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2018 Issues


DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00028.8

Effect of Supplementation of Nano Zinc on Rumen Fermentation and Fiber Degradability in Goats

P.S. Swain1, S.B.N. Rao, D. Rajendran*, N.M. Soren, D.T. Pal and S. Karthik Bhat

ICAR-National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology Bangalore-560 030, India


Swain, P.S., Rao, S.B.N., Rajendran, D., Soren, N.M., Pal, D.T. and Karthik Bhat, S. 2018. Effect of supplementation of nano zinc on rumen fermentation and fiber degradability in goats. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 297-309.
A study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of nano-zinc as a feed supplement on rumen fermentation and nutrient digestibility in goats (Capra hircus). Nano-sized zinc was synthesized by using 0.45M aqueous solution of zinc nitrate and 0.9M aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide as a salt of ZnO in nano form (NZnO). The particle size thus obtained was 74 nm and later it was confirmed to be zinc by using TEM-EDAX. Twenty-four male goats were divided in four groups on the basis of BW and were supplemented with either a basal diet with concentrate and straw at 50:50 ratio (Control) alone or supplemented with 50 ppm zinc from inorganic ZnO (IZn-50), 50 ppm zinc from NZnO (NZn-50) or 25 ppm zinc from NZnO (NZn-25). The digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, total carbohydrates, and nutritive value of the diets in terms of DCP, TDN (%) and ME (Mcal/kg) did not vary (P>0.05) among treatment groups. The ADF and cellulose digestibility was significantly higher (P<0.05) in all three zincsupplemented groups than control. Supplementation of graded doses of NZn did not alter the individual and total ruminal VFA profile in goats, but the soluble zinc content in the rumen liquor was higher in NZn-50 than NZn-25 and control. The rumen pH and protozoa count was higher in NZn-50 than control, IZn-50, and NZn-25. Nano Zn at 50 mg/kg DM altered the rumen pH, total protozoa count, fibre degradation and soluble zinc content in goats without affecting the individual and total VFA profile. It is concluded that nano Zn can be supplemented at half the dose of inorganic Zn without affecting rumen VFA profile, rumen soluble Zn content in goats.

Keywords: Fibre degradation, Goats, Nano zinc, Rumen fermentation, VFA.

*Corresponding author: rajnutri@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00029.X

Effect of Dietary Soapnut (Sapindus mukorossi) Shell Powder on Selected Stress Indices, Lipid Profile and Litter Quality in Broiler Breeders

S.K. Chaudhary*, R. Bhar1, A.B. Mandal2, J.J. Rokade2, S.E. Jadhav, A. Kannan3 and Gopi M.2

Division of Animal Nutrition ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India


Chaudhary, S.K., Bhar, R., Mandal, A.B., Rokade, J.J., Jadhav, S.E., Kannan, A. and Gopi M. 2018. Effect of dietary soapnut (Sapindus mukorossi) shell powder on selected stress indices, lipid profile and litter quality in broiler breeders. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 311-320.
The present experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of soapnut shell powder (SSP) supplementation on zootechnical parameters, stress indices, indices lipid profile, haemato-biochemical and excreta moisture level in broiler breeders. A total of ninety six female and twenty four male broiler breeders of thirty eight weeks age were reared separately. The birds were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments consisting of three replicates of 8 female and 2 male birds in each. All the birds were fed on a basal diet for 42d. The dietary groups T1 (control), T2, T3 and T4 were supplemented with SSP to have a supplementary saponin at 0, 50, 75 and 150 ppm in diet, respectively. Results revealed that the fortnight feed intake and BW of dietary groups did not differ significantly (P>0.05). Serum corticosterone and heterophil/lymphocyte ratio showed significant (P<0.05) reduction in both the sex of the birds. Serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol were significantly decreased (P<0.001), whereas, HDL-cholesterol level increased (P<0.001) in SSP supplemented groups, in both the sex of breeder birds. Dietary SSP supplementation did not alter other assessed parameters related to hematological, serum biochemical, enzyme and mineral parameters. Excreta moisture content was significantly (P<0.05) lower in T4 group in comparison to T1, T2 and T3 groups in both the sex of birds. Thus, it is concluded that SSP, as feed additive, can be supplemented at the rate of 150 ppm in broiler breeders for improvement in the performance and stress alleviation.

Keywords: Broiler breeder, Corticosterone, Lipid profile, Saponin, Stress.

*Corresponding author: sandy6050@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00030.6

Effect of a Phytogenic Feed Additive Supplemented Diet on Growth Performance, Hemato-biochemical Profile and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens

V.B. Singh, V.K. Singh*, D. Dwivedi, D. Tiwari, S.P. Singh and V.V. Singh

Department of Animal Nutrition College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology Kumarganj-224 229, India


Singh, V.B., Singh, V.K., Dwivedi, D., Tiwari, D., Singh, S.P. and Singh, V.V. 2018. Effect of a phytogenic feed additive supplemented diet on growth performance, hemato-biochemical profile and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 321-331.
The aim of this work was to assess the efficacy of a phytogenic feed additive (PFA) as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) on the performance of broilers. Day-old Vencobb-400Y broiler chicks (n=250) were randomly divided into five groups, each with five replicates of 10 chicks and fed a basal diet with either no added growth promoter (negative control; NCON), or with an antibiotic (positive control; PCON) or with the PFA at 0.25% (PFA-L), 1.25% (PFA-M) and 2.5% (PFA-H). The effect of dietary treatments was assessed in a 6-week study. Supplementation of 2.5% PFA gave better response than others, even than PCON birds. The BW gain, feed intake and growth rate of PFA-H birds were similar (P>0.05) to PCON birds. However, PFA-H group showed lower FCR and higher performance index than PCON group. The mean WBC count was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the birds of PFA supplemented groups than NCON and PCON group birds. The H:L ratio was lower in PFA-M and PFAH groups in comparison to NCON group birds. The serum cholesterol concentration in PFA-supplemented birds was significantly (P<0.05) lower in comparison to PCON group birds. Serum ALT and AST levels in PFA-H birds were the lowest (P<0.05) while the highest ALT level was observed in PCON birds. The drawn yield percentage in PFA-M and PFA-H group was significantly (P<0.05) higher than PCON group. The economic gain by PFA supplementation at 2.5% level was higher than NCON, but lower than PCON. It is concluded that the selected PFA may be used at level of 2.5% in broilers feed as an effective alternative to antibiotic growth promoters.

Keywords: Antibiotic growth promoter, Broiler, Feed additive, Phytogenic.

*Corresponding author: vksinghnduat@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00031.8

Evaluation of Purine Derivatives:Creatinine Index of Spot Urine Samples as an Indicator of Plane of Nutrition in Goats

Mokshata Gupta*, R.K. Sharma, Ankur Rastogi and T.K. Varun1

Division of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu R.S. Pura, Jammu-181 102, India


Gupta, Mokshata, Sharma, R.K., Rastogi, Ankur and Varun, T.K. 2018. Evaluation of purine derivatives:creatinine index of spot urine samples as an indicator of plane of nutrition in goats. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 333-342.
The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of plane of nutrition on purine derivatives excretion in goats. Eighteen non-descript adult bucks were randomly divided into three equal groups in a randomized block design, and were fed either a control diet (CON), or diets with 40% protein restriction (PR) and 40% energy restriction (ER), respectively, for a period of one month. A metabolism trial was conducted at the end of the feeding trial. Spot urine samples were collected at weekly intervals and analyzed for various purine derivative parameters. The results indicated lower (P<0.01) intake of DM, OM and TDN in ER group along with higher (P<0.01) digestibility of DM and CP. A lower (P<0.01) CP intake and its digestibility (P<0.01) was observed in PR group with higher values in ER group. The concentration of purine derivatives in spot urine samples and purine derivatives:creatinine index (PDC) was found lower (P<0.01) in ER group as compared to CON and PR group. It is concluded that PDC index appears to be an effective indicator of energy deficiency in the ration of goats; however it remained unaffected by the dietary protein deficiency employed in the current study.

Keywords: Goats, PDC index, Plane of nutrition, Purine derivatives, Spot urine.

*Corresponding author: mokshtagupta1407@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00032.X

Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Lutein and DL-Methionine on Serum Antioxidant Profile and Cellular Immunity of Captive Golden Pheasants (Chrysolophus pictus)

R.K. Yogi, A. Das1*, M. Saini, S.S. Kullu, Y. Bhardwaj2, S.K. Bhanja3, S.K. Soren3 and A.K. Sharma

Centre for Wildlife Conservation, Management and Disease Surveillance ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India


Yogi, R.K., Das, A., Saini, M., Kullu, S.S., Bhardwaj, Y., Bhanja, S.K., Soren, S.K. and Sharma, A.K. 2018. Effects of dietary supplementation of lutein and DL-methionine on serum antioxidant profile and cellular immunity of captive golden pheasants (Chrysolophus pictus). Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 343-353.
Both carotenoids and methionine independently act as antioxidant and immune-modulator. As captive pheasant’s diets are deficient in these nutrients, supplementation of either of these nutrients alone or in combination could be expected to be beneficial. Hence, this experiment was conducted to study the effect of supplementing lutein and DL-methionine on serum antioxidant status and cellular immunity of captive golden pheasants. Twenty-four adult male golden pheasants were randomly distributed into four groups of six each in an experiment based on 2×2 factorial designs. Basal diet contained no supplementary lutein or DL-methionine (M0C0). The diets of the birds in group M0C1 were supplemented with lutein (40 mg/kg DM) without supplementary DL methionine, whereas, those in group M1C0 were supplemented only with DL-methionine (1.5 g/kg DM). Birds in group M1C1 were fed both the supplements. Supplementation of lutein, but not DL methionine resulted in increased (P<0.01) serum concentration of total carotenoids, total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase, along with reduced (P<0.01) concentration of malondialdehyde. Supplementation of both lutein and DL-methionine increased (P<0.01) serum concentration of reduced glutathione; however, the best response was observed when both the supplements were fed together. Supplementation of lutein increased the foot web index which is suggestive of improved cellular immunity. It is concluded that feeding of supplementary lutein at 40 mg/kg DM would improve the antioxidant status and cellular immune response of captive golden pheasants.

Keywords: Carotenoids, Chinese pheasants, Foot web index,Total antioxidant capacity

*Corresponding author: drasitdas@rediffmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00033.1

Effect of In Ovo Feeding of Tryptophan on Post-Hatch Production Performance and Immune Response in Commercial Broilers

Nibedita Nayak*, R.A. Rajini, J.J. Kirubaharan1, S. Ezhilvalavan2 and A.R. Sahu3

Department of Poultry Science Madras Veterinary College, Chennai-600 007, India


Nayak, Nibedita, Rajini, R.A., Kirubaharan, J.J., Ezhilvalavan, S. and Sahu, A.R. 2018. Effect of in ovo feeding of tryptophan on post-hatch production performance and immune response in commercial broilers. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 355-366.
In order to evaluate the post-hatch production performance, immunocompetence and muscle fibre diameter of broilers following in ovo supplementation of tryptophan on 18d of incubation, 420 fertile eggs collected from 34 weeks-old broiler breeder were randomly divided into three treatment groups: noninjected control (CON), injected control (NSS; 0.5 ml of normal saline) and tryptophan (TRP; 0.5 ml of 0.5% tryptophan). On day of hatch, 108 chicks were randomly selected from each treatment and reared on cage having six replicates in each for a period of 35d under standard management practices. Total RNA was isolated from the splenocytes of 10 birds at 4, 17 and 32d, and the cDNA was prepared. The amplification of target immune genes (IFN-γ and IL-8) was carried out in a real time PCR. Percent hatchability in the TRP group was apparently higher than the un-injected CON group. Placement weight showed significant (P<0.01) difference among treatments with the TRP chicks having significant higher weight. Though cumulative feed intake was higher in TRP group, but there was no significant difference in feed efficiency. Compared to CON group, the TRP group had higher livability. Further, in ovo tryptophan feeding resulted in higher breast yield and breast muscle fibre diameter (P<0.01). The TRP birds tended to have higher thymus weight accompanying better immune response through IFN-γ gene. The expression of IL-8 gene was more in CON followed by the TRP group. The HI titer against ND virus on 4d was more in all treatment groups as compared to CON. Additionally, the TRP groups had exhibited significantly (P<0.01) higher H/L ratio on 21 and 35d. It is concluded that in ovo feeding of TRP increased in hatch weight, livability, immunocompetence and breast meat yield.

Keywords: Broiler production, Immunity, In ovo feeding, Muscle fibre, Tryptophan.

*Corresponding author: drnibeditavet@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00034.3

Milk Production in Goats on Veld Hay Supplemented with Selected Legume Forages

S. Katsande*, J.J. Baloyi, F.V. Nherera-Chokuda1, N.T. Ngongoni2, G. Matope3 and J. Gusha3

Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, South Africa


Katsande, S., Baloyi, J.J., Nherera-Chokuda, F.V., Ngongoni, N.T., Matope, G. and Gusha, J. 2018. Milk production in goats on veld hay supplemented with selected legume forages. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 367-375.
This study was designed to investigate the effects of supplementing silverleaf (Desmodium uncunatum), velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) forage legumes to low quality veld hay on milk production in indigenous goats. Sixteen Mashona indigenous lactating goats (weighing 30±2 kg) in their third parity were divided into four dietary treatment groups and used in a completely randomized design experiment. The daily feed intake on the treatment diets and hay was significantly (P<0.05) higher in goats supplemented with commercial concentrate feed (served as control) followed by cowpea, velvet bean and silverleaf. Total DM and ME intakes were not significantly (P>0.05) different among the dietary groups. Milk yield was significantly different among the legume supplemented diets. Daily BW loss was significantly higher in goats supplemented with cowpea, as compared to those supplemented with commercial concentrate feed, silverleaf and velvet bean. The levels of milk production attained in this study implied that commercial concentrate feeds can be substituted with forage legumes without affecting either the milk yield or composition in goats and at lower cost especially for resourceconstrained farming areas.

Keywords: Indigenous goats, Legume supplements, Milk production, Milk composition,Veld hay.

*Corresponding author: simbarashe46@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00035.5

Effect of Sodium Butyrate as an Antibiotic Substitute on Production Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Economics in Broiler Chicken

K. Deepa*, M.R. Purushothaman, P. Vasanthakumar1 and K. Sivakumar2

Department of Animal Nutrition Veterinary College and Research Institute (TANUVAS) Namakkal-637002, India


Deepa, K., Purushothaman, M.R., Vasanthakumar, P. and Sivakumar, K. 2018. Effect of sodium butyrate as an antibiotic substitute on production performance, carcass characteristics and economics in broiler chicken. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 377-387.
A feeding trial was conducted to assess the influence of sodium butyrate as an antibiotic-substitute in broiler chicken. The trial consisted of six experimental groups with 12 replicates, each containing 6 chicks with a total of 432 birds. The experimental groups consisted of a control group fed the diet without antibiotic (CON), another group fed the diet with antibiotic oxytetracycline (50 ppm; AB), and groups fed the diet with two levels each of coated-sodium butyrate (CSB) at 0.09 and 0.18%, and uncoatedsodium butyrate (UCSB) at 0.03 and 0.06% without antibiotic. The trial was carried out in deep litter pen for 42d. The birds fed the control diet showed poor growth rate than the other treatment groups except for the birds fed with 0.03% of UCSB. The CON birds had reduced (P<0.01) feed intake when compared to groups fed AB or CSB and UCSB at both levels with better (P<0.01) feed efficiency than birds fed diet with AB or lower levels of CSB and UCSB. Feed efficiency of birds with lower levels of CSB and UCSB were comparable to the AB group birds. All the slaughter parameters remained uninfluenced by supplementation of both levels of CSB or UCSB and AB except for the eviscerated carcass weight. Economic returns were found to be better in group supplemented with UCSB than the respective levels of CSB. Hence, it can be concluded that, sodium butyrate could be considered as replacement for dietary oxytetracycline.

Keywords: Broiler chicken, Feed efficiency, Oxytetracycline, Production, Sodium butyrate.

*Corresponding author email: kdeepa92@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00036.7

Genetic Variability in Food and Feed Traits of Early Maturing Desi Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) for Multi- Dimensional Improvement

A. Alkhtib*, J. Wamatu, T.T. Ejeta1 and B. Rischkowsky

International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) P.O Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia


Alkhtib, A., Wamatu, J., Ejeta, T.T. and Rischkowsky, B. 2018. Genetic variability in food and feed traits of early maturing desi chickpea (Cicer arietinum) for multi-dimensional improvement. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 389-398.
This study aimed to determine whether straw traits can be integrated into multi-trait improvement of chickpea. Twenty-four improved varieties and one local variety released for high grain yield were replicated 4-times in a randomized complete block trial in two locations in Ethiopia. Straw of the local variety was treated with 4% urea on DM basis and the change in nutritive value was used as a baseline to qualify enhancement of nutritive value as a result of varietal variation. All straw samples were evaluated for proximate analysis and ME using a combination of conventional nutritional laboratory analyses and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Effect of variety, location and variety×location interaction on grain yield, straw yield and straw nutritive value was significant (P<0.05). Urea treatment significantly (P<0.001) improved straw content of CP and ME by 49 and 4%, respectively. The average exploitable genotypic range was higher than the effect of urea treatment by 8.3 units for CP and 0.35 units for ME. Correlation between grain yield and straw traits was weak in all locations. It is concluded that there is a possibility to simultaneously improve grain yield and straw traits of chickpea using appropriate breeding programs. Genetic improvement of the nutritive value of chickpea straw would provide farmers with a sustainable alternative to urea treatment.

Keywords: Chickpea, Food-feed, Straw, Treatment, Urea, Variety.

*Corresponding author: E-mail: a.s.alkhtib@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00037.9

Effects of Sumac and Ginger as Feed Additives on the Performance, Egg Traits and Blood Parameters of Atak-S Laying Hens

Y. Gurbuz* and Y.G. Salih

Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture University of Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam, Campus of Avsar Kahramanmaras, Turkey


Gurbuz, Y. and Salih, Y.G. 2018. Effects of sumac and ginger as feed additives on the performance, egg traits and blood parameters of Atak-S laying hens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 399-408.
This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of sumac (Rhus coriaria) seed powder (SSP) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) root powder (GRP) on the nutrient utilization, laying performance and blood parameters of Atak-S laying hens. Experimental laying hens (n=63) were assigned to seven dietary treatments, and fed a basal diet alone (control) or supplemented with SSP and GRP each at 1.0 (SSP-1 and GRP-1), 2.0 (SSP-2 and GRP-2), and 3.0 (SSP-3 and GRP-3) percent levels. Each treatment had nine replicates with one hen each and they were fed diets in mash form during the experimental period of 8 weeks (25–32 weeks of age). Dietary supplementation of GRP and SSP increased (P<0.05) egg production, egg weight, and egg mass over the 8-weeks period of study. Feed intake and FCR values were decreased (P<0.05) with increasing levels of GRP and SSP in laying hens diet. However, albumin height, yolk weight, yolk colour, yolk height and Haugh unit were significantly (P<0.05) affected in this study. Additionally, serum levels of LDL decreased in all treatment groups compared with the control group. It can be concluded that sumac seed- and ginger root-powder can be used as effective feed additives to improve egg traits and performance in Atak-S laying hens.

Keywords: Atak-S hens, Egg traits, Feed additive, Ginger, Performance, Sumac.

*Correspondence: yavuz@ksu.edu.tr

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00038.0

Effect of Dietary Black Cumin (Nigella sativa) on the Growth Performance, Nutrient Utilization, Blood Biochemical Profile and Carcass traits in Broiler Chickens

P.K. Singh* and Anil Kumar

Department of Animal Nutrition College of Veterinary Sciences & Animal Husbandry G.B. Pant University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology Pantnagar-263 145, India


Singh, P.K. and Kumar, Anil. 2018. Effect of dietary black cumin (Nigella sativa) on the growth performance, nutrient utilization, blood biochemical profile and carcass traits in broiler chickens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 409-419.
A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of three different levels (0.50, 1.00 or 1.50%) of black cumin seeds (BCS) vis-a-vis an antibiotic growth promoter (enramycin) on the growth performance, nutrient utilization, blood biochemical constituents and carcass traits of broiler chicks. Day-old commercial broiler chicks (n=150) were distributed equally into five equal groups, each with three replicates of ten chicks. The chicks were placed on one of the dietary treatments i.e. basal diet without any supplement (CON) or 0.125 % antibiotic growth promoter (enramycin;AGP), or three graded levels of BCS namely, 0.5% (BC5), 1.0% BC (BC10) and 1.5% (BC15). The effect of these supplements on weekly feed intake, weight gain and FCR and, serum metabolites were assessed in a 6-week study. At d28 and d42 of age, the AGP, BC10 and BC15 groups had significantly (P<0.05) greater BW gain accompanying improved feed efficiency than the BC5 and the CON group. The retention of DM and CP improved significantly (P<0.05) due to AGP and black cumin seed. Supplementation of higher levels of BCS (BC10 and BC15) resulted in an increase (P<0.05) in serum total protein and decrease (P<0.05) in total cholesterol values than the BC5, AGP or CON groups. The serum levels of glucose, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, creatinine and enzymes (SGPT, SGOT and ALP) were unaffected (P>0.05) by the dietary treatments. Carcass traits like dressing yield, giblet weight, cooking loss, pH, shear force and proximate composition were also remained unaffected (P>0.05) by the dietary treatments, whereas, separable fat and meat cholesterol levels were significantly (P<0.05) reduced in broilers of BC10 and BC15 groups. It is concluded that dietary black cumin seed @1.0% can be used as a cholesterol-lowering agent and as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoter in boiler chickens.

Keywords: Antibiotic, Black cumin, Broiler, Growth performance, Carcass quality.

*Corresponding author: vetpank@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00039.2

Effect of Corn Germ Meal Based Low Phosphorus Diets on Nutrient Metabolizability and Carcass Characteristics of Colored Broilers

R.K. Sowjanya Lakshmi*, G. Gloridoss and K.C. Singh

Veterinary College Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University Bangalore-560 024, India


Sowjanya Lakshmi, R.K., Gloridoss, G. and Singh, K.C. 2018. Effect of corn germ meal based low phosphorus diets on nutrient metabolizability and carcass characteristics of colored broilers. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 421-428.
A trial was conducted to study the effect of corn germ meal (CGM) based low phosphorus diets supplemented with phytase enzyme on the performance of colored broilers (Raja-II). A total of 144 colored broiler chicks were allotted to eight treatment groups of 18 birds in each (three replicates of six birds each). Four experimental diets were prepared by incorporating CGM at 0, 15, 20 and 25 percent level (phytase –ve diets) and other four diets were prepared by supplementing phytase enzyeme to these diets where dicalcium phosphate was replaced with lime stone powder. Metabolic trial was conducted for three days and the birds were slaughtered at 42d of age to study carcass characteristics. There was significant (P<0.05) decrease in metabolizability of DM and OM with increased level of CGM inclusion irrespective of phytase inclusion. Metabolizability of CP and CF were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by either CGM level or phytase supplementation. Phytase supplementation to low phosphorus diets where DCP was replaced with limestone powder significantly (P<0.05) improved the metabolizability of EE in 0 and 25% CGM inclusion groups and metabolizability of NFE in 20 and 25% CGM inclusion groups. Carcass characteristics were not differed significantly (P>0.05) among the treatment groups. CGM inclusion in the diets reduced the metabolizability of DM, OM. Phytase enzyme supplementation to CGM based low phosphorus diets improved the metabolizability of EE and NFE. Neither CGM inclusion nor Phytase supplementation affected the metabolizability of CP, CF and carcass characteristics.

Keywords: Carcass traits, Corn Germ Meal, Metabolizability, Phytase.

*Corresponding author: soujanyavetty@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00040.9

Evaluation of Paddy Straw and Non-Forage Fibre Based Complete Feeds Containing Different Levels of Neutral Detergent Fibre for Lactating Dairy Cows

Biju Chacko*, K.M. Syam Mohan, K. Ally, K. Shyama, K.S. Anil1 and C.T. Sathian2

Department of Animal Nutrition College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy-680 651, India


Chacko, Biju, Syam Mohan, K.M., Ally, K., Shyama, K., Anil, K.S. and Sathian, C.T. 2018. Evaluation of paddy straw and non-forage fibre based complete feeds containing different levels of neutral detergent fibre for lactating dairy cows. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 429-440.
A study of six-months duration was conducted to assess the effect of different levels of NDF in paddy straw based complete feeds on nutrient utilization and production performance of cows in early- (phase I) and mid-lactation (phase II) periods. Three iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric complete rations, T1, T2 and T3 with 25, 30 and 35 per cent NDF, respectively, were formulated with paddy straw being the sole source of roughage NDF. Eighteen dairy cows within two weeks of calving were divided into three groups of six each, and allotted randomly to the three experimental rations. The average daily DMI by the cows of the three groups remained similar (P<0.05). The average daily milk yield was also similar (P<0.05) among the groups; however, cows fed on ration T3 attained peak yield earlier and remained in the peak for a longer duration as compared to the cows on T2 and T1. It could also be seen that the animals in T3 group had a lower GE intake per kg of milk produced than cows of T2 group. Among the dietary treatments, ration containing 35% NDF was the best ration. These results suggest that complete rations with 25 to 35% NDF, containing paddy straw as the sole source of roughage NDF, with the rest of NDF being met from non-forage sources, can be recommended for use among early- and midlactation dairy cows.

Keywords: Complete feeds, Cows, Milk yield, NDF, Non-forage fibre sources, Paddy straw.

*Corresponding author: bijuchacko@kvasu.ac.in

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00041.0

Effect of Fermented Total Mixed Rations Differing in Methane Production Potential on Milk Production, Methane Emission, Ruminal Fermentation, Digestibility and Performance of Lactating Dairy Cows in Thailand

M. Arangsri, V. Pattarajinda*, M. Duangjinda, J. Mungkalasiri1, W. Angthong2 and J.K. Bernard3

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture KhonKaen University, KhonKaen, 40002, Thailand


Arangsri, M., Pattarajinda, V., Duangjinda, M., Mungkalasiri, J., Angthong, W. and Bernard, J.K. 2018. Effect of fermented total mixed rations differing in methane production potential on milk production, methane emission, ruminal fermentation, digestibility and performance of lactating dairy cows in Thailand. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 441-450.
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of fermented total mixed rations (FTMR) differing in calculated methane production on in vivo methane emission and performance of lactating dairy cows. Four mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian dairy cows, averaging 424.2±23.0 kg BW and yielding 13.86±7.05 kg/d milk,were used in an experiment based on a 2´2 switch-over design. Two experimental diets,low methane (LM) and high methane (HM), were formulated to differ in methane production potential using Napier silage, rice straw, and concentrate. Intake and digestibility of DM was higher (P<0.05) for cows fed LM when compared to those fed HM. Ruminal pH, concentrations of total VFA, acetate, and butyrate were similar between the groups; however, concentrations of propionate were higher (P<0.05) in the LM than the HM group. No differences (P>0.05) were observed in methane emissions between the groups. Milk yield and composition were also similar between the groups. It is concluded that the feeding FTMR with low methane-producing potential improved feed intake, digestibility and the ruminal propionate concentration of lactating dairy cows.

Keywords: Dairy cows, Enteric methane emission, Productivity, Ruminal fermentation.

*Correspondence: virotekku@hotmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00042.2

Effect of Leaves Containing Bioactive Compounds from North Eastern Region of India on In Vitro Fermentation and Methane Production

S.S. Gangwar, L.C. Chaudhary*, N. Agarwal, Rita Nath and D.N. Kamra

Rumen Microbiology Laboratory, Centre of Advanced Studies in Animal Nutrition Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122, India


Gangwar, S.S., Chaudhary, L.C., Agarwal, N., Nath, Rita and Kamra, D.N. 2018. Effect of leaves containing bioactive compounds from North Eastern Region of india on in vitro fermentation and methane production. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 451-458.
The leaves of ambervel (Tinospora cordifolia), air plant (Bryophyllum pinnatum), papaya (Carica papaya), harad (Terminalia chebula), arjun (Terminalia arjuna), bahera (Terminalia bellirica), bael (Aegle marmelos), katahal (Artocarpus heterophyllus), curry tree (Murraya koenigii), chota dhatura (Xanthium strumarium ), lohpohi (Vernonia albicans), bhedai lota (Padaraea foetida) were tested for their effects on gas and methane production, in vitro true digestibility (IVTD) and fermentation characteristics in in vitro gas production test using goat rumen liquor as inoculum. The substrate used was concentrate mixture and wheat straw mixed in 1:1 ratio. Inclusion of leaves powder at 10% level resulted in reduction (P<0.05) in gas production ml/g DM or DDM of the substrate with only bhedai lota leaves. The highest inhibition of methane production (ml/g DM or DDM) was observed with bahera (49.3% inhibition) followed by papaya (31.1% inhibition), ambervel (17.4% inhibition), air plant (18.1% inhibition and katahal leaves (16.7 % inhibition) with no change in TVFA and acetate to propionate ratio. The IVTD of substrate ranged from 60.96 to 65.5% including control showing no effect of inclusion of any of the leaves on IVTD of the feed. The results indicated that bahera, papaya, ambervel, air plant and kathal leaves appeared to have a potential to inhibit rumen methanogenesis without adversely affecting rumen fermentation characteristics.

Keywords: Goats, Methane, Plant secondary metabolites, Tree leaves,

*Correspondence: lcchaudhary1@rediffmail.com


DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00013.6

Evaluation of β-mannanase and Different Dietary Energy Levels on Egg Production, Apparent Digestibility and Blood Metabolites of Laying Hen

Y.H. Shim, M.H. Ryu1, A. Hosseindoust2, J.S. Kim2, Y.H. Choi2, M.J. Kim2, J.H. Lee3 and B.J. Chae2*

1685-18 Hamyeong-ro, Hampyeong-eup, Hampyeong-gun Jeollanam-do, Korea 57136


Shim,Y.H., Ryu, M.H., Hosseindoust,A., Kim, J.S., Choi,Y.H. Kim, M.J., Lee, J.H. and Chae, B.J.. Evaluation of β-mannanase and different dietary energy levels on egg production, apparent digestibility and blood metabolites of laying hen. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 131-140.
A trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary energy levels and β-mannanase supplementation on egg production performance, nutrient retention and blood metabolites of laying hens. Hy-Line Brown layers (n=240, 68 wk-old) were randomly allotted to 6 treatments on the basis of laying performance. Each treatment had 8 replicates with 5 birds. Laying hens were fed three energy levels (2650, 2750 and 2850 kcal/kg) and 0 and 0.4 g β-mannanase/kg diet in a 2×3 factorial arrangement for 56d. Laying hens fed diets supplemented with β-mannanase or high energy (2750 and 2850 kcal) had greater overall egg production. Addition with either high energy diet or β-mannanase improved the egg mass in the second production phase as well as overall egg mass. Feed intake was decreased in laying hens fed the highest (2850 kcal) dietary energy level. Moreover, laying hens fed the highest energy diets had a greater feed conversion ratio. Laying hens fed diets with β-mannanase had greater retention of DM, GE and CP than hens fed diets without β-mannanase. Retention of mannose was greater in laying hens fed diets supplemented with β-mannanase or high energy diets. The results obtained indicate that a high energy content in diets had positive effect on the performance of laying hens and that dietary supplementation with β-mannanase has the potential to improve laying hen performance and nutrient retention.

Keywords: β-mannanase, Blood metabolite, Egg, Laying hen, Mannan, Nutrient retention.

*Corresponding author: bjchae@kangwon.ac.kr

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00014.8

Response of Broiler Chicken in Terms of Growth and Efficiency, Carcass Characteristics, Sensory Quality of Meat and Serum Biochemical Profile to Different Lysine Levels in Flaxseed Based Diet

N.A. Mir*, Praveen K. Tyagi, A.K. Biswas, Pramod K. Tyagi, A.B. Mandal, R. Hazarika, C. Deo and D. Sharma

ICAR-Central Avian Research Institute Izatnagar-243 122, India


Mir, N.A., Tyagi, Praveen K., Biswas, A.K., Tyagi, Pramod K., Mandal, A.B., Hazarika, R., Deo, C. and Sharma, D. 2018. Response of broiler chicken in terms of growth and efficiency, carcass characteristics, sensory quality of meat and serum biochemical profile to different lysine levels in flaxseed based diet. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 141-152.
A 42-d experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design to evaluate the effect of lysine in flaxseed based diet on the growth performance, efficiency, carcass characteristics, sensory evaluation of meat and serum biochemistry of broiler chicken. Five diets were formulated with no flaxseed (FS) but normal (100%) lysine in first one (CON),while the other four diets contained 10% FS along with 100 (FS-L0),105 (FS-L1), 115 (FS-L2), and 125 (FS-L3) per cent of the required levels of lysine. Each treatment was allocated 6 replicates with 8 birds in each at random. The feeding of FS-L3 diet resulted in significantly (P<0.01) better feed conversion ratio, production efficiency ratio, protein efficiency ratio, and energy efficiency ratio of birds followed by CON diet compared to other diets. No significant effects were found on various carcass traits except for the significantly (P<0.01) higher percentages of eviscerated weight, dressed weight and breast yield in birds fed either FS-L2 or FS-L3 diets. Significantly (P<0.01) higher meat:bone ratios in breast and thigh were observed in birds fed FSL3 diet followed by CON diet compared to other diets. No dietary effects were observed on mortality pattern of birds and sensory evaluation of broiler chicken meat. Significant (P<0.05) and progressive reduction of serum cholesterol was observed in birds from CON diet to FS-L3 diet. The serum antioxidant enzyme activities and malonaldehyde concentration were significantly (P<0.01) lower in birds fed CON diet followed by FS-L3 and FS-L2 diets compared to FS-L1 and FS-L0 diets. From the present study it was concluded that 10% flaxseed can be used in broiler diet along with 125% of the BIS-recommended lysine without any adverse effect on broiler growth, efficiency, carcass traits and serum biochemical profile.

Keywords: Broiler, Flaxseed, Lysine, Performance, Serum.

*Corresponding author: nasirakbar129@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00015.X

Improving the Nutritive Value of Cereal and Pulse Straws Using Dung Ash and Wood Ash Treatments

A. Alkhtib1*, J. Wamatu, T. Ejeta2, B. Rischkowsky

International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA) PO Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia


Alkhtib, A., Wamatu, J., Ejeta, T. and Rischkowsky, B. 2018. Improving the nutritive value of cereal and pulse straws using dung ash and wood ash treatments. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 153-162.
The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of treatment of straws with cow dung ash treatment and wood ash on their nutritive value. Accordingly, straws of barley, wheat, chickpea, faba bean and lentil were treated with dung ash at levels of 0, 100, 200 or 300 g dung ash/L) and wood ash at levels of 0, 100, 150 or 200 wood ash/L. All straw samples were evaluated for proximate analysis and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) using a combination of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy and conventional laboratory analyses. The effects of straw origin, the level of treatment and their interactions on the nutritive value of straw was analyzed for each treatment separately using general linear model procedure. The effect of dung and wood ash treatment depended on the origin of straw (P<0.001). Soaking straw in plain water did not alter IVOMD regardless of the origin. Dung ash treatment at the level of 300 g ash/L improved significantly IVOMD of barley straw. Ash treatment at of 200 and 300 g/L levels significantly (P<0.001) decreased the IVOMD of faba bean straw. Soaking straws of chickpea and faba bean in wood ash solutions decreased IVOMD significantly. Treating lentil straw by a solution containing 200g wood ash/L decreased significantly IVOMD. Wood ash treatment did not alter IVOMD of straws of barley and wheat. The study indicates that dung ash treatment at a level up to 300 g/L and wood ash treatment at a level up to 200 g/L failed in improving the nutritive value of straws of barley, wheat, chickpea, faba bean and lentil.

Keywords: Alkaline treatment, Cereal, Nutritive value, Pulse, Straw.

*Corresponding author: a.s.alkhtib@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00016.1

Genotypic Variation in Forage Linked Morphological and Biochemical Traits in Hybrid Parents of Pearl Millet

P. Govintharaj1*, S.K. Gupta, M. Blummel2, M. Maheswaran1, P. Sumathi1, D.G. Atkari, V. Anil Kumar, A. Rathore, M. Raveendran1 and V.P. Duraisami1

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) Patancheru-502 324, India


Govintharaj, P., Gupta, S.K., Blummel, M., Maheswaran, M., Sumathi, P., Atkari, D.G., Anil Kumar, V., Rathore, A., Raveendran, M. and Duraisami, V.P. 2018. Genotypic variation in forage linked morphological and biochemical traits in hybrid parents of pearl millet. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 163-175.
A set of 116 pearl millet hybrid parents was evaluated in two summer seasons for 30 forage specific morphological and quality traits. Green forage yield (GFY) ranged from 15.0 to 29.0 t/ha at first cut and 12.0 to 42.0 t/ha at second cut, while the dry forage yield (DFY) ranged from 3.0 to 6.0 t/ha at first cut and 5.0 to 9.0 t/ha at second cut. Important forage quality traits like stover nitrogen varied from 1.84 to 2.34% at first cut and 1.77 to 2.00% at second cut, while metabolizable energy (ME) ranged from 7.42 to 7.76 MJ/kg at first cut and 6.95 to 7.68 MJ/kg at second cut. In vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) varied from 54.0 to 56.0% at first cut and 51.0 to 55.0% at second cut. Pollinator parents showed higher mean values for most of the forage traits than the seed parents. Small but significant negative correlation was found between crude protein (CP), IVOMD and DFY indicating that modifications are needed to breed for higher forage biomass coupled with better forage quality traits. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on forage specific morphological and quality traits delineated 116 pearl millet hybrid parents into 6 distinct clusters. This evaluation identified clusters of hybrid parents having high mean values for specific promising forage quality traits, this information can be used for developing promising forage-type hybrids in pearl millet.

Keywords: Hybrid parents, Dry forage yield, Green forage yield, Forage quality, Pearl millet.

*Corresponding author: p.govintharaj@cgiar.org

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00017.3

Effect of a Customized Mineral Supplement on Nutrient Metabolism, Serum Mineral Profile and Growth Performance of Kids

Rojita Yengkhom, A.K. Verma, Narayan Dutta*, S.E. Jadhav and A.K. Pattanaik

Centre of Advance Faculty Training, Division of Animal Nutrition ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India


Yengkhom, R, Verma, A.K., Dutta, N, Jadhav, S.E. and Pattanaik, A.K. 2018. Effect of a customized mineral supplement on nutrient metabolism, serum mineral profile and growth performance of kids. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 177-187.
The study was carried out to examine the effects of a customized mineral mixture (Boostermin) supplementation on nutrient metabolism, serum minerals profile and growth performance of kids. Eighteen kids of about 6 months age with mean BW of 10.70±0.67 kg were randomly divided into 3 groups consisting of 6 kids each in a completely randomized block design. The kids were randomly allocated to control (CON), CMS and BMS groups. In CON group kids were offered a concentrate mixture without any mineral supplement; however, kids in CMS and BMS groups were given concentrate mixture having commercial- and Boostermin-mineral supplement, respectively. The feeding-cum-growth trial lasted for a period of 135d. The daily DM intake did not differ significantly (P>0.05) among the treatment groups. Digestibility coefficientsfor DM, OM, EE, NDF and ADF did not differ (P>0.05) among the three groups; however, digestibility of CP was significantly higher (P<0.05) in BMS than CON. The balances of Ca and P were significantly (P<0.01) higher in BMS and CMS as compared to CON. The DCP intake was improved (P<0.01) in BMS as compared to CON, however, TDN intake did not differ (P>0.05) among the treatment groups. The serum minerals profile viz. Ca, P, Zn, Cu, Mn and iron were significantly higher in mineral supplemented groups, however, BMS was found to be better. The average daily gain for the period of 135 d were significantly (P<0.01) higher in BMS as compared to CON. It is concluded that Boostermin supplementation significantly improved the performance of growing kids.

Keywords: Boostermin, Kids, Metabolic profile, Minerals, Nutrient metabolism, Supplement.

*Corresponding author: dutta65@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00018.5

Delayed Post-Hatch Feeding Influences the Performance, Intestinal Morphology and the Expression Profiles of Gut Associated Genes in Slow Growing Broiler Chickens

A.S. Shinde1, Jaydip Rokade2, Akshat Goel, Manish Mehra, A.B. Mandal3, Laxmi Chouhan4 and S.K. Bhanja*

Poultry Housing and Management Section ICAR-Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India


Shinde, A.S., Rokade, J., Goel, A., Mehra, M., Mandal, A.B., Chouhan, L. and Bhanja, S.K. 2018. Delayed post-hatch feeding influences the performance, intestinal morphology and the expression profiles of gut associated genes in slow growing broiler chickens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 189-203.
The effects of post-hatch (PH) feed deprivation (FD) for 6, 12, 24 and 36 h were assessed on performance, gut development and differential expression of gut associated genes in slow-growing broiler chickens. A significantly higher (P=0.001) yolk sac weight was observed in all the FD chicks. The residual yolk sac of 24h and 36h FD chicks had a higher ether extract but lower protein content than that of control (immediately fed) chicks. The relative weights of the proventriculus, gizzard, intestine, liver and pancreas were lower in 24h and 36h FD chicks. The 36h FD chicks had lower (P<0.05) body weights, lower feed intake and inferior FCR than those of control or 6h FD chicks. Lower serum glucose but higher cholesterol and uric acid were recorded in 36 h FD chicks. Villus height and width in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum decreased (P=0.001) with an increase in the FD period, and significant changes were primarily observed in 36h FD chicks. The relative expression of Cdx decreased with the feed restriction period. Expression of the SGLT and FABP genes did not differ significantly in FD and control chicks, while that of the EAAT gene increased in 24h and 36h FD chicks. Villus height correlated positively with Cdx gene, but negatively with SGLT or EAAT gene expression. It is concluded that post hatch feed deprivation for first 24h did not affect performance, intestinal development and morphology. Correlation of jejunum villi with Cdx and EAAT gene expression indicates their role in the intestine development of broiler chickens.

Keywords: Broiler chicken, Delayed post hatch feeding, Gene expression, Gut development.

*Corresponding author: subratcari@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00019.7

Effect of Supplementing Slow Release Nitrogen Product on the Lactation Performance of Dairy Cows

N. Veena, K.C. Singh, T.M. Prabhu*, R.G. Gloridoss, Y.B. Rajeshwari and K.S. Ajith

Department of Animal Nutrition, Veterinary College Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Bengaluru-560 024, India


Veena, N., Singh, K.C., Prabhu, T.M., Gloridoss, R.G., Rajeshwari, Y.B. and Ajith, K.S. 2018. Effect of supplementing slow release nitrogen product on the lactation performance of dairy cows. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 205-214.
A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of feeding slow-release nitrogen product (SRNP) on the lactation performance of crossbred dairy cows. Eight crossbred cows in mid-late lactation were used in a Youden Latin square design. Treatment diets were T1 containing 2% urea in the concentrate portion of diet, and T2 and T3 diets containing 2 and 4 percent of SRNP, replacing urea on iso-nitrogen and iso-soluble nitrogen basis. The SRNP used in the study was a polymer coated urea compound containing 42% total N with 52.1% soluble N. The diet of the experimental cows comprised corn silage and finger millet straw as roughage source and a compounded feed mixture. There were no differences (P>0.05) in DM intake, milk yield (both total and 4%fat FCM) or milk constituents of cows among the treatment groups. A similar (P>0.05) digestibility of nutrients in the diets of three experimental groups indicated that the supplementation of SRNP had no influence on the utilization of nutrients in the lactating dairy cows. In the current feeding management system, comprising of corn silage, finger millet straw and a compounded feed mixturein the diet of dairy cows, feeding SRNP to replace urea on isonitrogenbasis was found not advantageous. It is concluded that the slow-release nitrogen product used in the present study can replace urea in the diet of lactating dairy cowswithout affecting their performance.

Keywords: Dairy cows, Milk composition, Nutrient utilization, Slow-release nitrogen, Urea.

*Corresponding author: prabhutmann@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00020.3

Effects of Multi-strain Probiotics with Variable Energy Density Diets on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, Faecal Microflora, and Noxious Gas Emission in Finishing Pigs

W.C. Liu1 and I.H. Kim*

Department of Animal Resource & Science, Dankook University Cheonan, Choongnam 330-714, South Korea


Liu, W.C. and Kim, I.H. 2018. Effects of multi-strain probiotics with variable energy density diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, faecal microflora, and noxious gas emission in finishing pigs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 215-224.
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of multi-strain probiotics with variable energy density diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, faecal microflora and noxious gas emission in finishing pigs. Eighty [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc] pigs with initial BW of 79.95±2.49 kg were used in this 6-wk feeding trial. Pigs were allotted to one of 4 dietary treatments in a 2×2 factorial design with two levels of energy density (low or high) and probiotics (0 or 0.02% of diet). There were four replications and five pigs per pen. The pigs fed high energy density diet had better gain:feed ratio (P<0.001) and dry matter digestibility (P<0.01). Probiotics supplementation with both the density diet increased the faecal lactobacilli population (P<0.01) and decreased the E. coli counts (P<0.001). The noxious gas emission (NH3 and H2S) was reduced by inclusion of probiotics (P<0.001). There was no interactive effects between probiotics and energy density of the diet (P>0.05). In conclusion, administration of 0.02% multi-strain probiotics exerted beneficial effects on faecal microbial shedding and noxious gas emission irrespective of energy density of the diets.

Keywords: Direct-fed microbes, Energy density, Faecal microflora, Noxious gas emission, Pigs.

*Corresponding author: inhokim@dankook.ac.kr

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00021.5

Effect of Aqueous Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Extract on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Economy of Feed Conversion of Broiler Chickens

Z.A. Sa’aci, O.J. Alabi1, D. Brown2* and J.W. Ng’ambi2

Department of Animal Production, School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria


Sa’aci, Z.A., Alabi, O.J., Brown, D. and Ng’ambi, J.W. 2018. Effect of aqueous ginger (zingiberofficinale) extract on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and economy of feed conversion of broiler chickens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 225-231.
A study was conducted to determine the effect of aqueous ginger extract (AGE) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and economy of feed conversion of broiler chickens. A total of 192 day-old Marshal broiler chicks were randomly allocated to six treatments each consisting of four replicates with eight birds per replicate in a completely randomized design. The treatments were tagged AGE0, AGE25, AGE50, AGE75, AGE100 and AGE125 whereinthe birds of the different groups were administered aqueous ginger extract orally at 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 ml/L, respectively,via drinking water. The experiment lasted for 49d. The results showed that the AGE supplementation had positive effects (P<0.05) on total feed consumed, final BW and feed conversion ratio. The aqueous ginger extract supplementation level of 127.49 ml/L maximized daily weight gain while FCR was maximized at an inclusion level of 88.79 ml/L. The AGE supplementation had no effect (P>0.05) on the digestibility of DM, CP, EE and NFE. However, digestibilityof crude fibre were affected (P<0.05) by AGE.Aqueous ginger extract also had effect (P<0.05) on total cost of feed consumed and cost/weight gain. Cost of feed per kilogram was not influenced by the treatment. These results suggest that AGE in drinking water of chickens could replace synthetic antibiotics and could be regarded as natural feed additives in poultry diets.

Keywords: Digestibility, Extract, Feed, Ginger, Performance.

*Corresponding author: db4010396@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00022.7

Consequences of Partial Substitution of Starch with Fibre on Growth, Carcass Traits, Nutrient Digestibility and Blood Parameters in Growing Rabbits

M. Arif1, M.E. Abd El-Hack, A. Rehman1, Z. Bashir1, Z. Iqbal1, M. Emam2, A. Noreldin3 and M. Alagawany*

Department of Poultry, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University Zagazig 44511, Egypt


Arif, M., Abd El-Hack, M.E., Rehman, A., Bashir, Z., Iqbal, Z., Emam, M., Noreldin, A. and Alagawany, M. 2018. Consequences of partial substitution of starch with fibre on growth, carcass traits, nutrient digestibility and blood parameters in growing rabbits. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 233- 242.
The study aimed to investigate the partial substitution of starch with fibre on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and select blood indices of growing rabbits. One hundred-twenty 28 d-old male rabbits were equally distributed into four groups in a 2×2 factorial design. Four diets were formulated wherein starch was partially replaced with two different levels each of acid detergent fibre (ADF) at 23.6 and 29.2% and neutral detergent soluble fibre (NDSF) at 14.5 and 15.5%. At the end of the experiment (90 days of age), the weight gain and feed conversion increased in rabbits fed a high level of NDSF. However, rabbits fed low level of ADF showed a significant improvement in the digestibility of DM and CP. Feed intake was increased by 3.5% with lower level of ADF. Carcass traits and blood indices did not show significant differences among the treated groups. It may be concluded that partial substitution of starch with (15.5%) NDSF and (23.6) ADF had beneficial effects on the performance and nutrients digestibility without any adverse effects on health status of rabbits.

Keywords: Blood metabolites, Digestibility, Fibre, Growth performance, Rabbits.

*Corresponding author: dr.mahmoud.alagwany@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00023.9

Comparative and Combined Effect of Turmeric and Ginger Supplementation on Growth, Carcass Characteristics, Blood Parameters and Economics of Productions in Broiler Birds

Nibedita Sahoo*, S.K. Mishra, R.K. Swain, N.C. Behura1, K. Sethy, P.K. Pati2, L. Sahoo3, G. Samanta1 and N.R. Debata

Animal Nutrition Department, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar-751 003, India


Sahoo, N., Mishra, S.K., Swain, R.K., Behura, N.C., Sethy, K., Pati, P.K., Sahoo, L., Samanta, G. and Debata, N.R. 2018. Comparative and combined effect of turmeric and ginger supplementation on growth, carcass characteristics, bloodparameters and economics of productions in broiler birds. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 243-256.
Day-old broiler chicks (n=182) were distributed randomly in seven dietary treatments. The treatments included dietary supplementation of turmeric powder (TP) and ginger powder (GP) alone or in combination, each at 0.5 and 1.0 percent levels, i.e., T1 (control), basal diet alone; T2, 0.5% TP; T3, 1.0% TP; T4, 0.5% GP; T5, 1.0% GP; T6, both TP and GP each at 0.5%; T7, both TP and GP each at 1% levels. The experiment was continued for 35 d. At 35d, significantly (P<0.05) higher BW gain was recorded in T3 followed by T6; the cumulative BW gain also significantly (P<0.05) higher in T3 followed by T6 and T2. There were, however, no differences (P>0.05) evident among groups T1, T4, T5 and T7. No significant difference was found in feed consumption among treatment groups. The FCR was significantly (P<0.05) lower in T3 and T2. The carcass traits of broiler birds at 35d of age did not differ significantly except for the breast yield. The weight of liver and abdominal fat differed significantly (P<0.05) among the treated groups. Except for the serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, all other blood parameters including serum levels of glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, calcium and phosphorus did not differ (P>0.05) among birds of all dietary treatments. The margin of profit/kg LW was recorded higher in T3 and lowest in T7 group. It is concluded that supplementation of 1% turmeric powder in broiler ration improved the BW and feed efficiency, and lowered total cholesterol and triglyceride levels accompanying abetter economics of production.

Keywords: Biochemical, Broiler birds, Carcass, Economics, Ginger, Growth, Turmeric

*Corresponding author: nibedita71.ns@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00024.0

Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Fish Oil on Nutrient Utilization, Haematology and Serum Metabolites of Captive Indian Leopards (Panthera pardus fusca)

S.M. Durge1, A. Das*, S.K. Saha, Y. Bhardwaj2, A.K. Verma and A.K. Sharma3

Center for Advanced Faculty Training in Animal Nutrition ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India


Durge, S.M., Das, A., Saha, S.K., Bhardwaj, Y., Verma, A.K. and Sharma, A.K. 2018. Effect of dietary supplementation of fish oil on nutrient utilization, haematology and serum metabolites of captive Indian leopards (Panthera pardus fusca). Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 257-266.
This experiment was conducted to asses the effect of fish oil supplementation on nutrient utilization, haematology and serum metabolites of captive Indian leopards fed solely on buffalo meat on bone (BMB). Nine adult leopards (age 3-18 yrs; average BW 42.5 kg) were randomly distributed into 3 equal groups, in a replicated Latin square design. All the animals were fed normal zoo diet of BMB at 2.5 kg/d/animal for 6-d a week. The basal diets of the animals in three groups were supplemented with either 13 g of tallow (T1), 6.5 g of tallow and 6.5 g of fish oil (T2), or 13 g of fish oil (T3). Intake of nutrients was similar (P>0.05) among the groups. Digestibility of OM, CP and gross energy was higher (P<0.01) in groups T2 and T3. Serum concentrations of urea (P<0.001), total protein and globulins were higher and ratio of albumin:globulin was lower (P<0.05) in T2 and T3 as compared T1. However, serum total cholesterol was lower (P<0.05) in T3, only. Thus, it is concluded that supplementation of fish oil in captive Indian leopards would improve protein digestion and reduce serum cholesterol without affecting diet palatability, nutrient utilization and haematology.

Keywords: Fish oil, Haematology, Indian leopard, Nutrient digestibility, Serum metabolites.

*Corresponding author: drasitdas@rediffmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00025.2

Nutritional Evaluation of Ensiled Baby Corn Fodder as Livestock Feed

M. Wadhwa, Balwinder Kumar1 and M.P.S. Bakshi*

Department of Animal Nutrition Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-141 004, India


Wadhwa, M., Kumar, B. and Bakshi, M.P.S. 2018. Nutritional evaluation of ensiled baby corn fodder as livestock feed. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 267-272.
This study was taken up to assess the conservation method and nutritional value of ensiled baby corn fodder in comparison to conventional ensiled maize fodder variety J-1006. Both the fodders procured from university farm were wilted in the field after harvesting; chaffed and ensiled in low density poly ethylene tube of 15 ft length and 6 ft diameter for 42d. The ensiled fodders were evaluated as such; as well as in total mixed rations (TMRs) containing 60:40 roughage to concentrate ratio on DM basis by in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT) and in vivo feeding trial on male buffalo calves. The chemical composition, net gas production, digestibility of nutrients, VFA production and methane production potential of ensiled maize fodder (J-1006) were statistically comparable, with ensiled BC fodder; TMR containing ensiled maize fodder (J-1006) with TMR containing ensiled BC fodder. The feeding trial on buffalo calves revealed that digestibility of nutrients in animals fed TMR containing ensiled BC fodder was comparable with ensiled maize fodder. The blood profile and nitrogen utilization was also similar in both the groups. It was concluded that nutrients from ensiled baby corn fodder could be utilized as efficiently as from conventional ensiled maize fodder by buffalo calves. Further besides getting handsome amount by selling baby corn cobs for human consumption, the dairy farmers can get additional income by feeding ensiled baby corn fodder to dairy cattle.

Keywords: Baby corn fodder, Blood profile, Buffalo, Ensiling, In vitro, Nutrient utilization

*Corresponding author: bakshimps@yahoo.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00026.4

Status of Selected Minerals in Soil, Fodder and Dairy Animals in the Semi-arid Central Alluvial Plain of Punjab

S.T. Singh1*, S.K. Uppal, C.S. Randhawa and S.S. Randhawa

Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Science Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Ludhiana-141 004, India


Singh, S.T., Uppal, S.K., Randhawa, C.S. and Randhawa, S.S. 2018. Status of selected minerals in soil, fodder and dairy animals in the semi-arid central alluvial plain of Punjab. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 273-280.
Three districts in the semi-arid central alluvial plain of Punjab, India were investigated for status of copper, molybdenum, zinc, calcium, phosphorus and iron in soil-plant-animal system. Inadequacy in nutritional management of animals was evident. Considerable population of dairy animals had anoestrus, repeat breeding, poor body condition and low milk yield. Deficiencies of zinc and phosphorus, and excess of molybdenum were detected in 25.8, 6.5 and 9.7 percent soil samples, respectively. Fodder copper, zinc, calcium and phosphorus contents in 71.7, 45.7, 17.4 and 30.4 percent of the samples, respectively, were lower, and 21.7 per cent samples were higher in molybdenum than the critical levels for dairy cattle. Marked deficiencies of copper, calcium, phosphorus and excess of molybdenum were found in buffaloes and cattle. It is concluded that current feeding regime cannot supply required mineral nutrients to dairy animals resulting in poor health and reproductive problems in dairy animals of the region.

Keywords: Buffaloes, Cattle, Deficiency, Fodder, Minerals, Soil.

*Corresponding author: sikhtejindersingh@yahoo.co.in

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00027.6

Natural Antioxidants as Detoxifying Agents for Aflatoxins in Animal Feed

D.V. Neeff, A.C.P. Carão1, B.L. Gonçalves2, K. Bordin3, C.H. Corassin2, D.R. Ledoux4, G.E. Rottinghaus5 and C.A.F. Oliveira2*

Department of Animal Science, School of Animal Science and Food Engineering University of São Paulo, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte 225, Pirassununga, SP, 13630-000, Brazil


Neeff, D.V., Carão, A.C.P., Gonçalves, B.L., Bordin, K., Corassin, C.H., Ledoux, D.R., Rottinghaus, G.E. and Oliveira, C.A.F. 2018. Natural antioxidants as detoxifying agents for aflatoxins in animal feed. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 281-295.
Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi species of Aspergillus, mainly A. flavus,A. parasiticus and A. nomius. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most toxic compound, being hepatotoxic and carcinogenic in vertebrate animals including humans. The mechanisms of toxicity of AFB1 include oxidative stress, which leadsto DNA, protein and lipid damages at the cell level.Antioxidants have been used as food additives to protect against oxidative degradation, and are also known to inhibit fungal growth. This review presents the updated knowledge on the use of natural antioxidants as detoxifying agentsfor animal feed contaminated with aflatoxin.

Keywords: Aflatoxin B1, Detoxification, Fungi, Natural antioxidants, Reactive oxygen species.

*Corresponding author: carlosaf@usp.br


DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00001.X

Effect of Feeding Milk Replacer Alone or in Combination with Probiotic on Pre-weaning Performance, Nutrient Utilization and Rumen Fermentation in Malpura Lambs

R.S. Bhatt* and A. Sahoo

Division of Animal Nutrition, Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute Avikanagar-304 501, India


Bhatt, R.S. and Sahoo, A. 2018. Effect of feeding milk replacer alone or in combination with probiotic on pre-weaning performance, nutrient utilization and rumen fermentation in malpura lambs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 1-12.
To assess influence of feeding milk replacer alone and with probiotic (Lactobacillus acidophillus) supplementation on pre-weaning growth performance and nutrient utilization, 48 Malpura lambs of 7d of age were distributed randomly into three equal groups. Lambs were maintained individually under feeding regimens of ad libitum creep mixture along with green and dry roughage (C-0; Control), and the same supplemented with milk replacer alone (C-MR), or milk replacer in combination with live probiotic culture (C-MRP). Lambs were allowed to suckle their respective dams in the morning and evening till 91d of age, and fed ad libitum green leaves of Prosopis cinereria and dry cowpea hay. Pre-weaning performance of lambs in terms of weaning weight (20.7 kg, P=0.009), average daily gain (ADG; 183.1g, P=0.003) and feed conversion ratio was higher (P=0.019) in C-MRP lambs as compared to control (C0). The DM intake was significantly (P=0.026) higher in C-MR and C-MRP lambs due to higher plane of nutrition. Rumen pH was lowest (P=0.023) in C-MR lambs. Ammonia concentration decreased and total VFAs increased with milk replacer feeding in both C-MR and C-MRP groups. Level of propionic acid increased and acetic acid decreased in C-MR and C-MRP lambs. Rumen ciliate protozoa population (x104/ml) decreased (P=0.022) in C-MR (91.3) and C-MRP (95.4) group lambs than in C-0 lambs (122.8). Milk replacer feeding in C-MR and C-MRP lamb improved (P<0.05) the nutrient digestibility. Thus, milk replacer feeding during pre-weaning has significant influence on weight gain, feed efficiency and nutrient utilization; however, the influence of probiotic feeding on lamb growth needs further studies.

Keywords: Lamb performance, Milk replacer, Probiotic, Rumen fermentation

*Corresponding author: bhatt_rs@yahoo.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00002.1

Effects of Dietary β-mannanase Supplementation of Soybean Meal on the Performance of Weanling Pigs

B. Balamuralikrishnan2, J.H. Lee1 and I.H. Kim*

Department of Animal Resource and Science Dankook University, Cheonan, 330-714, South Korea


Balamuralikrishnan, B., Lee, J.H. and Kim, I.H. 2018. Effects of dietary β-mannanase supplementation with soybean meal on the performance of weanling pigs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 13-23.
This study examined the efficacy of β-mannanase supplementation with types of soyabean meal (SBM; 44 and 48% CP) diet on the performance of weanling pigs. One hundred forty pigs [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc] with an initial BW of 5.97±1.01 kg were used in a 6-week feeding trial. The piglets were randomly allotted to four dietary groups in a 2×2 factorial arrangement, with feed rations consisting of hulled or dehulled SBM with or without 0.05% β-mannanase. The pigs fed diets containing β-mannanase showed greater average daily feed intake (P=0.033) at week 2 and ADG (P=0.082) at week 6 and improved digestibility of DM (P=0.008), N (P=0.008), energy (P=0.036) and phosphorus (P=0.047). Further, the interaction between SBM diets and β-mannanase was found significant for the diegstibility of DM (P=0.011), N (P=0.042) and phosphorus (P=0.052). The type of SBM had significant (P=0.013) effects on the RBC concentration at week 6. Supplementation of β-mannanase tended (P<0.10) to improve the RBC and lymphocytes of the pigs at week 6. The types of SBM reduced the faecal score at day 3 (P=0.047) accompanying a similar tendency at day 5 (P=0.095). The supplementation of β- mannanase on faecal microflora (E. coli and Lactobacillus) showed significant (P<0.05) differences among the groups at week 6. These results suggest the improving effects of β-mannanase when supplemented to low-CP SBM diet of weanling pigs in terms of performance, nutrients digestibility, and faecal microbiota.

Keywords: β-mannanase, Growth performance, Soybean meal, Weanling pigs.

*Corresponding author: inhokim@dankook.ac.kr

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00003.3

Effect of Varied Sources of Tannin on Micro-Mineral Bioavailability in Goats Fed Oak Leaves Based Diets

J. Raju, B. Sahoo1*, A. Chandrakar, A.K. Garg and R.K. Mohanta

ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Mukteswar-263 138, India


Raju, J., Sahoo, B., Chandrakar, A., Garg, A.K. and Mohanta, R.K. 2018. Effect of varied sources of tannin on micro-mineral bioavailability in goats fed oak leaves based diets. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 25-35.
Eighteen crossbred (Chegu×Jamunapari) goats (15.99 kg; 7-9 months) were randomly assigned to three groups. The animals were fed a common concentrate mixture as a supplement to three different forage sources (with a concentrate to roughage ratio of 30:70) namely, green grass (PC, Pennisetum clandestinum), oak leaves i.e. Quercus semecarpifolia (QS) and Quercus leucotricophora (QL) with the latter two groups serving as tannin-containing diets while the PC group as a control. The condensed and hydrolysable tannin content of the QS and QL diets was CT 1, HT 3.4 vs. CT 1.9, HT 1.6, respectively. A metabolism trial of six days duration was conducted at 90 d post-feeding. Blood samples were collected on 0, 60 and 120 d of experiment for estimation of serum minerals. The digestibility of DM, CP and fibre fractions were lower (P<0.05) in QL than PC and similar with QS. Daily intake and balance of Fe, Mn and Zn was higher (P<0.01) in QS and QL groups than the control group. Serum level of Co, Fe and Zn were higher (P<0.05) in QS than PC, but at par with QL. Average daily gain was higher in QS and QL as compared to PC. Feed gain ratio was better in QS (22.9±0.08) than PC (39.5±0.06), but at par with QL (29.9±0.04). Overall, the study revealed that goats fed tannin-from QS-based diet showed comparatively better performance than that of QL-based diet. Further, feeding of oak leaves was beneficial in augmenting feed intake, micro-mineral balance and growth performance of goats as compared to animals fed grass based diet.

Keywords: Goat, Minerals, Oak leaves, Tannins.

*Corresponding author: sahoobiswanath11@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00004.5

Insights on Feed Characteristics of Tuna Moist Extruded Aquafeeds Using Glycerol

J.I. Sotelo-Rodríguez, A.N. Rombenso*, F. Barreto-Curiel, J.A. Mata-Sotres1 and M.T. Viana

Institute of Oceanographic Research Autonomous University of Baja California (UABC) Km 107 carretera Tij/Eda, 22860, Baja California, Mexico


Sotelo-Rodríguez, J.I., Rombenso, A.N., Barreto-Curiel, F., Mata-Sotres, J.A. and Viana, M.T. 2018. Insights on feed characteristics of tuna moist extruded aquafeeds using glycerol. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 37-53.
Extruded aquafeeds have been used to replace natural food supplies. As tuna aquaculture still relies on fish stocks, the development of formulated extruded diets is essential to guarantee its responsible intensification. Accordingly, three extrusion trials were done aiming to optimize the extrusion process in extruded tuna diets, namely, a pre-trial with varying levels of dietary lipid (6, 8, or 10%), trial 1 with varying die temperature (40, 80 and 100°C), and trial 2 with varying dietary glycerol content (0, 4, and 8%). Rich-lipid diets were successfully manufactured through a single-screw extruder, and additional lipid content could be added through coating. Die temperature between 40°C to 100°C significantly (P<0.05) influenced the feed characteristics (e.g. moisture content decreased with increasing die temperature), except penetration. Finally, the addition of glycerol significantly (P<0.05) increased moisture content and penetration of moist extruded feeds. It is concluded that a supply around 0.5-1.0% of glycerol might be valuable towards the development of moist diets. However, further research on the effects of glycerol addition in the diet on digestibility and performance of fish need to be continued for developing moist extruded diets.

Keywords: Aquafeed, Extrusion, Feed characteristic, Glycerol, Tuna.

*Corresponding author: artur.nishioka@uabc.edu.mx

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00005.7

Influence of In ovo and Pre-starter Amino Acid Supplementation on Growth Performance and Immune Response in Broiler Chicken

V.B. Awachat1, A.V. Elangovan*, C.G. David, J. Ghosh, S.K. Bhanja2 and S. Majumdar2

ICAR-National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology Bengaluru-560 030, India


Awachat, V.B., Elangovan, A.V., David, C.G., Ghosh, J., Bhanja, S.K. and Majumdar, S.. 2018. Influence of in ovo and pre-starter amino acid supplementation on growth performance and immune response in broiler chicken. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 55-66.
An experiment was designed to assess the effect of in ovo and pre-starter amino acid supplementation on growth performance and immune response of broiler chicken. Two hundred and sixty Cobb broiler eggs of uniform size were set for incubation. The fertile eggs were divided into two groups; one group was administered with in ovo amino acid solution (lysine 22 mg, methionine 10 mg and threonine 16 mg per egg) into the amniotic cavity on day 18 of incubation and other group remained without administration. After hatching, the chicks from each of the two groups were further sub-divided into two groups (with or without post-hatch amino acid supplementation) resulting in four groups. The post-hatch supplemented groups were fed a diet supplemented with 25% higher level of amino acids (lysine 1.68 mg, methionine 0.63 mg and threonine 0.99 mg). Consequently, group I served as a control without in ovo and without post-hatch supplementation, group II was without in ovo and with post-hatch supplementation, group III was with in ovo and without post-hatch supplementation, and group IV was with in ovo and with posthatch supplementation. The results showed a decreased hatchability on in ovo administration of amino acids. Chick weight and egg weight did not vary significantly (P>0.05). The BW gain, feed intake and FCR during 0-3 weeks of age did not differ (P>0.05) among the treatment groups. On the other hand, in ovo administration of amino acids alone or in combination with post-hatch supplemented diet significantly (P<0.05) increased BW gain of chicks during 3-5 weeks of age and overall phase of 0-5 week of age. Humoral and cellular immune response did not differ (P>0.05) in terms of in ovo, post-hatch supplementation or their interaction. The in ovo or post-hatch supplementation of amino acids diet did not influence (P>0.05) the weights of digestive organs except for significantly (P>0.05) higher breast meat weight in post-hatch supplemented diet. It is concluded that supplementation of lysine, methionine and threonine in ovo and in pre-starter diet is beneficial for growth and breast meat yield of broiler chicken.

Keywords: Amino acid, Broiler, Growth, Immune response, In ovo.

*Corresponding author: avelango@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00006.9

Effect of Detoxification Methods on Anti-nutritional Factors and Proximate Composition of Defatted Jatropha curcas Kernel Meal

V. Phulia1, P. Sardar*, N.P. Sahu, B.N. Sanap, N. Shamna, F.J. Fawole2 and S. Gupta

Fish Nutrition, Biochemistry and Physiology Division ICAR-Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai-400 061, India


Phulia,V., Sardar, P., Sahu, N.P., Sanap, B.N., Shamna, N., Fawole, F.J. and Gupta, S. 2018. Effect of detoxification methods on anti-nutritional factors and proximate composition of defatted Jatropha curcas kernel meal. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 67-77.
A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of chemical treatment and solid state fermentation on the anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) and proximate composition of defatted Jatropha kernel meal (DJKM). The DJKM samples were treated with alkaline methanol (90% methanol containing 0.2M NaOH; CT- 1), alkaline ethanol (80% ethanol containing 0.1M NaOH; CT-2), highly alkaline methanol (90% methanol and 3% NaOH; CT-3), modified ethanol (4-times extraction using 80% ethanol; CT-4) and modified methanol (4-times extraction using 90% methanol; CT-5), in combination with moist heat treatment in all cases. Another sample was treated by solid state fermentation (SSF) using Aspergillus niger fungus (FT). The untreated sample was considered as control (J0). In comparison to control and the chemical treated samples (CT-1, CT-2, CT-3, CT-4 and CT-5), SSF treated sample contained significantly (P<0.05) lower levels of moisture and crude fibre, and higher levels of ether extract and total ash. However, these parameters did not vary (P>0.05) among the control and chemically treated samples. Though the CP content of FT sample was significantly higher than the control, it was found comparable to all the chemically treated samples. The moisture and ether extract contents of control and treated samples exhibited a reverse trend. Significantly lower and higer GE values were observed in CT-2 and CT-3, respectively; however, it was not affected much due to other treatments. Results indicated that any of the chemical treatments could not result in significant (P>0.05) removal of phytic acid and tannin, whereas FT was able to significantly (P<0.05) remove 100% phytic acid and 65.79% tannin from DJKM. However, all the treatments were equally effective in removal (100%) of trypsin inhibitor from DJKM. It is concluded that among the different treatment methods used, solid state fermentation was found to be the most effective method for removal of ANFs from DJKM.

Keywords: Anti-nutritional factors, Chemical treatment, Jatropha, Solid state fermentation.

*Corresponding author: parimalsardar@cife.edu.in

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00007.0

Effect of Probiotic Administration on Productivity and Quality of Broiler Chicken Meat

J. Sobczak, J. Stangierski1*, P. Marek and J. Kijowski1

Institute of Technology and Life Sciences Poznan Department of Engineering Production and Animal Welfare Biskupiñska 67, 60-463 Poznañ, Poland


Sobczak, J., Stangierski, J., Marek, P. and Kijowski, J. 2018. Effect of probiotic administration on productivity and quality of broiler chicken meat. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 79-88.
The impact of a probiotic addition to feed and litter on production results in rearing of ROSS 308 broiler chickens and meat quality were assessed. The flock was divided into three testing variants of 60 birds each, namely, probiotic added to both feed and litter (PRO-FL); the control group with no probiotic (CON), and probiotic applied to litter alone (PRO-L). The rearing period of broiler chickens was 43 days. In the course of the study daily feed consumption, BW gains, culling and wastage of birds were recorded. Productive trait parameters indicated a positive effect of the applied bacterial cultures. The highest BW was obtained from chickens of PRO-FL, receiving probiotics in both feed and litter, which were, on an average, heavier by over 500g from control (CON) birds. Chickens from the pen where the probiotic was applied to the litter (PRO-L) were also heavier, on an average, by about 350g from the control birds. Feed consumption (kg/kg BW) in individual groups was the lowest (P<0.05) in the group receiving the feed and litter (PRO-FL; 1.55) vis-a-vis only litter (PRO-L; 1.83) and the control (CON; 2.20). The highest mortality (normal) was 4% in the group receiving the probiotic only in feed, and it was 1% in the remaining two groups. There were no differences (P<0.005) in percent of the share of breast muscles and in edible and inedible parts among the testing variants of chickens. The quality of the poultry meat, i.e. colour, texture and sensory evaluation were similar among the testing variants.

Keywords: Broiler, Chickens, Carcass, Meat quality, Probiotic, Production.

*Corresponding author: jerzy.stangierski@up.poznan.pl

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00008.2

Response of Supplementary Sources and Levels of Copper in Diet on the Performance of Broiler Chickens

Chandra Deo*, A.B. Mandal and Praveen K. Tyagi

Avian Nutrition and Feed Technology Division ICAR-Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnager-243 122, India


Chandra Deo, Mandal, A.B. and Tyagi, P.K. 2018. Response of supplementary sources and levels of copper in diet on the performance of broiler chickens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 89- 96.
The response of broiler chickens to dietary supplemental copper sources and levels in terms of growth performance, serum cholesterol level and carcass yield of broiler chicks was studied in a 3×4 factorial design involving three copper sources (copper sulphate, CuS; copper chloride, CuCl and copper propionate, CuP) each at four dietary levels of copper (8, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg) during starting (0- 3 wk) and finishing (4-6 wk) phases. Each of the diets was offered ad libitum as mash to three replicated groups of 10 chicks each. Significantly (P<0.05) higher BW gain was observed in CuP than CuS group during 0-3 wks of age. The BW gain during 4-6 and 0-6 wks of age did not differ significantly due to dietary Cu sources. However, BW gain during 0-3 and 0-6 wk of age was significantly (P<0.05) higher with 200 mg Cu/kg diet than other dietary Cu levels. During 4-6 wk of age, the BW gain was significantly higher at 200 mg Cu/kg than that recorded at 150 mg Cu/kg diet. The feed intake during different growth phases did not differ (P>0.05) due to either main effect or interaction between copper sources and levels. The FCR during 4-6 and 0-6 wk was significantly (P<0.05) better in CuP supplemented diet than the other Cu sources. The FCR was also significantly (P<0.05) better at 200 mg/kg diet than at other dietary Cu levels during different growth phases. Serum cholesterol concentration was significantly (P<0.01) lower with 200 mg Cu/kg diet than other Cu levels. Significantly lower heart weight was observed in CuS supplemented group than other copper sources. Dressed weight and eviscerated weight was significantly higher at 150 and 200 mg Cu/kg diet than those recorded at other levels of copper in the diet. It is concluded that a dietary copper concentration of 200 mg/kg through supplementation of organic copper (copper propionate) in broiler diet is more effective in promoting growth, feed conversion efficiency, carcass yield and reducing serum cholesterol concentration.

Keywords: Carcass quality, Chicks, Copper, Growth performance, Pharmacological dose, Cholesterol.

*Corresponding author: deocari@rediffmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00009.4

Effects of Lactulose Supplementation on Production Performance of Sows and their Offspring

H.L. Li, H.Y. Sun, S.C. Kim, and I.H. Kim*

Department of Animal Resource and Science Dankook University, Cheonan, Choongnam, 330-714, South Korea


Li, H.L., Sun, H.Y., Kim, S.C. and Kim, I.H. 2018. Effects of lactulose supplementation on production performance of sows and their offspring. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 97-106.
A total of 18 multiparous sows (Landrace×Yorkshire) and their litters were used in the present study to evaluate the effect of dietary lactulose supplementation on the performance of the sows and their offspring. On day 107 of gestation, all sows were allotted into three dietary groups, namely CON, fed a basal diet; L1, fed CON diet with 0.1% lactulose; and L2, fed CON diet with 0.2% lactulose. Results indicated no significant differences (P>0.05) in BW, back-fat thickness, average daily feed intake, and return to estrus interval among the three treatments. Also, no significant differences (P>0.05) were observed in the number of piglets born and their birth weight, weanling weight, ADG, survival rate, and diarrhoea score among the piglets born to different groups of sows. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) observed in the nutrient digestibility by the sows, and select blood parameters of the sows as well the piglets. Sows fed lactulose supplemented diet did not exhibit any variations (P>0.05) in the emission of faecal ammonia and acetic acid among the treatments. At parturition, there was no differences (P>0.05) observed in faecal population of E. coli and Lactobacillus populations, whereas higher (P<0.05) Lactobacillus population was observed in L2 group when compared to CON at the time of weaning. In conclusion, the results suggested that the inclusion of lactulose at the level of 0.2% in the diet could increase the faecal lactobacillus concentration in sows, but this beneficial effect could not be observed on the production performance either the sows or their piglets.

Keywords: Lactulose, Micorbiota, Piglet, Performance, Sow.

*Corresponding author: inhokim@dankook.ac.kr

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00010.0

Chemical Composition, In Vitro Digestibility and Fatty Acid Profile of Amaranthus caudatus Herbage During its Growth Cycle

P.G. Peiretti*, G. Meineri1, E. Longato1 and S. Tassone2

Institute of Sciences of Food Production, National Research Council Largo P. Braccini 2, 10095 Grugliasco (TO), Italy


Peiretti, P.G., Meineri, G. Longato, E. and Tassone, S. 2018. Chemical composition, in vitro digestibility and fatty acid profile of Amaranthus caudatus herbage during its growth cycle. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 107-116.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of plant ageing on the chemical composition, gross energy, in vitro true digestibility, neutral detergent fibre digestibility and fatty acid (FA) profile of amaranth. The herbage was harvested at seven maturity stages, namely early-, mid- and late-vegetative, shooting, budding, early flowering and grain fill. The effects of maturity were analysed by polynomial contrasts. The quality of crop decreased with increasing morphological stages. The chemical composition of amaranth was found closely connected to plant development; while the OM and CP contents decreased (P<0.05), the contents of NDF, ADF, and lignin(sa) increased from the first to the last stage (P<0.05). Consequently, nutritive parameters decreased with increasing growth stage. Even though the lipid content did not differ significantly during plant development, the pattern of FA changed during plant growth. The -linolenic acid content decreased (linear P<0.01; quadratic P<0.05; cubic P<0.01), while linoleic acid content increased (linear P<0.01; quadratic P<0.05) with increasing maturity. As far as other FAs are concerned, palmitic, stearic and oleic acid increased (P<0.01), while stearidonic acid decreased (P<0.05) in later growth stage. A minor FA such as -linolenic acid did not differ significantly during the growth cycle. It is concluded that since its nutritional quality deteriorates and polyunsaturated FA content decreases when cutting is delayed, the first cut of amaranth should be before or at the shooting stage.

Keywords: Amaranth, Forage, Lipids, Morphological stage, Nutritive value.

*Corresponding author: piergiorgio.peiretti@ispa.cnr.it

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00011.2

Effect of Extrusion Temperature on Quality of Carp Floating Feed Prepared from Local Feed Resources

K.C. Das*, K.N. Mohanta, S.K. Nayak, T. Mohanty, S. Toppo1 and P. Swain2

Fish Nutrition and Physiology Division Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Bhubaneswar-751 002, India


Das, K.C., Mohanta, K.N., Nayak, S.K., Mohanty, T. Toppo, S. and Swain, P. 2018. Effect of extrusion temperature on quality of carp floating feed prepared from local feed resources. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 117-123.
A fish feed for rohu (Labeo rohita) was formulated from locally available feed ingredients and processed using four different extrusion temperatures i.e., 110, 130, 150 and 170°C maintaining constant moisture and pressure. The extruded feeds so produced were evaluated for physical and chemical characteristics to ascertain their quality. A digestibility study was conducted during a 60d feeding trial to determine the intake and digestibility of nutrients. Intestinal enzyme activity of rohu was also assessed. Results indicated that processing the feed at 130 and 150°C resulted in 100% floating whereas higher or lower extrusion temperatures reduced the floating percentage. As temperature of extrusion increased, the water holding capacity of feed was increased, but lower and higher temperatures of 130 or 150°C, increased the apparent density of feed. The nutrient composition of the four feeds in terms of DM, EE, CF, NFE and total ash were not affected except for the CP which was reduced (P<0.05) while extruded at 170°C. The digestibility of nutrients was not affected by the extrusion temperature of the feeds. The feed intake was significantly higher (P<0.05) with the feed produced at 130 or 150°C extrusion temperature as compared to the feed produced at 110 and 170°C. The amylase and lipase activity of intestine did not show any significant changes after feeding the feeds produced at four different extrusion temperatures. The results indicates that the quality of floating feed for rohu can be maintained optimally by extruding it at temperature between 130 to 150°C.

Keywords: Extrusion, Fish, Feed quality, Floating feed, Rohu, Temperature.

*Corresponding author: kcdasicar@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00012.4

Influence of Pre-Partum Supplementary Feeding on Calving Performance of Dromedary Camels

N. Saini* and N.V. Patil

National Research Centre on Camel Bikaner-334 001, India


Saini, N. and Patil, N.V. 2018. Influence of pre-partum supplementary feeding on calving performance of dromedary camels. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 125-130.
In order to assess the effect of supplementary feeding pre-partum on the reproductive performance of dromedary camels, 34 pregnant she-camels of 6-12 years age and 4-9 parity at 90d pre-partum were divided into three groups. The dietary treatments inlcuded feeding a complete pelleted diet (10% CP; 63% TDN) at three different levels, namely 2 (G1), 3 (G2) and 4 (G3) kg/d, respectively, in addition to ad libitum feeding of groundnut haulm. Additionally, all animals were allowed grazing for 7-8 h daily. The net gain in BW at calving was 99.30±11.80, 112.80±5.71 and 120.68±15.79 kg in the dietary groups G1, G2 and G3, respectively, without any significant differences. There was no variations (P>0.05) apparent in the gestation length, percentage loss in BW at calving as well as the birth weight of calves among the three dietary groups. Blood biochemical indices namely, total protein, urea, total cholesterol, and calcium and phosphorus remained similar among the groups. It is concluded that supplementary feeding of pelleted complete diet at 2 kg/d to grazing camels during the last 3 months of gestation is economical for camel farmers.

Keywords: Camel, Calving performance, Pre-partum, Supplementary feeding.

*Corresponding author: nirmala.saini@rediffmail.com


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