaZulu-Natal Pietermaritzburg Campus, Scottsville-3209, South Africa


Abdou, N., Gouro, A.S. and Nsahlai, I.V. 2017. Nutritional characteristics of available feed resources in Maradi area of Niger. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 229-243.
The aim of this study was to determine the nutritive value of feeds and to determine the effect of urea treatment on roughages. Straws, legumes and concentrates were collected in the dry season. Straws were millet stover, sorghum stover, Diheteropogon hagerupii, Eragrostis tremula and Schizachyrium exile; forage legumes were groundnut haulms and cowpea husk; concentrates were wheat bran, millet bran and cottonseed cake. Samples of straws and cowpea husk were either untreated or treated with urea. Feeds were analyzed for DM, OM, N, NDF, ADF, ADL and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN). Degradability characteristics were determined using two Jersey cows. Cereal straws showed significant (P<0.001) variation in the fibre fractions and n content. urea treatment of straws increased (p<0.001) N and ADIN content. Forage legumes had different (P<0.01) NDF and N. Urea treatment of cowpea husk increased (P<0.001) N. Concentrates differed (P<0.001) in N, and fibre. Straws had different (P<0.001) soluble fraction (wash), effective degradability (ED); urea treated straws had higher (P<0.001) ED. Forage legumes affected (P<0.01) solubility and ED, while treating cowpea husk decreased (P<0.05) ED. Concentrate affected (P<0.001) N degradability and ED. Effective degradability of DM and OM varied (P<0.001) within concentrates. These findings suggest that consideration of nutritional quality should be taken when formulating diets for ruminants in the study areas.

Keywords: Cereal straw, Chemical composition, Concentrates, Forage legumes, Rumen degradation, Urea treatment.

*Corresponding author: nourouabdu@yahoo.fr

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00024.5

Effect of Maleic Acid on Nutritive Value, Carotenoids Content and In vitro Digestibility of Maize Silage

N. Abdou*, A.S. Gouro and I.V. Nsahlai

Department of Animal Nutrition and Nutritional Diseases Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Erciyes University Kayseri 38280, Turkey


Kara, K. 2017. Effect of maleic acid on nutritive value, carotenoids content and in vitro digestibility of maize silage. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 245-254.
This study aimed to determine the effects of supplementation of maleic acid (MA) on the silage characteristics, nutritive value, carotenoids contents, and in vitro digestion attributes of maize silage. Maize herbage was ensiled either without (control group: MA0) or with three different doses of 1.0 (MA1), 2.0 (MA2), and 3.0 (MA3) percent (w/w) of the fresh material for 60 days. Supplementation of MA did not change the dry matter (DM), ash, crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), acid detergent fibre (ADFom), acid detergent lignin (ADL) or TDN contents of the silage. In addition, neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) content decreased (P<0.001) linearly by the increasing dose of maleic acid dose. however, relative feed value, relative forage quality and non-structural carbohydrate of maize silage increased linearly (p<0.001) by MA. Neither the in vitro total gas and methane production nor the nutritive value of the silage in terms of metabolisable energy (ME), net energy lactation (NEL) and organic matter disappearance (OMd) changed due to maleic acid supplementation. However, the supplementation of MA to maize herbage at ensilaging stage decreased (P<0.01) its α-carotene, β-carotene, γ-carotene, lycopene and zeaxanthin contents in a linear manner with a concomitant increase (P<0.01) in its lutein and total carotenoids contents. It is concluded that maleic acid addition to maize forage at ensiling stage increased the total carotenoids content of the silage without influencing any of the nutrient characteristics.

Keywords: Carotenoids, Cis-butenedioic, Forage quality, In vitro gas production.

*Corresponding author: karakanber@hotmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00025.7

Effect of Tea (Camellia sinensis) Seed Saponin Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Utilization, Microbial Protein Synthesis and HematoBiochemical Attributes of Gaddi Goats

R.V. Jadhav, A. Kannan*, R. Bhar, O.P. Sharma, T.K. Bhat, Ashu Gulati, K. Rajkumar, R. Sharma, G. Mal, B. Singh and V.K. Sharma

ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute Regional Station, Palampur-176 061, India


Jadhav, R.V., Kannan, A., Bhar, R., Sharma, O.P., Bhat, T.K., Gulati, A., Rajkumar, K., Sharma, R., Mal, G., Singh, B. and Sharma,V.K. 2017. Effect of tea (Camellia sinensis) seed saponin supplementation on growth performance, nutrient utilization, microbial protein synthesis and hemato-biochemical attributes of Gaddi goats. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 255-268.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding tea seed saponin in oat fodder based diet on intake, growth performance, nutrient utilization, microbial protein synthesis and hemato-biochemical attributes of Gaddi goats in a 90 days feeding experiment. Eighteen male goats (6 to 7 months old and 17.70±0.75 kg body weight) were divided into three groups of six in each, as T0 (control), T1 and T2 in a completely randomized design. The animals in T0 were fed a basal diet containing concentrate mixture and oat fodder, while the animals in T1 and T2 groups were fed with same ration supplemented with tea seed saponin (TSS) on alternate days at the dose level of 0.4% and 0.8% of DMI, respectively. All animals were fed for a growth rate of 60 g/d. Daily feed intake and weekly body weight changes of each animal were recorded. A metabolism trial of six days duration was conducted. Dry matter, organic matter, NDF, ADF and cellulose digestibilities were though comparable in between T0 and T1 , were significantly lower in T2 (P<0.05). though digestible crude protein (g />kg diet) was comparable, TDN (g/kg diet) was significantly (P<0.05) lower in t2. a trend of lower urinary n excretion, higher n balance and microbial n supply were observed in tss supplemented groups (t1 and t2 ) as compared to t0. average daily gain was highest in t1 (75.56g) followed by t0 (61.78g) and was lowest in t2 (58.78g). the tss supplementation did not change the levels of hb, pcv, total protein, albumin, globulin, blood urea nitrogen, bilirubin and creatinine. however, saponin supplementation significantly (p<0.05) decreased triglyceride and increased HDL cholesterol levels. Thus, it may be concluded that TSS may be supplemented on alternate days at the level of 0.4% of DMI to improve growth rate, microbial protein synthesis and to favourably modify lipid profile in Gaddi goats.

Keywords: Tea seed saponins, Growth, Microbial protein supply, Ruminant.

*Corresponding author: akanna72@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00026.9

Effect of Different Nitrogen Levels on Hay Yield and Some Quality Traits of Sudan Grass and Sorghum x Sudan Grass Hybrids

H. Mut*, E. Gulumser, M.C. Dogrusoz and U. Basaran

Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Science Bozok University, Yozgat, Turkey


Mut, H., Gulumser, E., Dogrusoz, M. C. and Basaran, U. 2017. Effect of different nitrogen levels on hay yield and some quality traits of sudan grass and sorghum x sudan grass hybrids. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17:269-278.
The objective of this study was to evaluate DM yield and forage quality responses of sudan grass and sorghum x sudan grass hybrids to nitrogen application under irrigated Central Anatolia conditions during summer season of 2013 and 2014. The study included one sudan grass (Gozde-80) and two sorgum x sudan grass hybrid (Aneto and Bovital) cultivars. The fertilizer was applied based on nitrogen fertilizer with six different (0, 40, 80, 120, 160 and 200 kg N/ha) doses. Plant height, stem diameter, leaf number, hay yield, CP yield, ADF, NDF, Ca, K, P and Mg contents were determined. Hay yield ranged between 7.67 (Gozde-80) and 8.31 t/ha (Bovital) among cultivars, and between 7.47 (0 kg/ha; control) and 8.72 t/ha (80 kg/ha) among N doses. The highest CP content was recorded from Bovital (14.49%) and Aneto (14.02%) cultivars. Aneto cultivar has highest CP yield (1.53 t/ha) with 40 kg/ha N dose. The lowest ADF content of hay was determined in Bovital cultivars (36.55%) whereas the NDF content ranged from 67.10% (Gozde-80) to 67.62% (Bovital) among the genotypes. Macro-mineral (P, K, Ca and Mg) contents of the forage in all the three genotypes were higher than the animal needs recommended. The highest benefit was determined in Aneto (5018 €/ha) with application 40 kg N/ha. Overall, the results indicated that at the end of the two years study, in terms of hay yield, CP yield and benefits, Aneto cultivar and N application dose rate of 40 kg N/ha were found best choice under irrigated conditions.

Keywords: ADF, Hay yield, Hybrids, Protein, Sudan grass.

*Corresponding author: hanife.mut@bozok.edu.tr

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00027.0

Effect of Feeding Frequency on Plasma Metabolites Concentrations and Production Cost in Feed-restricted Lambs

A. Swelum*, F. Alshamiry, A. El-Waziry, M. Ali , T. Shafey and M. Abouheif

Department of Animal Production, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia


Swelum, A., Alshamiry, F., El-Waziry, A., Ali, M., Shafey, T. and Abouheif, M. 2017. Effect of feeding frequency on plasma metabolites concentrations and production cost in feed-restricted lambs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 279-291.
Twenty-four Najdi ram (BW 38.6±0.6 kg) were selected to evaluate the effect of feed restriction and frequency of feeding on plasma metabolites concentrations and production cost. Lambs were allotted randomly into three feeding groups. The first group was used as control and fed ad libitum (AL). The second and third group lambs were fed a restricted diet (R; at 0.85 of ad libitum) fed either once (R1m) or twice daily (R2m). Blood samples were collected on d 40, 47 and 55 for the determination of plasma metabolites and insulin concentrations. All lambs were slaughtered after 8 weeks. Results showed that AL feeding of lambs led to higher (P<0.05) bw, adg, liver weight, internal tail fat weight and subcutaneous fat percentage than restricted fed groups. however, these parameters did not differ between both the restricted-fed (r1m and r2m) treatments. cold carcass weight and percentages of lean and protein were not affected (p>0.05) by feed restriction.Lambs fed twice daily (R2m) produced the least efficient lambs in feed: gain ratio in comparison with the other treatments. Plasma concentrations of urea, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 and calcium did not differ (P>0.05) between lambs subjected to once or twice feeding of 85% restricted diet, but were significantly lower than AL fed group. The AL-fed lambs had higher total costs while R1m showed the lowest total costs and highest net profit. It is suggested that once daily feeding at 0.85 of ad libitum level can be adopted as a nutritional practice for fattening lambs.

Keywords: Economic measures, Feeding frequency, Plasma metabolites, Performance.

*Corresponding author: aymanswelum@yahoo.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00028.2

Effect of Vitamin E on Ruminal Fermentation and Nutrient Digestion in Steers Supplemented with Microencapsulated Conjugated Linoleic Acid

O. Hernández-Mendo, M. Ramírez-Mella*, J.E. Ramírez-Bribiesca, M.M. Crosby-Galvánand J.A. Burgueño-Ferreira

Programa de Ganadería, Colegio de Postgraduados (CP) Campus Montecillo,M Texcoco, Estado de México, 56230, México


Hernández-Mendo, O., Ramírez-Mella, M., Ramírez-Bribiesca, J.E., Crosby-Galván, M.M. and BurgueñoFerreira, J.A. 2017. Effect of vitamin E on ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestion in steers supplemented with microencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 293-301.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin E on ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestion in steers supplemented with microencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Four male rumen- and duodenum-cannulated Holstein steers (450±93 kg) were used in a 4×4 Latin square design, randomly assigned to four treatments: control (basal diet with 50g of microencapsulated CLA) and the same supplemented with three levels of vitamin E at 4000, 8000, or 12000 IU/d. The supplements (CLA and vitamin E) were placed intra-ruminally. The basal diet consisted of 68% of concentrate and 32% of forage. DM intake was restricted to 2.1% of the initial LW. Chromium oxide was administrated as inert digesta marker via ruminal cannula. There were no significant differences in ruminal pH and production of VFAs due to vitamin E; but butyrate and total VFAs concentration tended to decrease. Also, vitamin E treatments tended to increase acetate:propionate ratio. Ruminal digestion of CP tended to decrease and flow to duodenum of CP tended to increase. Faecal excretion of DM and OM decreased significantly (P<0.05), while total-tract digestion of dm and om increased significantly (p<0.05) with vitamin E. In conclusion, vitamin E improves total-tract digestibility of DM and OM in steers supplemented with microencapsulated CLA. This suggests that vitamin E could improve the gastrointestinal conditions, impacting positively the productive performance of animals.

Keywords: Conjugated linoleic acid, Post-ruminal digestion, Ruminal metabolism, Tocopherol, Vitamin E, Volatile fatty acids

*Corresponding author: monicara@colpos.mx

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00029.4

Effects of Bacitracin and Bacitracin Zinc on In Vitro Fermentation, Methane Production and Microbial Populations of the Rumen

Y.Y. Chen, J.S. Shen*, Z. Liu, P.A. Lv, and W.Y. Zhu

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Nutrition and Animal Health College of Animal Science and Technology Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China


Chen, Y.Y., Shen, J.S., Liu, Z., Lv, P.A. and Zhu, W.Y. 2017. Effects of bacitracin and bacitracin zinc on in vitro fermentation, methane production and microbial populations of the rumen. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 303-314.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of bacitracin (B) and bacitracin zinc (BZ) on in vitro fermentation, methane and ammonia production, and select microbial populations of the rumen. Both B and BZ were added at 3 doses, namely 10 (low), 30 (medium), and 90 (high) mg/l of in vitro fermentation medium. Results showed that B and BZ had similar effects on rumen fermentation characteristics and microbial populations. Low dosage of B or BZ addition reduced (P<0.05) methane and ammonia production, while had no adverse effects (p> 0.05) on total VFA concentration and feed digestibility. The population of total bacteria was unaffected (P>0.05) by low B and BZ doses, but was significantly (P<0.05) decreased by high b and bz doses. all b and bz doses lowered (p<0.05) the populations of Firmicute, Bacteroidetes, methanogens, Clostridium aminophilum and Clostridium sticklandii. However, B and BZ addition had no influence (P>0.05) on the populations of protozoa and fungi. Results indicated that optimum B or BZ addition could reduce methane and ammonia production, with no adverse effects on total VFA concentration and feed digestibility. Further, these effects are probably associated with the variation of rumen functional microbial populations.

Keywords: Ammonia, Bacitracin zinc, Methane, Microbial population, Rumen fermentation.

*Corresponding author: shenjunshi@njau.edu.cn

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00030.0

Effect of Dietary Incorporation of Fermented Fish Silage on the Performance of Broiler Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

Sasmita Panda, L.K. Babu, A.K. Panda *, Tanuja S., A. Mohanty, K.K. Panigrahy2 , P. Samal and C.R. Pradhan

Department of Livestock Production and Management College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar-751 003, India


Panda, S., Babu, L.K., Panda, A.K. Tanuja, S., Mohanty, A., Panigrahy, K.K., Samal, P. and Pradhan, C.R. 2017. Effect of dietary incorporation of fermented fish silage on the performance of broiler Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 315-322.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding fermented fish silage (FFS) on performance, carcass traits and economics of production of Japanese quails. Seven-day old broiler Japanese quail chicks (n=192) of either sex were randomly distributed into four dietary groups with four replicates in each group of 12 chicks in each pen and raised in deep litter system for five weeks under uniform management conditions. The dietary treatments were: control diet alone without FFS (CON) or with 5 (FFS- 5), 10 (FFS-10) and 15 (FFS-15) percent FFS. All the birds were fed isocaloric and iso-nitrogenous diets during the experimental period. Group BW and feed consumption were recorded at weekly intervals and FCR was calculated. At the end of the experiment, eight birds from each treatment were selected randomly to study the carcass traits. The BW gain and FCR of broiler Japanese quails fed FFS-5 diet was found to be similar to that of control group. Higher levels of FFS inclusion, beyond 5%, significantly (P<0.05) reduced the bw gain of birds; however, the fcr remained unaffected. carcass traits were not influenced due to dietary incorporation of ffs. the cost of production of broiler japanese quail chicks was found to be similar between ffs-5 and ffs-10 diets, being lower than that of either control or ffs-15 diet. dietary inclusion of 5% ffs reduced the cost of production by h 12.87 per kg lw gain. it is concluded that ffs can be incorporated at 5% level in the diet of broiler japanese quails for optimum performance and economic quail production.

Keywords: Broiler, Japanese quails, Fermented fish silage, Performance.

*Corresponding author: akpanda59@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00031.2

Evaluation of Processed Rain Tree (Samanea saman) Pod Meal as a Non-conventional Ingredient in the Diet of Catla catla Fry

S.C. Rath*, K.C. Nayak, C. Pradhan, T.K. Mohanty, S. Sarkar, K.N. Mohanta, B.N. Paul, and S.S. Giri

ICAR-Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture Bhubaneswar-751002, India


Rath, S.C., Nayank, K.C., Pradhan, C., Mohanty, T.K., Sarkar, S., Mohanta, K.N., Paul, B.N. and Giri, S.S. 2017. Evaluation of processed rain tree (Samanea saman) pod meal as a non-conventional ingredient in the diet of Catla catla fry. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 323-332.
Rain tree (Samanea saman) is a fast-growing tropical tree, abundantly grown in India under plantation programmes. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of processed rain tree pod (RTP) in the diets of Catla catla fry. Chemical analysis results indicated that RTP is a good source of protein (25.2% CP) and energy (4.88 kcal/g), and contains 1-2% of ether extract with 44% PUFA. Additionally, it contained 7.4% tannins, 2.25% saponin, and 1.57% alkaloids. Water soaking followed by autoclaving of raw RTP reduced tannin and saponin contents. Five iso-nitrogenous test feeds were formulated incorporating raw (F1) and differently processed RTP (F2-F5) at 30% level with groundnut oilcake and rice bran as co-ingredients and fed to Catala catla fry reared in indoor FRP tanks for 60d. Results indicated that fish of raw or processed RTP fed groups did not show any significant (P>0.05) differences in survival (98-99%), average weight gain (0.30-0.31 g), FCR (1.11-1.14) and specific growth rate (SGR; 1.76-1.82 %/day). Nonetheless, the protein efficiency ratio (PER) and net protein utilization (NPU) values varied significantly (P<0.05) between the raw and processed rtp groups. it is inferred that the tannin, saponin and alkaloid contents in raw rtp are possibly in the safe level when incorporated at 30% level in the diet of catla fry. hence, there appears to be further scope to incorporate the processed rain tree pod meal beyond 30% level in the carp feed.

Keywords: Anti-nutrient factors, Catla catla, processing rain tree pod, Samanea saman.

*Corresponding author: scrathcifa@yahoo.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00032.4

Effect of Feeding Tanniniferous Acacia nilotica Pod Meal on Growth Performance and Nutrient Utilization of Black Bengal Kids

J.K. Paswan, Kaushalendra Kumar*, Sanjay Kumar, Chandramoni, P.K. Singh, Abhishek Kumar, Shahla Perween and Amitava Dey

Department of Animal Nutrition Bihar Veterinary College, Patna-800 014, India


Paswan, J.K., Kumar, K., Kumar, S., Chandramoni, Singh, P.K., Kumar, A., Parween, S. and Dey,A. 2017. Effect of feeding tanniniferous Acacia nilotica pod meal on growth performance and nutrient utilization of Black Bengal kids. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 333-341.
The study was conducted to assess the effect of supplementation of tannin rich feed on growth performance and nutrient utilization of goats fed on tanniniferous babul (Acacia nilotica) pod meal. For growth study twenty-four Black Bengal male kids (3.5 months, 6.50±1.50 kg BW) were distributed into four equal groups. The experimental animals were fed graded level of babul pod meal (0, 10, 20 and 30 percent) mixed in concentrate mixture equivalent to tannin concentration of 0, 1.91, 3.82 and 5.73 percent in control, T1, T2 and T3 diet, respectively. The intake of different nutrients was numerically higher in T2 group as compared to control. There were no significant changes (P>0.05) in respect of nutrient digestibility. The N balance was 38.0% higher in T2 group as compared to control. The ADG was 11.21 and 25.48 percent higher in T1 and T2 group as compared to control, whereas reduction in BW and ADG was noted in T3 group. The feed conversion efficiency was significantly (P<0.05) better in t2 than control and t3 group. the fcr in 20% babul pod meal supplemented group was 22.60% lower than control group. it is concluded that locally available tanniniferous babul pod could be used as a feed constituents in the diets of goats.

Keywords: Babul pod, Goats, Growth performance, Tannin, Unconventional feed

*Corresponding author: drkaushalivri@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00033.6

Performance of Goat Kids Fed Detoxified Castor Bean Meal Based Concentrate Feed Mixtures

H. Nagesh, G.G. Bhavishya Kumar, T.M. Prabhu*, R.G. Gloridoss, K.C. Singh and B.N. Suresh

Department of Animal Nutrition, Veterinary College Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University Bengaluru-560 024, India


Nagesh, H., Kumar, B.G.G., Prabhu, T.M., Gloridoss, R.G., Singh, K.C. and Suresh, B.N. 2017. Performance of goat kids fed detoxified castor bean meal based concentrate feed mixtures. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 343-351.
In order to study the performance of stall-fed goat kids fed concentrate mixture containing detoxified castor (Ricinus communis) bean meal (CBM), 12 non-descript male goat kids (3-4 months old) were assigned equally in completely randomized design to three concentrate feed mixtures (CFM). The CFM prepared using groundnut cake (GNC) served as the control and the test CFMs were prepared using either 4% lime-treated or 2% salt-treated CBM replacing 100% GNC-protein. All animals received their daily DM requirement in the form of their respective CFM to the extent of 80% of CP requirement while the chaffed finger millet straw was provided ad libitum for 260 days. The DM intake was significantly (P<0.05) higher in test diets fed groups than in control. however, no significant difference was observed in adg and fcr among different groups. the digestibility of proximate principles except cp was lower (p<0.05) in test diets compared to control. However, the digestibility of NDF and ADF as well as the retention of N, Ca and P were similar among different diets. The blood biochemical parameters viz., haemoglobin, SGPT, SGOT, alkaline phosphatase, serum total protein, albumin and globulin at different intervals of the experiment also remained similar among different treatments. The feed cost/kg live weight gain was comparable between different groups. It was inferred that CBM after detoxification can substitute 100% protein of conventional oil cake both nutritionally and economically for chevon production.

Keywords: Blood profile, Castor bean meal, Goat kids, Growth performance, Nutrient utilization.

*Corresponding author: prabhutmann@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00034.8

Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Butyric Acid on Growth Performance and Intestinal Microbial Load in Broiler Chickens

Meesam Raza, Avishek Biswas*, A.B. Mandal and A.S. Yadav

Avian Nutrition and Feed Technology Division Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India


Raza, M., Biswas, A., Mandal, A.B. and Yadav, A.S. 2017. Effect of dietary supplementation of butyric acid on growth performance and intestinal microbial load in broiler chickens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 353-359.
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of using butyric acid (BA) in place of antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) on performance and intestinal microflora in broiler chickens. Two hundred (200) day-old broiler chicks were housed and distributed randomly into four groups containing five replicates of 10 chicks in each replicate (4 treatments×5 replicates). The experiment had a randomized design. Four experimental diets T1, T2, T3 and T4 were formulated to contain no additive, Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate (BMD) at 20 mg/kg diet and BA at 0.3 and 0.4%, respectively. Body weight gain (g) increased (P<0.05) by the feeding of diets containing different levels of ba, but feed intake (g), feed conversion ratio (fcr) and mortality (%) did not differ significantly (p> 0.05). Significant reduction was observed in coliforms and Lactobacillus counts in cecal contents (28 and 42 d) and excreta (42 d), whereas, total plate counts (TPC) at 42 d were significantly reduced in BA supplemented groups as compared to other groups. From the results, it can be concluded that, BA could be a good alternative to AGP for growth performance and improving gut microbial status in broiler chickens.

Keywords: Antibiotic, Broiler, Butyric acids, Intestinal microflora, Performance.

*Corresponding author: drbiswas007@rediffmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00035.X

Effect of Feeding Supplemental Concentrate on Nutrient Utilization in Dromedary Camels under Sustained Working Conditions

Lokesh Gupta* and G.S. Tiwari

Department of Farm Machinery and Power Engineering Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology Udaipur-313 001, India


Gupta, L. and Tiwari, G.S. 2017. Effect of feeding supplemental concentrate on nutrient utilization in dromedary camels under sustained working conditions. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 361- 365.
An experiment was conducted using three dromedary camels (545-640 kg BW; 8-10 years old) to study the effect of feeding supplemental concentrates on nutrient utilization under sustained working conditions in rotary mode of operation. The camels were offered gram (Cicer arietinum) straw as basal diet (T1 ) in all the treatments; but in treatments T2 and T3 the camels were additionally supplemented with concentrate mixture having 65 and 75% TDN, respectively. The supplementation of concentrate to gram straw improved (P<0.05) nutrient digestibility. likewise, dcp and tdn contents were higher in t3 followed by t2 and t1 . the dm intake was also improved in response to supplementation of concentrates and was higher in t3 as compared to t2 and t1 ; this trend was also reflected in higher daily consumption of dcp and tdn. the voluntary water intake was significantly higher in treatment groups fed supplemental concentrates when compared to the control group fed gram straw alone. it is concluded that supplementation of sole gram straw diet with a concentrate having 75% tdn improved dm intake and nutrient utilization by working camels.

Keywords: Camels, Energy concentrates, Nutrient utilization, Optimal ration, Working conditions.

*Corresponding author: lokgupta76@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00036.1

Aspects of Safety in Production of Feeds - A Review

D.B. Matuszek and J.B. Królczyk,*

Department of Biosystems Engineering Faculty of Production Engineering and Logistics Opole University of Technology, Mikolajczyka Street 5, 45-271 Opole, Poland


Matuszek, D.B. and Królczyk, J.B. 2017. Aspects of safety in production of feeds–a review. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 367-385.
The safety of food products is one of the priorities of the policy of many countries in the world. In the European Union a complex strategy of food safety called ‘from farm to fork’ is realized and it covers: food safety, animal health and well-being as well as plant health. The feeds play the key role in the world food industry assuring the production of raw materials and food products of animal origin. One of the most serious threats in feeds is Salmonella spp., in processed crops and industrial compound feeds. The realization of the given stages, starting from plants production, their storage, processing up to obtaining the final product in the form of feeds shall take place based on GAP-Good Agriculture Practice, GMP-Good manufacture practice and GSP-Good Storage Practice. An important element in feeds production safety monitoring is also HACCP (Hazard analysis and critical control points) system. The process of mixing feed is a key stage influencing the quality of the obtained product, and thus conditioning safety of the production. Aim of this article is to present current trends and issues related to the technology of production and quality of feed in terms of food safety, particularly methods of manufacture. In this work such issues as legislative and institutional actions, chemical, microbiological or physical threats, quality management and control tools in the feed production as well as mixing, pelleting and methods for compound feeds homogeneity assessment are presented.

Keywords: Compound, Feed, Homogeneity, Production, Quality, Safety.

*Corresponding author: j.krolczyk@po.opole.pl


DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00001.4

Influence of Dietary Particle Size and Sources of Calcium and Vitamin D3 on Production Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Calcium Concentration of ISA Brown Laying Hens

J.H. Park, J.S. Jeong, S.I. Lee and I.H. Kim*

Department of Animal Resource and Science Dankook University, Cheonan, 330-714, South Korea


Park, J.H., Jeong, J.S., Lee, S.I. and Kim, I.H. 2017. Influence of dietary particle size and sources of calcium and vitamin D3 on production performance, egg quality, and blood calcium concentration of ISA brown laying hens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 1-12.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with calcium varying in particle size and different calcium sources on production performance, egg quality, and blood calcium concentration with comparing vitamin D3 supplementation in laying hens. A total of 250 ISA brown laying hens were used in a 7 wk feeding experiment and randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments with 5 replicates of 10 birds each. The treatments were TRT1 (basal diet+6% small particle limestone (SPL:<0.8 mm)+1.5% large particle limestone (lpl<0.8 mm), TRT2 (basal diet+3% SPL+4.5% LPL), TRT3 (basal diet+3% SPL+4.455% LPL+0.045% large particle oyster shell (LPO)), TRT4 (basal diet+3% SPL+4.41% LPL+0.09% LPO), and TRT5 (basal diet+3% SPL+4.498% LPL+0.002% 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol). Overall, our results suggested that calcium particle size, different calcium sources, and vitamin D3 had no significant influence on egg production performance, egg quality, and blood calcium concentration, however, there was a linear tendency. In other words, LPL prolongs retention time in the digestive tract, resulting in higher blood calcium concentration. Additionally, vitamin D3 supplementation improved this effect clearly compared with TRT1 (P<0.05).

Keywords: Calcium source, 1,25-dihydroxycalciferol, Egg quality, Laying hen, Particle size.

*Corresponding author: inhokim@dankook.ac.kr


Evaluation of Magnesium Sulphate in Broiler Chicken During Hot-Dry Summer Using Zoo Technical, Molecular and Physio-Biochemical Tools

Rokade, J.J., A.S. Shinde, S.K. Bhanja, Praveen K. Tyagi, Pramod K. Tyagi and A.B. Mandal*

ICAR-Central Avian Research Institute Izatnagar-243 122, India


Rokade, J.J., Shinde, A.S., Bhanja, S.K., Tyagi, Praveen K., Tyagi, Pramod K. and Mandal, A.B. 2017. Evaluation of magnesium sulphate in broiler chicken during hot-dry summer using zoo technical, molecular and physio-biochemical tools. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 13-23.
To evaluate the role of magnesium sulphate in mitigating heat stress, it was tried at two level in diets during hot (April–May, 31.0±0.7° to 37.0±1.4°C, Rh, %: 58.0±1.3-70.1±0.6) summer. Broiler chicks were reared on a standard diet up to 14 days of age and thereafter chicks were randomly distributed into three dietary treatments viz., T1 (Control group: Standard diet), T2 (standard diet with magnesium sulphate @ 1.2 g/kg) and T3 (standard diet with magnesium sulphate @ 2.4 g/kg) and reared upto 42 days of age. Each dietary treatment was fed to four replicated groups of 8 birds each and one more replicate to study blood metabolites and HSP70 gene expression. The humoral and cell mediated immune response was studied on 28th day. Hematological and blood biochemical parameters were studied on 28th and 42nd day of age. Serum corticosteron level was also estimated at 42nd day of age. Expression of HSP 70 in jejunum tissues were studied on 28th and 42nd day of age using Real time PCR. Significant improvement was seen in live weight gain (P<0.01) at 2.4 g />kg and FCR (P<0.001) in 1.2 or 2.4 g />kg magnesium sulphate supplemented groups. The percentage of haemoglobin, protein (P<0.001), ast (p<0.001) and ALT (P<0.001) increased significantly while H:L ratio, serum corticosteron (P<0.001) and serum cholesterol decreased significantly at 4th and 6th week of age due to magnesium sulphate supplementation. Significant down regulation of relative expression of HSP 70 in jejunum tissues (at 4th and 6th week of age) was observed in magnesium sulphate supplemented group. Based on this study it is suggested that supplementation of magnesium sulphate in heat stressed broilers will improve performance and welfare.

Keywords: Broiler, Corticosteron, Heat stress, HSP 70, Magnesium sulphate.

*Corresponding author: oolgun@selcuk.edu.tr

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00003.8

Effect of Copper Supplementation on Performance, Eggshell Quality and Heterophil: Lymphocyte Ratio in Aged Laying Hens Housed at Different Stocking Densities

O. Olgun* and A. Aygun

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture Selcuk University, 42075 Konya, Turkey


Olgun, O. and Aygun, A. 2017. Effect of copper supplementation on performance, eggshell quality and heterophil: lymphocyte ratio in aged laying hens housed at different stocking densities. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 25-33.
This study was conducted to determine the effects of additional dietary copper on performance, eggshell quality and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio in aged laying hens housed at different stocking densities. For this purpose, 216 Nick Chick laying hens of 106 weeks of age, were housed at three different stocking densities i.e. 500, 417 and 357 cm2 /hen, respectively and copper (0, 150 and 300 mg/kg) was added in the basal diet for a period of 10 weeks using a 3x3 factorial arrangement. The effect of the treatments on body weight gain, feed intake, damaged eggs, specific gravity and eggshell breaking strength were not significant (P>0.05). However, eggshell thickness was improved (P<0.05) with increasing stocking density in the aged laying hens. additionally, added copper had a significant effect on egg production (p<0.05), egg weight (P<0.01), egg mass (P<0.01), feed conversion ratio (P<0.01) and eggshell weight (P<0.01). While added copper had a significant adverse effect on eggshell weight, the addition of copper had a significant positive effect on performance parameters. Highest stocking density resulted in increased (P<0.05) heterophil:lymphocyte ratio. Addition of 150 and 300 mg/kg copper in the diet of the birds kept at 500 cm2 /hen stocking density reduced heterophil:lymphocyte ratio as compared to other groups. It may be concluded that supplementation copper in the diet of aged laying hens decreased stress under normal stocking density, while stress was increased to the birds under high stocking density.

Keywords: Copper, Eggshell quality, Heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, Stocking density, Stress.

*Corresponding author: oolgun@selcuk.edu.tr

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00004.X

Blood, Bone and Faecal Concentrations of Phosphorus, Calcium and Magnesium in Communally Grazed Cattle in the North West Province of South Africa

B.G. Mokolopi-Kgobe* and D.E. Beighle

Department of Agriculture and Animal Health College of Agriculture and Environmental Services University of South Africa, Science Campus, Florida 1710, South Africa


Mokolopi-Kgobe, B.G. and Beighle, D.E. 2017. Blood, bone and faecal concentrations of phosphorus, calcium and magnesium in communally grazed cattle in the North West Province of South Africa. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 35-42.
Twenty five mix breed cattle between the ages of 6 months and 2 years with a mean body mass of 337 kg were randomly selected from a herd exclusively on communal grazing and receiving no supplements and were used to evaluate how animals were able to cope on communal grazing without supplements. Bone, faecal and blood samples were sampled once monthly for 12 months and pasture samples were collected from grazing. Faecal P was significantly (P<0.05) higher, (4.70 mg />g) in March 2006 compared to all other months and was significantly (P<0.05) lower (1.17 mg />g) in July 2006 than all other months. This reflects grass P which was significantly (P<0.05) higher (2.4 mg />g) in March 2006 compared with all other months and significantly (P<0.05) lower (0.33 mg />g) in July 2006 compared to all other months and the rainfall which was also higher (111.1 mm) in March 2006 and lower (0 mm) in July 2006. The results showed that animals were not able to maintain normal values of P, Ca and Mg, especially of blood P when dietary minerals were limiting. Animals were able to use homeostatic mechanisms to maintain bone Mg in the face of deficient concentrations of Mg in the grass.

Keywords: Blood, Bone, Faecal, Minerals, Pasture and Rainfall.

*Corresponding author: satyajitbelsare@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00005.1

Effect of Dietary Carbohydrate - Lipid Ratio on Growth, Body Composition and Digestive Enzyme Activities of Juvenile Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

S. Belsare*, H.S. Dhaker, A. Pawase, V. Joshi, S. Mohite and S. Shelke

College of Fisheries, Ratnagiri-415 629, India


Belsare, S., Dhaker, H.S., Pawase, A., Joshi, V., Mohite, S. and Shelke, S. 2017. Effect of dietary carbohydrate - lipid ratios on growth, body composition and digestive enzyme activities of juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus). Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 43-53.
The effect of dietary carbohydrate : lipid (CHO:L) ratios on growth performance, body composition and digestive enzyme activities of juvenile goldfish, Carassius auratus (1.69±0.01 g) were investigated for 8 weeks. Juvenile gold fish (n=225) were randomly allocated to five treatments groups (T1 to T5) with 3 replicates of 15 fish in each. Diets were iso-nitrogenous (40% crude protein) and iso-energetic (18.52 MJ/g) with varying CHO:L ratios (1.04 to 38.4). Weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) improved significantly (P<0.05) as dietary cho:l ratio increased, however, this trend was not maintained above cho:l ratio of 4.33. hepatosomatic index (hsi) increased significantly (p<0.05) as dietary CHO:L ratio increased, whereas viscerosomatic index (VSI) followed an opposite trend (P<0.05). Opposite to moisture content, whole body lipid content increased significantly (P<0.05) as dietary CHO:L ratios decreased, while whole body protein showed little difference among the treatments. Protease activity of intestine and liver of fish fed varying CHO:L diets did not show any discernible changes among the dietary treatments. However, intestinal and liver lipase activity decreased, while intestinal α-amylase activity increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing dietary carbohydrate levels. Based on second-order polynomial regression analysis of SGR, the optimal dietary carbohydrate and lipid levels for young ones of C. auratus were 325 g/kg and 84 g/kg respectively, corresponding to dietary CHO:L ratio of 3.86.

Keywords: Body composition, Carassius auratus, Carbohydrate utilization, Growth, Iso-nitrogenous.

*Corresponding author: inhokim@dankook.ac.kr

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00006.3

Mineral Profiles and Metabolic Status of Animals in North Eastern Ghat Zone of Odisha

M. Panda, N. Panda*, R.K. Swain, B. Panigrahi, P.C. Behera and B.C. Das

Department of Animal Nutrition College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar-751 003, India


Panda, M., Panda, N., Swain, R.K., Panigrahi, B., Behera, P.C. and Das, B.C. 2017. Mineral profiles and metabolic status of animals in north eastern ghat zone of odisha. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 55-64.
Feeds, fodders and serum of cows in eight villages from two districts of North Eastern Ghat (NEG) agro-climatic zone of Odisha were collected and analysed for macro and micro mineral contents and metabolic profiles of animals. Among the roughages, paddy straw was found to be deficient in calcium, phosphorus and manganese. Paddy straw contained 0.27 to 0.32% of calcium and 0.09 to 0.13% phosphorus which was lowest among all the roughages and concentrates. Compounded feed and ground nut oil seed cake had the highest calcium and phosphorus contents, respectively. The content of manganese, copper and zinc in different feeds and fodders in this zone varied from 19.16 to 55.58, 5.10 to 41.36 and 25.80 to 49.47 ppm, respectively; whereas, the iron content of the feed and fodders were above 100 ppm which is above the critical level. From the serum profile study it was found that the percentage of animals deficient in Ca, P, Mg, Zn and Cu were 68.3, 54.3, 60.4, 62.0 and 40.0, respectively; whereas only 2.5 and 13% of the animals showed less serum Fe and Mn concentration, respectively. Average serum concentration of glucose, cholesterol, protein, albumin and globulin of the animals were 43.99 mg/ dl, 66.34 mg/dl, 5.75 g/dl, 2.34 g/dl and 3.42 g/dl respectively. It was recommended that supplementation minerals like Ca, P, Mg, Zn and Cu along with protein rich feeds may be given in the diets of cattle for better health and productivity.

Keywords: Cattle, Feeds and Fodders, Mineral, North Eastern Ghat.

*Corresponding author: npandaouat@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00007.5

Nutrient Composition, Growth Response and Economics of Production of Rabbits Fed Diet Containing Graded Levels of Fermented Cassava Starch Residues

S.O. Aro, A.B. Falowo* and T.O. Omojola

Department of Animal Production and Health Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo States, Nigeria


Aro, S.O., Falowo, A.B. and Omojola, T.O. 2017. Nutrient composition, growth response and economics of production of rabbits fed diet containing graded levels of fermented cassava starch residues. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 65-73
This study was conducted to compare the nutrient composition of unfermented cassava starch (UFCSR) with microbially fermented cassava starch residues (MFCSR) and to investigate the effect of graded levels of MFCSR on growth performance and economics of rabbits. Thirty rabbits with an average initial live weight of 624.50±42.28 g, aged 6-8 weeks were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments with six rabbits per treatment during a 12-weeks feeding trial. Cassava starch residues (CSR) were fermented with three different strains of microorganisms, viz Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus coryneformis and Aspergillus fumigatus, for five days to obtain the MFCSR. The MFCSR was included at 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 percent levels in diets D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5, respectively. The fermentation of CSR with three strains of microorganisms resulted into higher (P<0.05) me (2760±10.20 kcal />kg), crude protein (7.00±0.09%), ash (3.04±0.16%) contents and lower crude fibre (14.77±0.43%), cyanide (9.84±0.14 mg/kg), tannins (0.05±0.01g/100g) and phytates (7.47±0.28 mg/kg) contents compared to unfermented cassava starch residues (UFCSR). There were significant (P<0.05) differences in the body weight gained (bwg), feed consumed, feed conversion ratio (fcr), cost of feed per unit weight gained for all treatments. rabbits on the diet d3 had the highest bwg (597.50±48.23g), followed by diet d1 (520.00±48.23g) and least on diet d5 (384.00±48.23g). similarly, rabbit on the diet d3 had best frc (8.43±0.85) compared to other treatments. the highest profit was recorded from sales of rabbits on diet d3 (n 226.35±12.55), followed by diet d1 (n 121.70±12.55) and least on diet d5 (n 51.61±12.55). considering both the economics of production and performance characteristics, 30% of mfscr was found to be the best level of inclusion for optimum rabbit production.

Keywords: Cassava starch residues, Economics, Fermentation, Nutrient composition, Performance, Rabbits.

*Corresponding author: anddele2013@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00008.7

Effect of Microbial Enzyme Supplementation to Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) Meal Based Diets on Performance, Bone Mineral Parameters and Carcass Characteristics of Free Range Chickens during Nursery Phase

S.V. Rama Rao*, B. Prakash, M.V.L.N. Raju and A.K. Panda

ICAR-Directorate of Poultry Research Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030, India


Rama Rao, S.V., Prakash, B., Raju, M.V.L.N. and Panda, A.K. 2017. Effect of microbial enzyme supplementation to guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) meal based diets on performance, bone mineral parameters and carcass characteristics of free range chickens during nursery phase. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 75-86.
Two experiments were conducted to examine the possibility of utilizing toasted guar meal (GM) with microbial enzymes in the diets of Vanaraja chicken. During the experiment I, soybean meal control diet (SBCD) was formulated to contain 2600 ME kcal/kg and 20% protein. Basal diet (BD) was formulated to contain 20% GM with similar energy and protein. The GMBD was supplemented with five microbial enzymes independently and in combination. Each diet was fed ad libitum up to 42 days of age. Inclusion of GM depressed (P<0.01) the body weight gain (bwg) compared to the group fed sbcd. supplementation of individual enzymes (except protease) or combination increased (p<0.01) BWG compared to GMBD groups . The feed conversion ratio (FCR) in groups fed GMBD with combination of enzymes was similar to SBCD fed group. During the experiment II, the GMBD was supplemented with three concentrations each of mannanase and xylanase, which was compared with the SBCD and GMBD. Inclusion of GM depressed (P<0.01) the BWG and FCR. However, enzyme supplementation to GMBD improved the BWG and FCR compared to the group fed GMBD. Supplementation of mannanase and xylanase (6000 and 3250 or 4875 U/kg; 4000 and 3250 U/kg, respectively) to GMBD improved performance, which was similar to SBCD fed birds. Based on the data, it is concluded that toasted GM could be included up to 20% diet without affecting body weight gain and feed efficiency in Vanaraja chicken by supplementing the diet with higher concentrations of mannanase and xylanase.

Keywords: Bone ash, Guar meal, Microbial enzymes, Performance, Vanaraja birds.

*Corresponding author: svramarao1@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00009.9

Effects of Lysophospholipid Emulsifier Supplementation in the Diet of Sows

J.H. Park, J.S. Jeong and I.H. Kim*

Department of Animal Resource and Science Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714, South Korea


Park, J.H., Jeong, J.S. and Kim, I.H. 2017. Effects of lysophospholipid emulsifier supplementation in the diet of sows. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 87-93.
A total of 12 (Yorkshire×Landrace) sows (450 to 500 day old) with an average BW of 227.4±18.7 kg were used to evaluate the effect of 0.05% lysophospholipids on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of sows and piglets during the experimental period. Pigs were assigned to 3 treatment groups: 1) basal diet (CON), 2) CON+0.05% lysophospholipids after farrowing (TRT1) for 3 weeks, and 3) CON+0.05% lysophospholipids from 2 weeks before farrowing upto 3 weeks after farrowing (TRT2) i.e. for 5 weeks. Each treatment group comprised 4 sows. TRT1 and TRT2 groups showed no significant effects on growth performance of sows and piglets and nutrient digestibility of sows, as compared with CON (P>0.05). TRT1 group sows had decreased BW, after farrowing 1.2% and weanling 2.5%; increased BW loss, 7.8%; and increased litter, 3.4%. Likewise, TRT2 group sows had decreased BW, weanling 2.0%; increased BW loss, 27.8%; and increased litter, 14.9%, as compared with CON. Piglets on 0.05% lysophospholipids supplement had improved BW (TRT1, up to 12.4%; and TRT2, up to 18.0%) and an average daily gain (TRT1, up to 18.1%; and TRT2, up to 24.9%), as compared with CON, even though there were no significant effects. The overall results indicated that 0.05% lysophospholipids supplementation does not increase growth performance of sows but might be reflected as positive growth performance in piglets.

Keywords: Growth performance, Lysophospholipids, Nutrient digestibility, Piglet, Sow

*Corresponding author: inhokim@dankook.ac.kr

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00010.5

Interaction of Acidified Sodium Chlorite with Dietary Energy and Feed Enzymes in Broiler Chicken

R. Thakur* and A.B. Mandal

Division of Avian Nutrition and Feed Technology Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India


Thakur, R. and Mandal, A.B. 2017. Interaction of acidified sodium chlorite with dietary energy and feed enzymes in broiler chicken. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 95-106.
In today’s world, there is need to sanitize feeds and enhance energy utilization from available feed resources in poultry. So the present experiment was conducted to study the interaction of acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) with dietary energy and feed enzymes in broiler chicken. Twelve diets with two energy levels (2800 and 3000 kcal/kg) each treated with 0, 100 and 250 ppm of ASC and with or without addition of feed enzymes (30 g per quintal) were formulated following a 2×2×3 factorial design. Each dietary treatment was offered to respective group, having 4 replicates of 8 chicks in each. Results revealed that feed energy level accrued significant variation (P<0.001) in live weight and the birds which received 3000 kcal />kg energy had significantly (P<0.001) higher body weight. the feed intake was not affected by either the level of dietary energy or exogenous enzyme supplementation but asc level at 250 ppm suppressed feed intake. the ph and water holding capacity of meat samples was similar amongst all the treatment groups, however, asc treatment increased thio-barbituric acid reactive substance value (p<0.001) in a dose dependent manner. Higher dietary energy also increased the weight of spleen and improved humoral immunity. From this study, it may be concluded the zoo-technical performance and immunocompetence was significantly better in birds offered higher energy feed and apparently no interaction was observed between ASC, dietary energy level and feed enzymes. On the other hand oxidative stability of meat was compromised at higher level of ASC.

Keywords: Acidified sodium chlorite, Broiler, Energy, Enzymes, Immuno-competence.

*Corresponding author: drtcari@yahoo.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00011.7

Effect of Dietary Esterified Glucomannan on the Performance of Broiler Chickens During Experimental Aflatoxicosis

M.R. Wade and D. Sapcota*

Department of Poultry Science College of Veterinary Science, Guwahati-781 022, India


Wade, M.R. and Sapcota, D. 2017. Effect of dietary esterified glucomannan on the performance of broiler chickens during experimental aûatoxicosis. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 107-116.
The amelioration effect of dietary esterified glucomannan (EGM) was studied in experimental aflatoxicosis using broiler chickens. Day-old chicks (n=270) were divided into 6 treatment groups, containing 45 numbers in each and the study was made in triplicates for 6 weeks. A control ration was prepared with conventional feedstuffs and an experimental diet was made from this ration after incorporating aflatoxin (AF) B1 at 300 ppb. From experimental diet, three rations were prepared by mixing EGM at graded levels i.e., 0.025, 0.05 or 0.10%; whereas, the positive control diet had 0.05% EGM. Significantly (P<0.05) higher bw gain was recorded in the control as well as positive control birds as compared to all treated groups. toxin-alone fed group showed significantly lowest bw. feeding of egm could partially improve the bw of toxin fed broilers. the feed consumption in toxin-fed groups were significantly depressed; however, there was partial improvement due to the supplementation of egm in their diets. the feed efficiency was also inferior in the toxin-alone fed group; however, when egm was supplemented there was significant (p<0.05), though partial improvement. The cost of feeding per kg live weight was found to be lowest in control group whereas highest in toxin-alone fed group; nevertheless, dietary EGM reduced cost of feeding. The highest performance index was noted in control group whereas the lowest in toxin-alone fed group. Among the various treatments, 0.10 per cent of EGM gave the best results.

Keywords: Aflatoxicosis, Broiler chicken, Esterified glucomannan, Performance.

*Corresponding author: debensapcota@yahoo.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00012.9

Performance, Haematological and Serum Biochemical Profile of Cockerels Fed Diets Supplemented with Fermented Moringa oleifera Seeds

R.M.O. Kayode and A.J. Afolayan*

Medicinal Plant and Economic Development Research Centre Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa


Kayode, R.M.O. and Afolayan, A.J. 2017. Performance, haematological and serum biochemical profile of cockerels fed diets supplemented with fermented Moringa oleifera seeds. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 117-126.
Attempt to combat the increasing cost of animal feed has motivated researchers interest in nonconventional feedstuffs. Moringa oleifera is known for its high nutritional and medicinal properties. Utilization of the seeds as animal feed ingredient is limited due to inherent anti-nutritional factors. This study investigated the performance, serum biochemical, haematological and carcass quality criteria of cockerels fed processed moringa seeds. The seeds were fermented with culture of Lactobacillus bulgaricus (24×106 cfu/g) before incorporation in cockerel diets. Four diets were formulated consisting of a control and processed seed based diets. Ninety six un-sexed day old cockerels were fed ad libitum and water administered twice daily for six weeks. Performance indices and blood samples were taken for analysis. Feed intake and weight gain were higher (P<0.05) in cockerels fed fermented moringa based diets compared with those fed unfermented diet. the body weight of cockerels fed fermented moringa oleifera seed meal (fmsm) were not different (p<0.05) from the control. Feed conversion ratios of cockerels fed fermented diets were not different (P<0.05) from the control. The haematological indices of the treatment birds and control were within normal range for a healthy bird. Cholesterol and triglyceride constituents of the cockerels fed moringa based diets were generally lower than control. The dressed carcass, thigh and breast weights of the chickens fed diet FMSM and control were not significantly different (P<0.05). However, they were higher compared with cockerels fed Fermented and Unfermented Moringa oleifera seed meal blend (FUMSM) and Unfermented Moringa oleifera seed meal (UMSM). This study suggested 20% inclusion of fermented Moringa oleifera seeds in cockerels’ diet without deleterious effect.

Keywords: Blood parameters, Carcass quality, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Moringa seed, Performance.

*Corresponding author: aafolayan@ufh.ac.za

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00013.0

Incorporation of Ghee Residue as a Feed Ingredient for Labeo rohita Fingerlings

P. Singh, B.N. Paul*, G.C. Rana, R.N. Mandal, P.P. Chakrabarti and S.S. Giri

Regional Research Centre of Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture Rahara, Kolkata-700 118, India


Singh, P., Paul, B.N., Rana, G.C., Mandal, R.N., Chakrabarti, P.P. and Giri, S.S. 2017. Incorporation of ghee residue as feed ingredient for labeo rohita fingerlings. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 127-136.
A 96-day feeding trial was conducted in four ponds of 0.04 ha each to evaluate the efficacy of ghee residue based diet against control diet on growth performance of rohu fingerlings (Av. wt. 10.81±0.91). The feed was prepared with (GR20) and without (GR0 ) 20% ghee residue (GR) along with other feed ingredients. The net weight gain, protein efficiency ratio and daily growth co-efficient during the 96d trial were significantly (P<0.05) higher in ghee residue fed group (gr20). the fcr also improved significantly (p> 0.05) in GR20 (1.75±0.05) as compared to the GR0 (2.23±0.08) group. The specific growth rate and specific feeding rate did not differ significantly between the treatments. The carcass composition revealed that the crude fat content was significantly (P<0.05) higher in group (gr20). however, protein ash and moisture content did not differ significantly between the groups. the minerals content of rohu fingerlings did not differ between the groups. the fatty acid profile of the fish fillet after the experiment revealed that both mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acid composition was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the group GR20 compared to GR0 . It is concluded that incorporation of 20% ghee residue in the diet resulted in better growth performance in rohu fingerlings.

Keywords: Ghee residue, Pond, Labeo rohita, Growth and Carcass composition.

*Corresponding author: bnpaulcifa@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00014.2

Influence of Extract Mixture from Scutellaria baicalensis and Lonicera japonica on Egg Production, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Profiles and Egg Quality in Laying Hens Reared in Hot Humid Season

Wen-Chao Liu and In-Ho Kim*

Department of Animal Resource and Science Dankook University, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-714, South Korea


Liu, W.C. and Kim, I.H. 2017. Influence of extract mixture from scutellaria baicalensis and lonicera japonica on egg production, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles and egg quality in laying hens reared in hot humid season. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 137-146.
Heat stress is a demanding issue that results in substantial economic losses for the hens’ husbandry industry. A 8-wk feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the dietary herbal extract mixture (Scutellaria baicalensis and Lonicera japonica, HEM) supplementation as a means of ameliorative strategy against the adverse effects of seasonal heat stress on performance of laying hens. In total, 288 ISA Brown 25- wk-old layers were divided into three treatments: CON, basal diet; T1, basal diet with 0.025% HEM; T2, basal diet with 0.05% HEM. There were no differences (P>0.05) in egg production and nutrient digestibility among treatments throughout the experimental period. The HEM supplementation increased (P<0.05) eggshell thickness and eggshell strength during 4th and 8th wk, respectively. compared with con, yolk height was increased (p<0.01) in response to HEM treatments during the 8th wk. The Haugh unit was improved (P<0.01) by the addition of HEM in 4th wk and 8th wk. Additionally, there was a significant reduction (P<0.05) in serum cortisol concentration upon dietary supplementation of 0.05% HEM. In conclusion, precised HEM supplementation could improve eggshell strength and shelf life in laying hens when reared under hot climatic conditions.

Keywords: Cortisol, Egg quality, Heat stress, Herbal extract, Laying hens.

*Corresponding author: inhokim@dankook.ac.kr

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00015.4

Dietary Lysine Requirement for Optimal Productivity and Carcass Characteristics of Growing Indigenous Venda Chicken

O.J. Alabi*, J.W. Ng'ambi, D. Norris, E.F. Mbajiorgu, M. Mabelebele and C.A. Mbajiorgu

Research Office, University of Limpopo Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa


Alabi, O.J., Ng’ambi, J.W., Norris, D., Mbajiorgu, E.F., Mabelebele, M. and Mbajiorgu, C.A. 2017. Dietary lysine requirement for optimal productivity and carcass characteristics of growing indigenous venda chicken. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 147-155.
A study was conducted to determine the levels of dietary lysine requirements for optimal productivity and carcass characteristics of growing indigenous Venda chicken from 1–13 wks of age involving 200 unsexed day-old indigenous Venda chicks during first experiment and 160 female chicks during the second experiment. In each feed trial, the chicks were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments with varying lysine levels L6 (0.6%), L8 (0.8%), L10 (1.0%) and L12 (1.2%) in a completely randomized design. L-Lysine-HCl at the expense of inert filler (sand) was used to balance the diet. The initial LW of the birds were taken and at weekly intervals thereafter. At 91d of age all the chickens in each pen were slaughtered and the carcass and haematological parameters determined. Results showed that feed intake, growth rate at the starter and growing phases were influenced (P<0.05) by dietary lysine level. carcass weight, dressing percentage, breast meat and drumstick weights were also influenced (p<0.05) by dietary lysine level. However, dietary lysine level had no effect (P>0.05) on FCR, metabilosable energy and mortality at starter and growing phases. Furthermore, thigh, wings, fat pad weights and haematological parameters were not influenced (P>0.05) by the dietary lysine treatments. Dietary lysine levels of 0.97 and 1.07% DM optimized feed intake and growth rate at the starter phase, respectively. While dietary lysine levels of 0.82 and 0.94 % DM optimized feed intake and growth rate, respectively, at the growing phase. Dietary lysine levels of 0.91, 0.96, 0.98 and 0.93% DM optimized carcass weight, dressing percentage, breast meat and drumstick weights, respectively. These results have implications on ration formulation for indigenous chickens.

Keywords: Carcass characteristics, Haematological, Lysine, Requirements.

*Corresponding author: ejifun@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00016.6

Efficacy of Propionic, Benzoic and Tartaric Acids in Preventing Biosynthesis of Aflatoxins in Poultry Feed

Ram Singh*, A.B. Mandal and Avishek Biswas

Division of Avian Nutrition and Feed Technology Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India


Singh, R., Mandal, A.B. and Biswas, A. 2017. Efficacy of propionic, benzoic and tartaric acids in preventing biosynthesis of aflatoxins in poultry feed. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 157-164
A poultry feed was prepared using conventional feed ingredients which is free from aflatoxins. The moisture content of the feed was adjusted at 11, 13, 15 and 17%, respectively. The feeds with each level of moisture were then mixed with propionic, benzoic or tartaric acid each at various concentrations of 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, 0.35, 0.40, 0.45 and 0.50%, respectively. Samples were taken in a 500 ml conical flask in duplicate, inoculated with fresh spores mould (Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999) producing aflatoxins, incubated at room temperature for a period of one month and then analysed for the presence of aflatoxins (AFB1 , AFB2 , AFG1 and AFG2 ). The results showed that at 11 % moisture level in feed, aflatoxin biosynthesis did not occur in any of the treatments. However, with the increase in moisture content in feed from 11 to 17%, there was increase in production of the aflatoxins. Complete inhibition of aflatoxins synthesis at 13% moisture level was achieved at 0.25% propionic or 0.30% benzoic or 0.40% tartaric acid concentration. The biosynthesis of any of the aflatoxins was completely inhibited at 0.50% propionic or benzoic acid in feed containing 15% moisture. However, propionic or benzoic or tartaric citric acid at 0.50% level in feed, failed to completely inhibit the synthesis of any of the four fractions of aflatoxins in feeds containing 17% moisture level, though with the increased concentrations of acids, the biosynthesis of total as well as individual fractions of aflatoxins decreased. It is thus concluded that the production of aflatoxin at 13% moisture level in poultry feed can be completely inhibited by adding propionic acid @ 0.25% or benzoic acid @ 0.30% or tartaric acid @ 0.40%. However, the level of organic acids varied with incresing level of moisture in the diet. Further, propionic acid was more efficaceous than benzoic or tartaric acid in inhibiting the synthesis of aflatoxins.

Keywords: Aflatoxin, Aspergillus parasiticus, Benzoic acid, Feed, Propionic acid, Tartaric acid.

*Corresponding author: carirsingh@yahoo.co.in

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00017.8

Effects of Bale Density and Number of Stretch Film Layers on Chemical Composition and Silage Quality Class of Sorghum Bale Silage

C. Yildiz

University of Ataturk, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agriculture Machinery, 25240, Erzurum, Turkey


Yildiz, C. 2017. Effects of bale density and number of stretch film layers on chemical composition and silage quality class of sorghum bale silage. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 165-172.
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different bale density and the number of stretch film layers on chemical composition and quality of sorghum bale silage. In this research, Early Sumac variety of sorghum was used as the silage material, bale silage as the silage making technique and silage stretch film as the wrapping material. Research was arranged as 2×3 factorial following a completely randomized experiment design and four replications were carried out. Sorghum bales were carried out on two different densities (450 and 650 kg/m3 ) and were wrapped in three different numbers of stretch film layers (2, 3 and 4 layers). Sorghum bales were stored outside for 120 days and opened after the ensiling period and were subjected to physical evaluation and chemical analysis. According to the results of the physical evaluation, it was determined that all sorghum silages were of very good quality class. Bale density and the number of stretch film layer was determined to have an insignificant effect on the physical evaluation (P>0.05). According to the results of chemical analysis, increased bale density and the number of stretch film layers decreased pH values and increased dry matter content of silage. From the results, it was concluded that increasing bale density and the number of stretch film layers would have a positive effect on the quality of sorghum silage.

Keywords: Bale density, Bale silage, Number of layer, Sorghum, Stretch film.

*Corresponding author: cyildiz@atauni.edu.tr

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00018.X

In Vitro Fermentation and Methane Production with Diets of Varying Roughage (Prosopis cineraria leaves) to Concentrate Ratio

P. Meena, A. Uddin, M.K. Tripathi and V.K. Paswan*

Department of Livestock Production Management, SKN College of Agriculture Sri Karan Narendra Agriculture University, Jobner-303 329, India


Meena, P., Uddin, A., Tripathi, M.K. and Paswan, V.K. 2017. In vitro fermentation and methane production with diets of varying roughage (Prosopis cineraria leaves) to concentrate ratio. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 173-179.
The experiment was conducted to study the effect of varying concentrate levels in diets with Prosopis cineraria dry leaves on in-vitro fermentation characteristics and methane production. Three composite feed mixtures (CFM) were prepared using Prosopis cineraria (Khejri) dry leaves as roughage source and barley grain in ratio of 80:20 (D1 ), 60:40 (D2 ) and 40:60 (D3 ) respectively, along with 2% mineral mixture and 1% common salt. The in-vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), metabolites and methane production were measured for 24 h fermentation. In-vitro experiment revealed that increasing concentrate levels improved (P<0.05) the ivdmd of diets, which ranged from 70.18 to 74.25% and remained highest in d3 . total gas (ml />g DDM) and methane (g/kg DDM) production as well as ME (MJ/ kg DM) production were increased (P<0.05) with increasing levels of concentrate in the diets. there was a non-significant decrease in the ph of fermentation medium on increasing concentrate levels in the diets. tca-ppt protein was reduced (p<0.05) whereas NH3 N, TVFA and protozoa population increased (P<0.05) by increasing concentrate levels in the diets. It is concluded that increasing level of concentrate improved total gas and methane production along with IVDMD. Methane production was lowest in diets having more Prosopis cineraria dry leaves because of high content of tannins in it, which inhibits the production of methane and reduced the population of protozoa.

Keywords: In vitro Fermentation, Methane Production, Prosopis cineraria.

*Corresponding author: vkpaswan.vet@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2017.00019.1

Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Organic Acids in Combination on Performance and Carcass Traits of Broiler Chicken

V.R. Ramigani, J.V. Ramana*, D. Srinivasa Rao, S. Shakila and J. Suresh

Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science, Tirupati-517 502, AP, India


Ramigani, V.R., Ramana, J.V., Rao, D.S., Shakila, S. and Suresh, J. 2017. Effect of dietary supplementation of organic acids in combination on performance and carcass traits of broiler chicken. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 181-187.
The present study was carried out with an objective to investigate the production performance and carcass traits of broilers fed with different organic acid combination supplemented diets. Basal pre-starter, starter and finisher broiler diets were formulated as per the nutrient requirements (ICAR, 2013). Six experimental diets, viz. T1 (Basal diet), T2 (Basal diet+antibiotic @ 50 g/100 kg), T3 (Basal diet+20:40:40 combination of citric, formic and propionic acids @ 1.5 g/100g), T4 (Basal diet+30:40:30 combination of citric, formic and propionic acids @ 1.0 g/100g), T5 (Basal diet+ 30:30:40 combination of citric, formic and propionic acids @ 1.0 g/100g), T6 (Basal diet+10:45:45 combination of citric, formic and propionic acids @ 1.5 g/100g) were prepared. Two hundred and seventy day old, straight run commercial broiler chicks were distributed randomly to six treatments with three replicates of fifteen birds each and fed with the experimental diets from 0 to 42 days of age. Body weight gains and feed efficiency were significantly (P<0.05) improved during all phases of the experiment. feed intake in organic acid supplemented groups (t3 to t6 ) was significantly (p<0.05) reduced during the pre-starter and starter phases. Organic acid supplementation revealed no significant (P>0.05) difference in the ready- to- cookyields among the groups, but significantly (P<0.05) increased giblet yields on % live weight basis. The organic acid combination of citric, formic and propionic at 20:40:40 combination could be safely incorporated at 1.5% level in broiler diets for better performance.

Keywords: Acid binding capacity, Buffering capacity, BW gain, Feed efficiency, Organic acids.

*Corresponding author: jvenkataramana@rediffmail.com


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