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2019 Issues


DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00032.5

Effect of Emulsifier Supplementation on Growth Performance, Apparent Total Tract Digestibility of Nutrients and Blood Profile in Weaning Pigs Fed Corn- Soybean Meal Based Diets

J.Y. Zhang, J. Hu and I.H. Kim*

Department of Animal Resource and Science, Dankook University Cheonan, Choongnam, 31116, South Korea


Zhang, J.Y., Hu, J. and Kim, I.H. 2019. Effect of emulsifier supplementation on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients and blood profile in weaning pigs fed corn-soybean meal based diet. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 337-347.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an emulsifier (sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate, SSL) on performance in weaning pigs. One hundred and twenty weaning pigs [(Landrace x Yorkshire) x Duroc, body weight (7.57±0.94 kg)] were randomly allotted to four experiment treatments in a 6 weeks trial. There were 6 replicates per treatment with 5 pigs per replicate (three gilts and two barrows). Dietary treatments consisted of 0 (CON), 0.05% (SSL0.05), 0.075% (SSL0.075), and 0.1% (SSL0.1) emulsifier in the basal diet. Fresh faecal grab samples collected from at least 2 pigs per pen to calculate nutrients digestibility at end of experiment. Blood samples were collected into clot activator vacuum tubes from 2 pigs (1male and 1 female) in each pen. During 1-3 weeks, 3-6 weeks, and the overall phase, the average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), gain/feed (G/F), the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter and fat were improved (linear, P<0.05) in the emulsifier treatments is compared with the CON. The concentration of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides and low density lipoprotein (LDL) - cholesterol was linearly reduced in the pigs fed a graded level of SSL (linear, P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in faecal score and faecal microflora in weaning pigs at the end of study. In conclusion, supplementation with an emulsifier in the diet could improve growth performance, reduce cholesterol and triglycerides, and improve the digestibility of dry matter and fat in weaning pigs.

Keywords: Blood profiles, Emulsifier, Growth performance, Nutrient digestibility, Weanling pigs

*Corresponding author: inhokim@dankook.ar.kr

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00033.7

Effect of Low Protein Diets on Production Performance, Egg Quality and Serum Biochemical Indices of Vanaraja Laying Hens

L.K. Gumpha, L.K. Babu, A. Kumar, P. Samal and A.K. Panda*

Department of Livestock Production and Management College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar-751003, India


Gumpha, L.K., Babu, L.K., Kumar, A., Samal, P. and Panda, A.K. 2019. Effect of low protein diets on production performance, egg quality and serum biochemical indices of Vanaraja laying hens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 349-359.
The effect of feeding low protein diets on production performance, egg quality and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated in Vanaraja laying hens (35-46 weeks). A total of 108, Vanaraja laying hens were randomly distributed into four treatment with three replicates of nine birds in each replicate pen in a complete randomized design. Four different diets were formulated containing different levels of protein (13, 14.5, 16 and 17.5% CP) with similar energy (2,600 ME kcal/kg) and the ratio of lysine and methionine to CP were kept constant in all the diets. Each dietary group were offered a measured quantity of feed daily. The body weight gain was significantly higher (P<0.05) in birds fed 13% CP diet compared to birds fed 16 and 17.5% CP diets. The hen-housed egg production, egg weight, egg mass per day and feed efficiency (g egg/g feed) were not influenced by variation in CP contents of the diet. There was no influence of dietary protein levels on egg quality parameters like albumin%, yolk%, haugh unit and egg shell thickness except egg shell%. Significantly higher (P<0.05) egg shell percentage was noticed in 16% CP diet (P<0.05) compared to either 13 and 14.5% CP diet. Serum biochemical parameters like concentration of total protein, globulin, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine and alkaline phosphatase were influenced significantly (P<0.05) by dietary protein levels at 46 weeks of age. From the overall findings, it is concluded that diet containing 13% CP is adequate for optimum production performance and egg quality in Vanaraja laying hens during 35 to 46 week of age.

Keywords: Egg quality, Laying hens, Low protein, Production performance, Serum biochemicals.

*Corresponding author: akpanda59@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00034.9

Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Black Cumin, Garlic and Turmeric on the Production Performance and Egg Quality of White Leghorn Hens

P.K. Singh*, Anil Kumar and D.P. Tiwari

Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, G.B. Pant University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology Pantnagar-263145, India


Singh, P.K., Kumar, A. and Tiwari, D.P. 2019. Effects of dietary supplementation of black cumin, garlic and turmeric on the production performance and egg quality of White Leghorn hens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 361-370.
This study was designed to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of black cumin (Nigella sativa), garlic (Allium sativa) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) on the production performance and egg quality in laying hens. A total of 180, 26-weeks old White Leghorn layers were randomly assigned into nine dietary treatments each with four replicates having 5 birds in each, and reared for 12 weeks from 28 to 39 weeks of age. The experimental diets were prepared by supplementing basal diet (T1) with an antibiotic (Enramycin @ 2.5 g per quintal of feed) feed additive (T2), 1% black cumin powder (T3), 1% garlic powder (T4), 1% turmeric powder (T5), 1% mixture of black cumin and turmeric in equal proportion (T6), 1% mixture of black cumin and garlic in equal proportion (T7), 1% mixture of garlic and turmeric in equal proportion (T8) and 1% mixture of black cumin seed, garlic and turmeric in equal proportion (T9). Results indicated a significantly (P<0.05) higher egg production (87.14%) and egg weight (55.85g) in T9 group of birds with the best egg quality. Egg shell quality and organoleptic characteristics of eggs was not affected by dietary treatments. It is concluded that supplementation of one percent equi-proportional mixture of black cumin, garlic and turmeric powder in the diet not only influenced the egg production and egg quality but helped in lowering egg yolk cholesterol and triglycerides during first phase of laying period.

Keywords: Black cumin, Egg quality, Garlic, Laying hens, Performance, Turmeric

*Corresponding author: vetpank@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00035.0

Nutrient Utilization and Performance of Endotoxin Exposed Kids Supplemented with Phytogenic Feed Additive

Amsathkumar, L., S.E. Jadhav*, A.K. Pattanaik and Narayan Dutta

Centre of Advanced Faculty Training, Animal Nutrition Division ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122, India


Amsathkumar, L., Jadhav, S.E., Pattanaik, A.K. and Dutta, N. 2019. Nutrient utilization and performance of endotoxin exposed kids supplemented with phytogenic feed additive. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 371-383.
The present study was conducted to ascertain the effect of a phytogenic feed additive (PFA) on nutrient utilization and growth pattern of kids exposed to endotoxin. Eighteen male goat kids of 8-10 months age and 10.6±0.54 kg BW were equally divided into three groups, CON (Control), PRO (prophylactic) and THP (therapeutic) during an experiment of 91 d involving two consecutive periods (P1: 0-49 d; P2: 50-91 d). Kids in all the groups were fed a basal diet comprising wheat straw and concentrate mixture. The PRO group kids were supplemented with the PFA at 1.5% of DM intake in P1 and P2; however, during P2, these kids were treated with the endotoxin at 0.2 µg/kg BW intravenously every week. The THP group was fed the control diet (without PFA) during P1 but fed the PFA-supplemented diet during P2; additionally, the kids were treated with the endotoxin during both the P1 and P2 periods. Two metabolism trials were conducted towards the end of each period. The digestibility of nutrients was similar (P>0.05) in all the three groups during P1. The digestibility of NDF in THP was lower (P=0.016) as compared to PRO and CON during P2. The intake of digestible DM was low (P<0.05) and other digestible nutrients tended to be lower (P=0.06) in THP during P1 whereas, the intake of digestible nutrients was similar during P2. In both the periods, the retention of nitrogen was similar in all the three groups, but kids in THP exhibited a loss in BW during P1 while all the groups showed BW gain during P2. It is concluded that supplementation of the selected phytogenic feed additive at 1.5% in the diet maintains the intake of digestible nutrients, prevents BW loss and restores growth in kids exposed to endotoxin.

Keywords: Digestibility, Growth, Lipopolysaccharide, Nitrogen retention, Phytogenic feed additive

*Corresponding author: sejadhav1@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00036.2

Compositional and Nutritional Evaluation of Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.) Meal

W. Biel and A. Jaroszewska*

Department of Pig Breeding, Animal Nutrition and Food, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Szczecin-71460, Poland


Biel, W. and Jaroszewska, A. 2019. Compositional and nutritional evaluation of guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.) meal. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 385-393.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional value of guar meal (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba), with particular emphasis on the protein quality, as an alternative source of animal feed compared to the popular genetically modified soybean meal. The research material consisted of three types of guar meal (GM) purchased in India and soybean meal (SBM) produced from genetically modified soy beans. We analyzed the levels of essential nutrients and protein nutritional value. The nutritional values of the examined guar meals were similar to soybean meal. The extracted guar meal (GME) had the highest level of total protein (738.9 g/kg DM), crude fat (87.6 g/kg DM) and lowest fiber content (34.8 g/kg DM). The protein of GM is characterised by a favorable amino acid composition of high quality protein which can be confirmed by the Essential Amino Acids Index (EAAI) values. The first amino acids limiting the nutritive value of protein were the sulfur-containing amino acids in nearly all samples.

Keywords: Amino Acids, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, Nutritional Evaluation.

*Corresponding author: anna.jaroszewska@zut.edu.pl

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00037.4

Digestive and Fermentative Dynamics in Steers Supplemented with Multi-nutrients Blocks Containing Fermented Opuntia ficus-indica

M. Murillo-Ortiz, E. Herrera-Torres, J. Paez-Lerma, Ó. Ruiz, A. Corral- Luna and G. Pámanes-Carrasco*

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Husbandry Durango State Juarez University Durango, Mexico 34307


Murillo-Ortiz, M, Herrera-Torres, E., Paez-Lerma, J, Ruiz, O., Corral-Luna, A. and Pámanes-Carrasco, G. 2019. Digestive and fermentative dynamics in steers supplemented with multi-nutrients blocks containing fermented Opuntia ficus-indica. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 395-404.
Four rumen-fistulated crossbred steers were used in a crossover design to evaluate the effect of supplementing multi-nutrient blocks containing fermented Opuntia ficus indica on ruminal microorganisms population, intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients and ruminal fermentation. The steers were fed on ad libitum oat straw alone as a control (CON) or along with a supplemental multi-nutrients block containing fermented Opuntia ficus-indica (MNB). Steers were adapted to the respective diets for 15 d followed by a 6-d collection period. The blocks remained available to the animals round the clock. The results indicated that the populations of the total- and cellulolytic-bacteria were significantly higher in the MNB group of steers supplemented with multi-nutrient blocks containing fermented O. ficus-indica (P<0.05). Total intake of DM, OM, CP and NDF increased significantly by supplementation (P<0.05). Similarly, digestion rate (Kd), passage rate (Kp) as well as apparent digestibility of DM, OM, PC and NDF were increased (P<0.05) with the MNB supplementation. While there was no effect of MNB evident on the ruminal pH (P>0.05), the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen, total volatile fatty acids, propionate and butyrate increased with the supplementation (P<0.05). Thus, multi-nutrients blocks containing fermented O. ficus-indica can be used as a supplementary feed source when oat straw or others low nutritional quality roughages are fed to beef cattle.

Keywords: Digestibility, Feed blocks, Fermentation, Prickly pear, Ruminal microorganisms

*Corresponding author: gerardo.pamanes@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00038.6

Response of Egg-type Chicks to Mannanoligosaccharides Supplementation of Diets Varying in Energy and Protein

S.P. Dukare, J.J. Rokade, Avishek Biswas, Mukesh Kapgate, Sarada Tarai and A.B. Mandal*

Avian Nutrition and Feed Technology Division ICAR-Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122, India


Dukare, S.P., Rokade, J.J., Biswas, A., Kapgate, M., Tarai, S. and Mandal, A.B. 2019. Response of egg-type chicks to mannanoligosaccharides supplementation of diets varying in energy and protein. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 405-415.
A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) at different energy and protein level on performance of egg-type chicks during hot-dry summer. After feeding a standard diet from 0-21d of age, the chicks were randomly distributed into four dietary treatment groups viz., T1 with high energy 2800 kcal ME/kg and high protein 18.00% (HEHP), T2 with HEHP diet and MOS @ 0.2% (HEHP+MOS), T3 with low energy 2700 kcal ME/kg low protein 17.34% (LELP) and T4 with LELP diet and MOS @ 0.2% (LELP+MOS). Each treatment had fifty birds divided in five replicates of ten birds each. Experiment was carried out during hot-dry summer (April-May, 28.0±0.12 to 35.25±0.37°C, RH,%: 68.95±0.90 to 79.15±0.61). Production performance, yield of immune organs, blood biochemical and intestinal morphometry were measured on 42nd and 63rd day post- hatch. Feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) improved significantly (P<0.05) in HEHP+MOS group. H:L ratio significantly (P<0.05) reduced in MOS supplemented group at 42nd as well as 63rd day of age. Immune organ like thymus, spleen and bursa had significantly (P<0.05) higher weight in MOS supplemented group. Total protein (P<0.001), AST (P<0.001), ALT (P<0.001) and, creatinine (P<0.05) were significantly improved while cholesterol, uric acid and ALP was significantly (P<0.001) reduced in MOS supplemented diets. Villus height and crypt depth improved significantly (P<0.001) in MOS supplemented group at 42nd as well as 63rd day of age. Thus, it may be concluded that high-energy (2800 kcal ME/kg) and high protein (18% CP) diet was beneficial for egg-type starting chicks during dry summer. Moreover, the inclusion of mannan-oligosaccharides @ 0.2% gave further advantage for improved performance and reduction of thermal stress.

Keywords: Egg-type chicks, Heat stress, Mannan oligosaccharides, Nutritional plane

*Corresponding author: abmcari@rediffmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00040.4

Nutrient Metabolism, Blood Indices and Immunity in Haemonchus contortus Infected Goats Fed Condensed Tannins-enriched Densified Complete Feed Blocks

Muzaffer Khan, A.K. Pathak* and Surender Singh

Division of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and AH Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology Jammu-181102, India


Khan, M., Pathak, A.K. and Singh, S. 2019. Nutrient metabolism, blood indices and immunity in haemonchuscontortus infected goats fed condensed tannins-enriched densified complete feed blocks. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 417-430.
The study was undertaken to assess the nutrient metabolism, blood indices and immunity in Haemonchus contortus infected goats fed condensed tannins (CT) enriched densified complete feed blocks (CT-DCFB). Twelve adult male goats of similar age and body weight (27.51±0.86) were divided in 3 groups (4 in each) in completely randomized block design for the feeding of 75 days. Goats of T1 (no infection) and T2 (H. contortus at 1500 L3/goat) offered DCFB, while goats of T3 (H. contortus at 1500 L3/goat) offered CT-DCFB. Nutrients intakes and digestibility were significantly (P<0.05) higher in T1 and T3 as compared to T2. Intakes of digestible crude protein (DCP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) g/d were significantly (P<0.05) lower in T2 as compared to T1 and T3. Nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus intake balances were significantly (P<0.05) lower in T2 as compared to T1 and T3. Mean haemoglobin, packed cell volume, glucose, serum calcium, phosphorus (mg/dl), total proteins and albumin (g/dl) were significantly lower in T2 as compared to T1 and T3. CT-DCFB feeding significantly (P<0.01) reduced serum urea level in T3 as compared to T1 and T2. Feeding of CT-DCFB significantly (P<0.05) improved cell mediated and humoral immunity in T3 as compared to T1 and T2 groups. Mean faecal egg counts were significantly (P<0.001) lower in T3 as compared to T2 group. It may be concluded that feeding of CT- DCFB improved nutrient utilization, metabolic profile and immunity in H. contortus infected goats with a saving of Rs. 2.2 per kg.

Keywords: Condensed tannins, Feed blocks, Goats, Haemonchus contortus, Nutrient metabolism

*Corresponding author: dranand_pathak@yahoo.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00039.8

Impact of Roughages and Herbs in Diets for Pigs on Quality of Fat in Meat and Back-fat

B. Olkowski*, Z. Turyk, A. Milczarek and M. Osek

Institute of Bioengineering and Animal Breeding Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Prusa, Poland


Olkowski, B., Turyk, Z., Milczarek, A. and Osek, M. 2019. Impact of roughages and herbs in diets for pigs on quality of fat in meat and back-fat. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 431-441.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of roughage and dried herbs mixture on the composition of fatty acid fractions in the Longissimus lumborum muscle and back-fat. The experiments were performed on 96 fatteners (three groups of 32 animals each). Group 1 (C) was fed a conventional ration based on concentrates, Group 2 (CR) received the conventional ration supplemented with roughages, and the group 3 (CRH) was fed the CR diet along with a herbal supplement. Diets containing roughages or roughages with herb supplement, significantly (P<0.05) contributed to increase dorsal back-fat thickening and suet share, but decrease the intramuscular fat content in meat. The addition of roughages resulted in changes in the fatty acid profiles of both the meat and back fat by lowering the saturated fatty acid content, and increasing poly unsaturated fatty acids contents in the meat. Herbal supplementation had rather a small impact on pig growth and fat deposition. Supplementation of roughages in the diet may cause subtle, but significant changes in lipids structure, thus improving the dietetic value of pig carcass lipid fraction respecting both subcutaneous and intramuscular fat, but the benefits of roughage use in pig diet must be weighed against slightly negative effects on pigs growth and carcass characteristics which include accelerated abdominal and subcutaneous fat deposition and decrease intra-muscular fat in meat.

Keywords: Dietetic value, Fatty acids, Pork, Pigs feeding, Vegetable feedstuffs

*Corresponding author: b.olkowski@uph.edu.pl

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00041.6

In Vitro Assessment of Tropical Tree Leaves as Modulators of Rumen Fermentation

R.V. Jadhav, L.C. Chaudhary*, Neeta Agarwal, Anju Kala and D.N. Kamra

Rumen Microbiology Laboratory, Animal Nutrition Division Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar 243122


Jadhav, R.V., Chaudhary, L.C., Agarwal, N., Kala, A. and Kamra, D.N. In vitro assessment of tropical tree leaves as modulators of rumen fermentation. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 443-454.
Twenty tree leaves, Ficus benghalensis, F. religiosa, F. infectoria, F. glomerata and Moringa oleifera from both North-East Hilly (NEH) region and Upper Gangetic Plains (UGP) of north India and Spondias mangifera wild, Litchi chinensis, Hymenodictyon excelsum, Elaeocarpus floribundus, Dillenia indica, Mangifera indica, Terminalia chebula, T. arjuna, A. nilotica and Averrhoa carambola from North- east hilly region were evaluated by in vitro gas production system for their potency to inhibit the methane production. The leaves varied widely in their chemical composition with highest crude protein, ether extract and lowest neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre with moderate tannins and saponins contents in M. oleifera leaves, categorizing it as high nutritive value foliage. Total gas production was significantly reduced only by inclusion of L. chinensis leaves. Out of twenty leaves only nine, inhibited (P<0.001) methane production and the per cent reduction in methane was 32.2, 27.7, 23.7, 21.1, 19.3, 18.6, 17.9 17.8 and 17.4 with T. chebula, M. indica, T. arjuna, F. benghalensis, M. oleifera, F. Infectoria (UGP), M. oleifera (UGP), A. Nilotica and F. glomerata, respectively. In vitro true digestibility of feed was lower (P<0.01) with the addition of leaves of L. chinensis, A. nilotica, E. Floribundu, S. mangifera, T. Chebula, F. benghalensis and H. excelsum, whereas, it was significantly improved with M. oleifera leaves as compared to control. There was no effect on volatile fatty acids and NH3-N production by the inclusion of any of the leaves. Out of 20 leaves tested, the leaves of nine trees have shown potential to inhibit methane production and can be explored further for animal trials.

Keywords: Leaves, Methane, Plant secondary metabolites, Rumen fermentation

*Corresponding author: lcchaudhary1@rediffmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00042.8

Effect of Lipid Contents and Process Parameters on the Physicochemical, Rheological, Calorimetric and Structural Properties of an Extruded Canine Food

E. Delgado, M. Gamero-Barraza, W. Flores-Rosas, D.J. Valles- Rosales, H. Medrano-Roldán and D. Reyes-Jáquez*

Department of Family and Consumer Sciences New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico, USA


Delgado, E., Gamero-Barraza, M., Flores-Rosas, W., Valles-Rosales, D.J., Medrano-Roldán, H. and Reyes-Jáquez, D. 2019. Effect of lipid contents and process parameters on the physicochemical, rheological, calorimetric and structural properties of an extruded canine food. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 455-469.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of total lipids content and process parameters on the physicochemical, rheological and structural properties of an extruded canine food that contains discarded beans as protein source. An optimization of temperature (120-150°C), moisture content (14- 18%), screw speed (120-180 rpm) and total lipids (5-15%) of the extrusion process was performed using surface superimposition methodology. Rheology, calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy studies were performed on the optimal treatment before and after extrusion. Results showed that significant differences (P<0.05) were obtained on physicochemical properties: increasing temperature resulted in decreased expansion index and bulk density, unlike water absorption index, which increased. Also, increasing total lipids decreased hardness and increased color. Finally, the obtained optimal processing conditions were standardized at 150°C, 15.5% moisture, 140 rpm and 10% of total lipids with the resultant characteristics involving hardness: 39.23 N; expansion index: 1.07; bulk density: 1,021.3 kg/m3; specific mechanical energy: 28.8 kJ/kg; color: 9.27; water absorption index 2.01 g/g; water solubility index: 12.13%; Vini: 1,439.61 cP; Vmax: 27,835 cP; Vmin: 16,822.4 cP; Vfin: 15,146.2 cP; and, Vretro: 1,676.22 cP. Differential scanning calorimetry showed a high degree of gelatinization in extrudates; however, these results are inconsistent with rheological experimentation results. X-ray diffraction showed a decreased crystallinity of the extruded diets. Finally, scanning electron microscopy showed intact starch granules after extrusion, suggesting a partial gelatinization. Results demonstrate the potential use of high lipids content in an extruded food that fulfills nutritional requirements for canine consumption.

Keywords: Canine pet food, Discarded bean, Extrusion, Physicochemical properties, Total lipids content

*Corresponding author: damian.reyes@itdurango.edu.mx

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00043.X

Evaluation of Models to Predict Energy Efficiency of Ewes During the Late gestation

A. Moharrery, S.K. Dehkordi*, Z. Moradmand and R. Feyzi

Animal Science Department, Agricultural College Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran


Moharrery, A., Dehkordi, S.K., Moradmand, Z. and Feyzi, R. 2019. Evaluation of models to predict energy efficiency of ewes during the late gestation. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 471-484.
This study compared the six non-linear functions namely exponential, hyperbolic, power, incomplete Gamma, Gamma, and Weibull using fat mobilization and energy efficiency percentage in Iranian native ewes during the late gestation. Twenty ewes were distributed into five equal treatments through the late gestation adopting restricted feeding. The treatments comprised of: corn silage fed alone (T1) or along with chopped alfalfa (T2), un-chopped alfalfa (T3), chopped wheat straw (T4) and un-chopped wheat straw (T5). Due to restricted feeding, all ewes lost their body weight (BW) but it did not have any effect on their health condition. Pooled data gathered from all ewes made the data set and the boot strapping procedure was used for re-sampling up to 1200 times. Different mathematical functions consisted of exponential, hyperbolic, power, incomplete Gamma, Gamma, and Weibull were evaluated with regard to their ability to describe the relationship between fat mobilization and energy efficiency percentage. Based on the goodness of the fit of different criteria and statistical performance, convergence percentage of the three two-parameter functions along with the Gamma function were considerably higher (100%) than the Weibull (75.33%) and incomplete Gamma (99.08%) functions, suggesting that these functions would be the best models. However, based the t-test carried out for predicted and observed values (n=24000), the hyperbolic function showed to be superior to other functions (P=1.000) with 100% convergence and lower parameter. The results of all functions revealed the fact that decreased energy efficiency percentage was the consequence of higher fat mobilization in ewes at the late of pregnancy.

Keywords: Energy efficiency, Ewes, Fat mobilization, Pregnancy, Modelling

*Corresponding author: saeid45@yahoo.com, karimi.saeid@agr.sku.ac.ir

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00044.1

Effect of Dietary Supplementation of XPC on Milk Production in Lactating Murrah Buffaloes

Anil Kumar*, Dinesh Kumar, P.K. Singh, Tilak Dhiman and Ilkyu Yoon

Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology Pantnagar-263145, India


Kumar, A., Kumar, D., Singh, P.K., Dhiman, T. and Yoon, I. 2019. Effect of dietary supplementation of XPC on milk production in lactating murrah buffaloes. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 487- 492.
The effect of XPC (composed of yeast fermentation metabolites) supplementation on production performance of lactating buffaloes was studied. Forty-eight healthy lactating buffaloes (BW 540.20±17.96 kg) in early to mid lactation stages were blocked by body weight, lactation number, days in lactation and milk production during one week prior to the start of the experiment. Within blocks buffaloes were randomly distributed into 2 groups of 24 each control (no supplementation) or XPC (14 g/d of XPCTM, Diamond V, USA). The experiment was conducted in four phases to minimize the variation in body weight, days in milk and milk yield. A 10-week study was performed with 8-week treatment feeding period plus a week of adaptation and a week of covariate period prior to the treatment feeding. The buffaloes were fed concentrate mixture with green fodders (maize and sorghum) with oat hay (9:1) ad libitum to meet their maintenance and production requirements. A 50 g premix was prepared in advance containing 14 g of XPC with 36 g of concentrate mixture and fed to XPC fed group daily before morning feeding, whereas 50 g of concentrate mixture without XPC was given to control animals. Feed consumption and milk yield changes were recorded daily. The results of the present study indicate that dietary supplementation of XPC improves milk yield of lactating buffaloes. Average milk yields in XPC treatment group (7.56 L/d) were significantly (P£0.01) higher than control group (7.14 L/d), resulting 5.89% improvement with supplementation of XPC having similar DMI. The supplementation of XPC also improved 4% fat- corrected milk yield and energy-corrected milk yield by 4.66 and 4.98%, respectively without any adverse non-significantly impact on daily DMI and fat percentage. Further it reduced feed cost (Rs.) per kg 4% FCM yield in XPC (16.39) than control (16.98) and high return of Rs. 327.57 per animal per day in XPC group. The net return in comparison to control was Rs. 21.01 in XPC which suggests that supplementation of XPC is economically feasible. It may be concluded that incorporating XPC in the diet of lactating buffaloes improve the production performance of buffaloes and enhance the profitability of the producers.

Keywords: Milk production, Milk composition, Murrah buffaloes, XPC

*Corresponding author: anil701k@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00045.3

Influence of Dried Tomato Pomace as a Source of Polyphenols on the Performance of Growing Rabbit

N. Grioui*, I. Belhadj Slimen, H. Riahi, T. Najar, M. Abderrabba and M. Mejri

Department of Animal Production, National Agronomic Institute of Tunisia University of Carthage, 1082 Mahrajene, Tunis, Tunisia


Grioui, N., Belhadj Slimen, I., Riahi, H., Najar, T., Abderrabba, M. and Mejri, M. 2019. Influence of dried tomato pomace as a source of polyphenols on the performance of growing rabbit. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 493-501.
This study was carried out to determine the effects of dried tomato pomace (DTP) feeding on the performance and apparent digestibility of growing rabbits. A total 54, 6-week old rabbits were divided into three equal groups and fed isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing 0 (CON), 10 (DTP-10) and 20 (DTP-20) per cent DTP for a period of 6 weeks. A digestibility trial carried out in the second week of the growth trial indicated that the digestibility of DM and EE remained similar among the three groups. However, rabbits fed DTP-containing diets showed higher (P<0.05) digestibility of CP, which showed linear increase with increasing dietary inclusion of DTP. However, there was no significant (P>0.05) differences between experimental groups in terms of weight gain, average daily gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio. Interestingly, the highest level of DTP (i.e. at 20%) resulted in the lowest mortality. Moreover, supplementing the diet of rabbits with DTP decreased the cost of production and increased relative net revenue. It is concluded that the incorporation of dried tomato pomace rich in polyphenols up to 20% in the rabbitdiet contributes to improved protein digestibility.

Keywords: Digestibility, Growth performance, Polyphenols, Tomato pomace, Rabbit

*Corresponding author: grioui.nouha@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00046.5

Higher Fat Mobilization During the Late Gestation Negatively Affects the Energetic Efficiency of Ewes

A. Moharrery, S.K. Dehkordi*, Z. Moradmand and F. Karami

Animal Science Department, Agricultural College Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran


Moharrery, A., Dehkordi, S.K., Moradmand, Z. and Karami, F. 2019. Higher fat mobilization during the late gestation negatively affects the energetic efficiency of ewes. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 503-515.
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of using different mixtures of corn silage and absorbents on nutrient digestibility as well as nitrogen and energy status of Iranian fat-tailed native ewes during late pregnancy. Twenty ewes (36±1.5 months of age; 55±6 kg BW) in the late gestation were randomly divided into five equal groups and were fed with corn silage either alone (T1) or mixed with chopped alfalfa (T2), un-chopped alfalfa (T3), chopped wheat straw (T4) and un-chopped wheat straw (T5). All the ewes were fed restricted up to approximately a 33% of their requirements. The results of the study showed that restricted feeding regime caused a negative energy and protein balance in all ewes.Treatment which contained absorbents showed higher DM, OM, and CP intake (P<0.05). However, no significant (P>0.05) effect was revealed among the dietary groups in terms of nutrient digestibility. Nitrogen intake, urinary N, tissue N mobilization, total available N and N deposition in the gravid uterus were affected by the treatments (P<0.05), and treatment contained alfalfa hay as an absorbent showed superiority than other treatments. Pooled data from all ewes showed that fat mobilization have strong negative correlation (P<0.0001) with energy efficiency. It can be concluded that high energy demand during late pregnancy in ewes under a restricted feeding regimen is the main factor of fat mobilization around the tail nuts; and as a result, higher fat mobilization is accompanied with low energy efficiency.

Keywords: Energy efficiency, Ewes, Fat mobilization, Pregnancy, Corn Silage

*Corresponding author: saeid45@yahoo.com, karimi.saeid@agr.sku.ac.ir

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00047.7

Effect of Feeding of Hydroponic Maize Fodder on Milk Production in Rathi Cows

A.K. Limba*, R.K. Dhuria, T. Sharma and R. Nehra

College of Veterinary and Animal Science Rajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bikaner-334001, India


Limba, A.K., Dhuria, R.K., Sharma, T. and Nehra, R. 2019. Effect of feeding of hydroponic maize fodder on milk production in Rathi cows. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 517-522.
Sixteen lactating Rathi cows (BW 340-360 kg with average milk yield of ~5-6 kg/d) were distributed in four equal groups in order to study the effect of feeding of hydroponic maize fodder on milk production during a 120 d feeding trial. The animals in group CON (control) were fed 4.5 kg concentrate mixture (CP 20%). In group HM-25, 75% of CP was met through concentrate mixture (3.375 kg) and rest through hydroponic maize fodder (7.0 kg), while, animals were fed 14 kg hydroponic maize fodder, 2.25 kg concentrate mixture in group HM-50. In HM-75 group, the animals were fed 21 kg of hydroponic maize fodder, 1.125 kg concentrate mixture. Additionally, all the cows were fed 4 kg groundnut straw and wheat straw ad libitum. Results indicated that the feed (DM) intake was significantly higher (P<0.01) in the CON group in comparison to group HM-75. The DCP, TDN and NR values were significantly (P<0.01) higher in HM-75 than CON group. Average daily milk yield and fat corrected milk (FCM) yield were significantly (P<0.05) higher in group HM-75 in comparison to the control group CON.The fat and total solids contents in the milk were significantly (P<0.05) higher in group HM-75 in comparison to group CON and HM-25 groups with no variation in the SNF, protein and lactose contents. In conclusion, hydroponic maize fodder can be fed to the lactating cows by replacing up to 75% CP of concentrate mixture with improved milk production.

Keywords: Cows, Feeding, Hydroponics fodder, Maize, Milk

*Corresponding author: tanklaanil89@gmail.com


DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00015.5

Effect of Oat Fodder Cultivars on In Vitro Fermentation, Nutrient Utilization, Nitrogen Balance and Performance in Sheep

Sultan Singh*, A.K. Roy, Pankaj Kaushal, A.K. Misra, K.K. Singh, M.M. Das, S.B. Maity, Shahid Ahmed, S.K. Mahanta and Rameshwar Sah

Plant Animal Relationship Division ICAR-Indian Grassland and Fodder Research institute, Jhansi-284003, India


Singh, S., Roy, A.K., Kaushal, P., Misra, A.K., Singh, K.K., Das, M.M., Maity, S.B., Ahmed, S., Mahanta, S.K. and Sah, R. 2019. Effect of oat fodder cultivars on in vitro fermentation, nutrient utilization, nitrogen balance and performance in sheep. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 157-168.
Study evaluates nutritive value of oat fodder varieties in sheep by in vitro and in vivo means. The newly identified oat varieties (JHO-99-2 and JHO-2010-1) with check Kent grown under identical agronomic management were fed to 18 sheep (25.13±0.42 kg BW and 14.05±0.64 m age) randomly allotted to Kent, JHO-99-2 and JHO-2010-1 groups with 6 animals in each. Crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), cellulose and lignin contents of the oat varieties were identical. Total carbohydrate, carbohydrate and protein fractions were similar in oat cultivars. Calculated dry matter intake (DMI), digestible dry matter (DDM), total digestible nutrients (TDN), digestible energy (DE), metabolisable energy (ME), net energy for maintenance (NEm), lactation (NEl ) and gain (NEg) were similar in all varieties. In vitro gas and CH4 production (ml/g), partition factor (PF) and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) varied (P<0.05) among oat varieties. Sheep offered JHO-2010-1 had higher (P<0.05) NDF and OM digestibility. DCP, DE and ME varied from 3.56-4.53 %, 1.97-2.12 kcal/g and 1.62-1.75 kcal/g, respectively among the oat varieties. Nitrogen intake, nitrogen balances (g/d) and growth in sheep was similar on oat varieties. It was concluded that oat varieties were similar in CP, fiber, carbohydrate and protein fractions, energy and nutrients intake and differed (P<0.05) for in vitro gas and methane production, NDF and OM digestibility.

Keywords: Energy value, Growth, In vitro fermentation, Nutritive value, Oat cultivars, Sheep

*Corresponding author: singh.sultan@rediffmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00016.7

Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Rumen Modifier and Sodium Sulphate on Methane Production and Performance of Buffalo Calves

Neeti Lakhani, D.N. Kamra, Anju Kala, Neeta Agarwal, L.C. Chaudhary* and V.B. Chaturvedi

ICAR National Professorial Chair Centre of Advanced Faculty Training in Animal Nutrition ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122, India


Lakhani, N., Kamra, D.N., Kala, A., Agarwal, N., Chaudhary, L.C. and Chaturvedi, V.B. 2019. Effects of dietary supplementation with rumen modifier and sodium sulphate on methane production and performance of buffalo calves. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 169-180.
The effect of feeding a rumen modifier [mixture of neem seed cake (Azadirachta indica), mahua seed cake (Madhuca longifolia), fennel seed (Foeniculum vulgare), harad (Terminalia chebula), fruit pulp of bahera (Terminalia bellerica), amla (Phyllanthus emblica) and ajwain seed (Trachyspermum ammi) in 2:2:2:1:1:1:1 proportion, RM -7] along with sodium sulphate on methane production, nutrient utilization, immune status, metabolic profile and performance of buffalo calves was studied. Twenty one buffalo calves divided into three groups were assigned to three treatments, basal diet (control, T1), basal diet supplemented with RM-7 and sodium sulphate at the rate of 2.0 and 0.06% of dry matter intake (DMI) (T2) and basal diet supplemented with RM-7 and sodium sulphate at the rate of 4.0 and 0.06% of DMI (T3) for a period of 120 days. The diet was comprised of concentrate and roughage in 50:50 ratio. There was no difference (P>0.05) in daily dry matter intake, nutrients digestibility, body weight gain and nitrogen metabolism. The methane production (l/kg digested dry matter intake) was reduced (P<0.05) by 14.9 and 9.6 per cent in T2 and T3 groups as compared to control and resulted in 11.08 per cent less gross energy loss in the form of methane. Humoral and cell mediated immune response showed a significant (P<0.05) improvement in both the treatment groups. The values for haemato–biochemical parameters were similar in all the three groups. It is concluded that the rumen modifier (RM-7) along with sodium sulphate can be used as a feed additive to reduce methane production and improve immune status without affecting animal performance.

Keywords: Buffalo, Haemato-biochemical changes, Immunity, Methane, Rumen modifier, Plant secondary metabolites

*Corresponding author: lcchaudhary1@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00017.9

Exploration of Available Feed Resources, Feeding Practices, Morphometric and Nutritional Status of Horses in Kashmir Valley of India

Shabina Hassan, Y.A. Beigh*, A.M. Ganai, H.A. Ahmad, Danish Masood and Ishfaq Ahmad

Division of Animal Nutrition Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Kashmir Srinagar-190006, India


Hassan, S., Beigh, Y.A., Ganai, A.M., Ahmad, H.A., Masood, D. and Ahmad, I. 2019. Exploration of available feed resources, feeding practices, morphometric and nutritional status of horses in Kashmir valley of India. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 181-192.
Nutrition is a critical component of equine health. Horse owners’ knowledge of nutrition is likely to affect their feeding practices. The study was conducted with the aim to survey available feed resources for equines, existing feeding practices and morphometric and nutritional status of horses in four major horse rearing tehsils (Sopore, Pattan, Tangmarg and Gulmarg) of district Baramulla in Kashmir valley. Twelve equine keeping families from each study area were selected at random. The daily dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), digestible energy (DE) and macro minerals (Ca and P) intakes by different classes of horses were calculated from the feed intakes and compared with the nutrient requirement given in the feeding standard. Among body morphometry, body weight (BW) was calculated using body measurements, age was predicted by dentition and body condition scoring (BCS) was done using the Henneke BCS system. Adult horses were being fed rice straw and wheat bran; however, in addition to these, maize grains was fed in Tangmarg and Gulmarg areas, while jaggery was fed as energy supplement in Sopore only. The horses were fed blend of spicy ingredients locally called as “masala”. None of the farmers offered any oil seeds/cakes, compound pelleted feed or mineral supplement to their horses, though, salt licks were allowed to the adult animals on daily basis in all the study areas. The chemical composition of all the feeds and fodders fed to horses in the study areas of district Baramulla were within the ranges as prescribed for Indian feeds and fodders. During the survey, no lactating mare was observed in the entire study areas, while no foal was observed in Sopore and Gulmarg areas. Average age of the adult animal was 7.08±0.29 years, BW was in the range of 224.40 to 271.13 kg, and BCS ranged from 4.28 to 5.21 with an average of 4.93. While adult horses received optimum DM, the daily CP and DE intakes were found to be deficient along with imbalanced Ca and P intake when compared to the standard requirements. Foals were found to get diets deficient in DM, DE, CP and Ca but surplus in P. It was concluded that horse owners of district Baramulla lack basic knowledge on equine nutrition, feeding un-balanced diets to adult horses that were optimum only in terms of quantity; however, foals were fed diets deficient both in quantity as well as quality. The veterinarian-client dialog needs to be enhanced to address the misconceptions of horse owners about nutrition and feeding practices.

Keywords: Baramulla, Feeding practices, Feeds, Horses, Nutritional status

*Corresponding author: vetyasir1@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00018.0

Effects of Mulberry Leaf Powder on Growth Performance, Hematological Profiles, Microbial Shedding and Fecal Odorous Compounds in Weanling Pigs

H.J. Kang, H.L. Choi and H.S. Lee*

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University Seoul 151-921, Republic of Korea


Kang, H.J., Choi, H.L. and Lee, H.S. 2019. Effects of mulberry leaf powder on growth performance, hematological profiles, microbial shedding and fecal odorous compounds in weanling pigs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 193-202.
A total of 120 weanling pigs in study 1 (7.05±1.15 kg) and study 2 (6.34 kg±0.44 kg) were used in two separate 49 d studies to investigate the effect of mulberry leaf power on growth performance, fecal microflora population, physiochemical characteristics, odorous compounds and hematological profile. In study 1, dietary treatments were, a basal diet (negative control, NC), a basal diet supplemented with 0.01% apramycin (positive control, PC), mulberry leaf powder at 1 (ML-1) and 2% (ML–2). Pigs fed on ML- 1 had a comparable gain: feed (G: F) to those fed on PC and greater G: F than those fed the on NC (P<0.05) during study 1. In study 2, dietary treatments were NC, PC, NC+ML 0.5% and NC+ML 1%. During phase 1 (1 to 24 d) ADG of pigs fed the ML-0.5 diet was comparable to those fed the PC diet and greater than those fed the NC diet (P<0.05). During phase 2 (25 to 49 d) G: F of pigs fed the ML-0.5 and ML-1 diet was greater than those fed the NC and PC diet (P<0.05). MCV concentration in pigs fed the ML-0.5 was greater than those fed the NC and PC diet (P<0.05). In conclusion, mulberry leaf powder at 1% could play as an alternative to antibiotic feed supplement with better G: F in nursery pigs.

Keywords: Mulberry leaf, Nursery pig, Performance, Phytogenic feed.

*Corresponding author: lhsam@korea.kr

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00019.2

Preparation of Protein Isolate from Neem Seed: Biochemical Evaluation, Antinutrients and In Vitro Digestibility Study

A. Gopan, N.P. Sahu*, T. Varghese, P. Sardar, S. Gupta, G. Gupta and M.K. Maiti

Division of Fish Nutrition, Biochemistry and Physiology ICAR-Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai-400061, India


Gopan, A., Sahu, N.P., Varghese, T., Sardar, P., Gupta, S., Gupta, G. and Maiti, M.K. 2019. Preparation of protein isolate from neem seed: biochemical evaluation, antinutrients and in vitro digestibility study. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 203-216.
Neem protein isolate (NPI) was prepared from neem seed cake (NSC) resulting in five fold increase of crude protein content, amounting to 82%. The recovery of protein was highest (49%) when the NSC was solubilised at pH 12 for 2h and precipitated at pH 4. Crude fibre, nitrogen free extract and total ash contents were significantly (P<0.05) reduced substantially in the isolate compared to the NSC. The NPI has a balanced amino acid composition with high levels of methionine and arginine. A significant decrease of anti-nutritional factors such as oxalate (87.50%), phytic acid (70.50%), tannin (72.73%), cyanide (50.98%) and azadirachtin content (79.06%) was found in the isolate, implying that the isolation process was effective in the removal of toxic components. A significant (P<0.05) increase in the in vitro protein digestibility (90.4) was also obtained for the protein isolate, suggesting that the NPI as a promising feed ingredient.

Keywords: Antinutritional factors, Azadirachtin, Neem, Protein isolate

*Corresponding author: npsahu0001@gmail.com, npsahu@cife.edu.in

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00020.9

Daily Variation in Feeding and Ingestive Behaviour of Sheep and Goats Grazing and Browsing on Grass- Legume Pastures

W.G. Ketshabile, M. Moyo, M.A. Ahmed and I.V. Nsahlai*

Animal and Poultry Science School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg Campus, Scottsville, 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa


Ketshabile, W.G., Moyo, M., Ahmed, M.A. and Nsahlai, I.V. 2019. Daily variation in feeding and ingestive behaviour of sheep and goats grazing and browsing on grass-legume pastures. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 217-227.
The objective of this study was to investigate the feeding and ingestive behaviours of sheep and goats grazing on grass-legume pastures. Three 2-year female Nguni x Boer goats and three 3-year female Damara sheep were randomly allocated to grass-Lespedeza cuneata (grass-Lc) and grass-Leucaena leucocephala (grass-Ll) pastures. Times spent on browsing, grazing and idling were recorded from 0700 to 1600 h every 2 minutes for 3 consecutive days. Ingestive behaviour of each animal was observed for 10 minutes at 1000, 1200 and 1400 h for 6 days. Bite count and bite weight were used to determine intake rates during browsing. Goats spent 3.24 and 3.93 times longer than sheep in browsing, while sheep spent 2.75 and 2.27 times longer in grazing than goats on grass-Lc than grass-Ll pastures, respectively. Goats idled for longer periods than sheep on both pastures. Sheep had faster bite rates than goats, while Lespedeza cuneata elicited lower bite rates than L. leucocephala. Fastest feeding and bite rates were observed at mid day (1200 h) and lowest during the afternoon (1400 h). Intake rates of fresh herbage are higher at mid day than in the morning and afternoon. In conclusion, based on time spent browsing, L. leucocephala is better preferred as a forage browse compared to L. cuneata.

Keywords: Bite size, Intake rate, Lespedeza cuneata, Leucaena leucocephala, Small ruminants

*Corresponding author: nsahlaii@ukzn.ac.za

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00021.0

Effect of Partial Replacement of Maize with Palm Oil Sludge on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Blood Profiles of Finishing Pigs

Temjennungsang and A.K. Samanta*

College of Veterinary Sciences & Animal Husbandry Central Agricultural University, Selesih, Aizawl, Mizoram, 796014


Temjennungsang and Samanta, A.K. 2019. Effect of partial replacement of maize with palm oil sludge on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood profiles of finishing pigs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 229-240.
A feeding trial was carried out to elucidate the effect of replacing maize with palm oil sludge (POS) on the performance, blood profiles and nutrient digestibility of late finishing pigs. Twenty four crossbred (Large White Yorkshire × Hampshire) pigs were randomly grouped into 4 treatments with six animals per treatment in a completely randomized design. POS was incorporated in the experimental diets at 0 (Group-1, control), 10 (Group-2), 20 (Group-3) and 30% (Group-4) to replace maize as energy source. During this period (84 days), body weight gain, feed intake, average daily gain and feed conversion efficiency were non-significant (P>0.05) among the different treatment groups. The results on hematological parameters like Hb, WBC, RBC, PCV, MCV, MCH, MCHC, lymphocyte and monocyte were similar (P>0.05) in all the experimental groups. The biochemical parameters (SGPT, SGOT, ALP, creatinine, urea, glucose, total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, Ca and P were similar (P>0.05) in all the different treatment groups. The digestibility of DM, OM, CP and NFE revealed linear difference (P<0.01) while the EE and CF digestibility was not significant (P>0.05). The feed cost per kg gain was linearly decreased (P<0.01) in Group-4 as compared to the control. It may be concluded that replacement of maize up to 30% with POS in the concentrate diet of finishing pigs had no effect on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and haemato-biochemical parameters. Economically, replacing maize with POS was cost effective and can be an alternative for costly feed ingredients in pig production

Keywords: Palm oil sludge, Growth, Haemato-biochemicals, Digestibility, Finishing pigs

*Corresponding author: aksamanta73@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00022.2

Screening Tree Leaves for Bio-active Compounds and their Effect on In vitro Fermentation and Methane Production from Total Mixed Ration

Pompi Deuri, Neerja Sood, M. Wadhwa and M.P.S. Bakshi*

Department of Animal Nutrition Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Ludhiana-141004, India


Deuri, P., Sood, N., Wadhwa, M. and Bakshi, M.P.S. 2019. Screening tree leaves for bio-active compounds and their effect on in vitro fermentation and methane production from total mixed ration. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 241-253.
This study was undertaken to screen the tree leaves (TLs) for bio-active compounds and assess their impact on the substrate degradation and methane production from total mixed ration (TMR) by in-vitro gas production technique. The sundried, finely ground leaves of Mangifera indica (MI; Mango), Cassia fistula (CF; Amaltas/ Amulthus) and Acacia nilotica (AN; Babul) were supplemented individually and in combinations i.e. MI+CF, MI+AN, CF+AN and MI+CF+AN to TMR at 1% level on DM basis. Results revealed that the total phenols, condensed tannins, hydrolysable tannins, DPPH and vitamin C content were the highest (P<0.01) in Mangifera leaves. The saponins content was the highest (P<0.01) in Acacia leaves. Irrespective of incubation period, the net gas production (NGP) and ME were the highest (P<0.01) in TMR supplemented with combination of MI+AN. The digestibility of NDF and true OM was highest (P<0.01) in TMR supplemented with Cassia leaves, which was comparable with that supplemented with Mangifera, MI+AN and unsupplemented TMR. The highest (P<0.01) concentration of total and individual VFAs in TLs supplemented groups was observed in TMR supplemented with Mangifera leaves, followed by that supplemented with Casia leaves. The in vitro methane production was reduced significantly (P<0.01) in all the TLs supplemented groups except that supplemented with Mangifera leaves which was higher than unsupplemented TMR. The best fermentation efficiency was observed in TMR supplemented with MI+CF+AN followed by that supplemented with Casia and Mangifera leaves. The microbial biomass synthesized in TMR supplemented with Mangifera leaves was higher (P<0.01) than that of Casia supplemented and unsupplemented TMR. Irrespective of TLs supplementation, all the above parameters were higher (P<0.01) at 24h incubation as compared to that at t-half, except that the efficiency of conversion of fermented hexose to methane was higher (p<0.01) at t-half as compared to 24h incubation. It was concluded that Mangifera leaves is a rich source of bioactive compounds. Supplementation of Mangifera and Casia leaves resulted in the highest digestibility of nutrients, VFAs production, efficiency of rumen fermentation and microbial biomass synthesis; and decrement in efficiency of conversion of fermented hexose to methane from TMR.

Keywords: Bio-active compounds, In-vitro, Methane, Nutrient utilization, Tree leaves

*Corresponding author: bakshimps2@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00023.4

Effects of Substitution of Maize with Dried Orange Pulp on Performance and Blood Metabolites of Male Calves

Z. Sahan* and H. Kutay

Department of Veterinary Science Adiyaman University, Adiyaman, Turkey


Sahan, Z. and Kutay, H. 2019. Effects of substitution of maize with dried orange pulp on performance and blood metabolites of male calves. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 255-266.
The aim of the study was to assess the effect of substitution of maize with dried orange pulp on performance and some blood parameters of young Holstein male calves. Twenty Holstein male calves (3 days old and average body weight 42.3±3.6 kg were assigned to two treatment groups. The orange pulp was dried at 80oC with hot air application in the band dryer system. The first group was fed calf starter including 10% dried orange pulp (DOP) and the second treatment group was fed calf starter without dried orange pulp (Control=CNT) during the treatment. Calf starters were formulated to contain average 21% crude protein, 3.4% crude fat and 2600 kcal/kg metabolic energy (DM basis). Calves were weaned after 8 weeks then all calves were fed a total mixed diet containing 50% alfalfa hay and 50% calf starter for another three weeks. Feed intake and body weight gain were recorded weekly and individual blood samples were collected once in two weeks. The results showed that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the groups in terms of feed consumption, body weight gain and metabolites as glucose, cholesterol, none esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyric acid and IGF-1 levels in serum. However, there was a significant difference between the groups in terms of IGF-1 (P<0.05). Those results showed that maize could be substituted with dried orange pulp in calf starters.

Keywords: Calves, Feed intake, IGF-1, Orange pulp, Weaning

*Corresponding author: zysahan@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00024.6

Effect of Spirulina (Spirulina platensis) Supplementation on Nutrient Intake, Digestibility and Rumen Fermentation Pattern in Barbari Goats

Janardan Yadav and Ravindra Kumar*

Division of Animal Nutrition Management & Products Technology ICAR-Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom-281122, India


Yadav, J. and Kumar, R. 2019. Effect of spirulina (Spirulina platensis) supplementation on nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen fermentation pattern in barbari goats. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 267-273.
Present study was conducted to examine the effect of spirulina (Spirulina platensis) supplementation on nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen fermentation pattern in growing Barbari goats. Eighteen male Barbari goats were divided into three groups, G1 (Control), G2 and G3 (treatment) of six animals each in completely randomized design. All the animals were fed with complete pellet feed having Bengal gram straw and concentrate mixture in 60:40 ratio. In G1 no spirulina was supplemented while in G2 and G3 spirulina was supplemented at 0.25 and 0.50% of DM, respectively. Experimental feeding durations was 90 days. After 60 days of experimental feeding, a metabolism trial of six days collection period was conducted to determine nutrients balance. Rumen liquor samples were collected from each animal at the end of experimental feeding 4h post feeding. The digestibility (%) of dry matter, organic matter, ether extract and total carbohydrate was similar among groups. The digestibility (%) of different fibre fractions (neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose and hemi cellulose) was similar in groups. Animals of control and treatment groups were in positive nitrogen balance. Concentration of total volatile fatty acids (mmol/dL SRL) in rumen fluid was statistically similar in goats of G1 (20.75), G2 (24.93) and G3 (20.37). No significant difference in total volatile fatty acid fractions was observed between control and treatment groups. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in total nitrogen and non-protein nitrogen between control and treatment groups. TCA-precipitable nitrogen showed no significant difference among groups. Ammonia nitrogen (mg/dL SRL) showed significant difference in between control and treatment groups, highest for G1 (29.16) and lowest for G3 (16.80). From present study, it can be concluded that supplementation of spirulina @ 0.25 and 0.50 of DMI had no effect on intake, digestibility of nutrients but reduced the rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration.

Keywords: Digestibility, Nutrients, Rumen metabolites, Spirulina

*Corresponding author: ravindra.srivastava@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00025.8

Effect of Vitamin E Supplementation on Oxidative Stress and Biochemical Parameters in Diabetic Dogs

Geeta Rani Jena*, N. Sahoo, R.C. Patra, S.K. Mishra, M.R. Das and Dhirendra Kumar

Department of Veterinary Medicine College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar-751003, India


Jena, G.R., Sahoo, N., Patra, R.C., Mishra, S.K., Das, M.R. and Kumar, D. 2019. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on oxidative stress and biochemical parameters in diabetic dogs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 275-282.
Twelve diabetic dogs were randomly assigned to two treatment groups consisting of six animals each. The first group (control) consisted of diabetic dogs that were treated with insulin @ 1.0 IU/kg BW while the second group (treatment) of diabetic dogs was supplemented with vitamin E @ 20.0 mg/kg BW as total dose along with insulin @ 1.0 IU/kg BW. The experiment continued for 45d and blood samples were collected on 0, 15, 30 and 45d for the study of biochemical and oxidative parameters. Dogs from vitamin E treated group showed significant decrease in glycated haemoglobin and fructosamine levels in comparison to control, which indicated better glycemic control from vitamin E treatment. There was significant changes (P<0.05) in biochemical parameters evident between the control vs. vitamin E supplemented groups in terms of glycated haemoglobin, fructosamine, triglycerides, total cholesterol, alakaline phosphatase and creatinine. Similar variations were also recorded with respect to oxidative stress indices, namely, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase. Based on the clinical investigation, it is concluded that vitamin E supplementation along with insulin treatment is more beneficial in management of diabetes in dogs.

Keywords: Diabetes, Dogs, Insulin, Oxidative stress, Vitamin E

*Corresponding author: geetadhiru@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00026.X

Effect of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) Oil as an Antibiotic Substitute on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Commercial Broiler Chicken

S. Gobiraju, P. Vasan* and M.R. Purushothaman

Department of Animal Nutrition Veterinary College and Research Institute, Namakkal–637002, India


Gobiraju, S., Vasan, P. and Purushothaman, M.R. 2019. Effect of turmeric (Curcuma longa) oil as an antibiotic substitute on performance and carcass characteristics of commercial broiler chicken. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 287-294.
A biological trial was carried out to study the antibiotic efficacy of turmeric oil (TO) in commercial broiler chicken. One hundred and forty four day old broiler chicks were randomly grouped into six dietary treatments having four replicates in each. The experimental diets were basal diet (CON), basal diet plus antibiotic (500 ppm oxytetracycline-OTC), basal diet plus 0.025% TO (TO-1), 0.050% TO (TO-2), 0.075% TO (TO-3) and 0.100% TO (TO-4), respectively. Antibiotic supplementation had no significant effect on body weight gain (BWG) during different growth phases. In prestarter phase, TO at 0.075 and 0.100% levels led to significant reduction in BWG compared to antibiotic supplemented group. However, during starter, finisher and overall growth phases, the BWG of turmeric oil fed groups were comparable to antibiotic supplemented group. TO at 0.025 and 0.050% levels resulted in comparable feed intake during prestarter and starter phase, however, in finisher phase, the feed intake was markedly higher (P<0.01) than antibiotic fed group. No significant difference was observed in feed efficiency between antibiotic and turmeric oil supplemented groups during prestarter and starter phase. However, in the finisher phase, the feed efficiency markedly improved (P<0.01) in 0.025 and 0.100% TO groups. TO had no significant effect on dressing percentage, relative weights of liver, heart, gizzard, giblets and abdominal fat. But, 0.025% TO resulted in significantly higher weight (P<0.01) of spleen, whereas at higher levels, the relative weight of spleen was comparable to antibiotic group. It could be concluded that, supplementation of TO at 0.025% level instead of antibiotic feed additive would produce similar effect on production performance and carcass characteristics in broiler chicken.

Keywords: Antibiotic, Carcass traits, Commercial broilers, Performance, Turmeric oil

*Corresponding author: drpvasan@yahoo.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00028.3

Growth and Immuno-competence of Japanese Quail (White Breasted Line) to Different Dietary Energy and Amino Acid Levels

Sarabmeet Kaur* and A.B. Mandal

Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122, India


Kaur, S. and Mandal, A.B. 2019. Growth and immuno-competence of Japanese quail (white breasted line) to different dietary energy and amino acid levels. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 291-302.
Objective of this study was to determine the response of growing Japanese quails (White Breasted line-CARI UJJWAL, n=900, 36 groups) to three dietary essential amino acids (EAA) levels viz., 85, 100 and 115% of NRC (NRC, 1994) at three metabolizable energy levels viz., 2700, 2900 and 3100 kcal/ kg (3 × 3 factorial design) on their growth and immunity. Each diet was offered to 4 replicates of 25 quails each up to 5 weeks of age. Ratio of lysine to protein and methionine and threonine to lysine, as specified by NRC, remained almost similar in all diets. Linear increase in body weight gain observed with increased EAA levels during 0–3 or 0–5 weeks of age. Feed intake increased linearly with decreased ME (P<0.01) and increased EAA (P<0.01) levels while improved feed conversion ratio was observed in highest energy level. Protein efficiency improved (P<0.01) with decreased EAA and increased ME levels whereas reverse for energy efficiency. Maximum performance index was observed in 3100 kcal/ kg and 115% EAA diets. Humoral (SRBC) and cellular (PHA-P) immune response did not differ due to ME, EAA or ME × EAA. Optimum level of dietary ME is 2700 kcal/kg with CP 25.83%, lysine 1.49%, methionine 0.58% and threonine 1.17% on dry matter basis during 0–5 weeks of age for gain. For optimum feed conversion, growing quails required diet with ME 3100 kcal/kg with CP 23.23%, lysine 1.30%, methionine 0.50% and threonine 1.02% for 0–5 weeks of age.

Keywords: Essential amino acids, Growth, Immunity, Japanese quail, Metabolizable energy

*Corresponding author: sarabmeet_kaur1@rediffmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00029.5

Changes in Nutrient Intake and Metabolic Profile of Murrah Buffaloes on Varying Metabolizable Protein Intake

Jawid Sediqi, Alkesh Chaudhari, Nitin Tyagi*, Sachin Kumar, Goutam Mondal and A.K. Tyagi

Animal Nutrition Division ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132001, India


Sediqi, J., Chaudhari, A., Tyagi, N., Kumar, S., Mondal, G. and Tyagi, A.K. 2019. Changes in nutrient intake and metabolic profile of murrah buffaloes on varying metabolizable protein intake. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 303-313.
Sixteen Murrah buffaloes in their advanced pregnancy were divided into three dietary treatments based on the most probable producing ability (MPPA; 2250 kg) and lactation number (3.59±0.98). Duration of feeding trial extended from 40 days pre-partum to 90 days post-partum. Dietary treatments included, low metabolizable protein (LMP @ MP level 15% below ICAR, 2013 requirements), medium metabolizable protein (MMP, MP level as per ICAR, 2013 requirements), and high metabolizable protein (HMP, MP level @ 15% more than ICAR, 2013 requirements) in the ration respectively. Concentrate mixture, green fodder (maize) and dry roughage (wheat straw) were offered to individual animal as per experimental protocol. Dry matter intakes (DMI), total digestible nutrient (TDN) intake (% BW basis) were similar in all the experimental groups. However, metabolizable energy (ME) intake (% BW basis) post-partum was significantly improved in HMP group compared to LMP group. Crude protein intake (CPI) and MPI (g/100 kg BW) before and after calving were statistically higher in HMP followed by MMP and LMP groups, respectively. Milk yield (kg/day) and FPCM were adversely affected on feeding in LMP group. The metabolic profile i.e. non esterified fatty acid (NEFA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and immunoglobulin (IgG) were not altered on varying MP intake. The antioxidant profile, including SOD, GPx and FRAP assay were not influenced by dietary treatments. It is evident from present experiment that metabolic profile of Murrah buffalo remain unaltered due to variation in MP intake but milk yield and intake of nutrients adversely affected on lowering MP level in ration.

Keywords: Metabolizable protein, Murrah buffalo, Milk production, Metabolic profile

*Corresponding author: drnitinvet@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00027.1

Effect of Reconstitution on the Bioavailability of Nutrients from High Tannin Sorghum in Adult Japanese Quails

P. Vasan*1, Narayan Dutta, A.B. Mandal and Kusumakar Sharma

Division of Animal Nutrition Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243005, India


Vasan, P., Dutta, N., Mandal, A.B. and Sharma, K. 2019. Effect of reconstitution on the bioavailability of nutrients from high tannin sorghum in adult Japanese quails. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 315-322.
A metabolic trial was conducted using adult Japanese quails to explore the effect of reconstitution process on the nutritive value of high tannin red sorghum (HTRS). About 90 adult Japanese quails (15 weeks of age) were fed with HTRS and reconstituted red sorghum (RRS). No significant difference was observed in apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and nitrogen corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) values. The true metabolizable energy (TME) and nitrogen corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn) values of RRS were significantly higher (P<0.05 to 0.01) than the HTRS. Reconstitution had no effect on protein digestibility. The availability of calcium from HTRS was markedly higher (P<0.01) as compared to RRS. The availability of magnesium and manganese from reconstituted sorghum were significantly higher (P<0.05) than unprocessed red sorghum. Reconstitution had no effect on copper and phosphorus utilization. From the present study it is concluded that reconstitution does not exert any appreciable effect in enhancing the nutritive value of red sorghum.

Keywords: High tannin sorghum, Japanese quails, Metabolizability, Protein digestibility, Reconstitution

*Corresponding author: drpvasan@yahoo.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00030.1

Emulsifier as a Feed Additive in Poultry and Pigs - A review

S.D. Upadhaya, K.S. Yun, P.Y. Zhao, I.S. Lee and I.H. Kim*

Department of Animal Resource and Science, Dankook University Cheonan, Choongnam 330-714 South Korea


Upadhaya, S.D., Yun, K.S., Zhao, P.Y., Lee, I.S. and Kim, I.H. 2019. Emulsifier as a feed additive in poultry and pigs-A review. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 323-336.
The recent increase in feed price has prompted scientific investigation to find effective strategy to reduce feed cost without compromising the performance and health of animals. It is well documented that young animals have physiological limitation to absorb fat because of low level of natural lipase production and a low rate of bile salt production due to which fat digestibility is incomplete consequently leading to greater requirement for energy sources and therefore a hike in feed price. A particular strategy that has drawn the attention of nutritionists is the use of exogenous emulsifier. Emulsifier is a substance that stabilizes the mixture of two products such as oil and water that do not mix together and prevents the coalescence of the globules of the dispersed phase. Emulsifier can be natural or synthetic and can be used to improve fat digestibility and enhance energy efficiency thereby reducing feed cost. Various studies indicate that the selection of natural and synthetic sources of emulsifier should be based on hydrophilic- lipophilic balance. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the use of emulsifier as a feed additive in poultry and pigs.

Keywords: Emulsifier, Feed additive, Pig, Poultry, Performance

*Corresponding author: inhokim@dankook.ac.kr


DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00001.5

Effect of Supplementation of Fermented Yeast Culture During Summer on Plasma Leptin and Ghrelin and Expression of their Receptors in Different Tissues and on Production Performance During-Post Summer Period in PD 3 Chicken Line

N. Anand Laxmi*, K. Ramasubbaiah, R.K. Mahapatra and M. Shanmugam

ICAR-Directorate of Poultry Research Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030, India


Anand Laxmi, N., Ramasubbaiah, K., Mahapatra, R.K. and Shanmugam, M. 2019. Effect of supplementation of fermented yeast culture during summer on plasma leptin and ghrelin and expression of their receptors in different tissues and on production performance during-post summer period in PD 3 chicken line. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 01-13.
The present experiment was conducted to observe the effects of supplementation of fermented yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) culture (FYC, a commercial product at 1.5×107 cfu/g) on physiological blood parameters, expression of genes for hormone receptors and on production performance of layers during summer season. The control group was devoid of supplementation of FYC. A total of 150 layers (PD 3 chicken line; 17 weeks age) were divided into three equal groups each comprising of 10 replicates of 5 birds. The dietary treatments included supplementation of FYC to the basal diet at 0 (C; control), 0.5 (T1) and 1.25 (T2) g/kg. The results indicated that the concentration of the hormones leptin and ghrelin was significantly (P<0.01) greater for the control group. Further, the plasma concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) (P<0.01) and total cholesterol (P<0.05) were significantly greater at 49d of the experiment in the control group when compared with the respective parameters in the group of birds supplemented with the higher dose (1.25 g/kg) of yeast culture (T2). The expression of leptin- and ghrelin-receptors was down- regulated in the treatment groups significantly (P<0.05) in brain, liver (T2) and magnum (portion of reproductive tract) tissues (T1). The histopathological evaluation of the intestinal tissues indicated that the severity of the necrosis of the villi of the jejunum was mild for the treatment groups when compared with that of the control (C) group. Hence, it can be concluded that supplementation of yeast culture @ 1.25 g/kg was beneficial in lowering stress markers like cholesterol, MDA and further reducing the severity of necrosis resulting in increased egg production, fertility and hatchability.

Keywords: Egg production, Fermented yeast culture, Hormone, PD3 chicken line, Summer.

*Corresponding author: antianand@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00002.7

Effect of Graded Levels of Bromoethanesulfonic Acid Supplementation on Methane Production, Rumen Microbial Diversity and Fermentation Characteristics

A. Kumar, D.N. Kamra*, N. Agarwal and L.C. Chaudhary

ICAR National Professorial Chair, Animal Nutrition Division ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India


Kumar, A., Kamra, D.N., Agarwal, N. and Chaudhary, L.C. 2019. Effect of graded levels of bromoethanesulfonic acid supplementation on methane production, rumen microbial diversity and fermentation characteristics. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 15-25.
Bromoethanesulfonic acid (BES) was examined as a methane inhibitor and its impact on rumen microbial populations in male cattle calves. Ten crossbred cattle calves (average body weight, 132±2 kg) were divided into two groups of five each and were fed on a diet containing 19.9% CP and 72.6% TDN. In the experimental group, BES was fed at the rate of 5 mg for first 10 days, 10 mg for next 10 days (11-20th day) and 15 mg/kg BW for another 10 days (21 to 30th days) of the experiment. Rumen liquor was collected by stomach tube from calves after feeding of each level of BES and was used for studying the microbial profile by real time PCR and as an inoculum for in vitro gas production test. The in vitro methane production (ml/g DDM) was reduced (P<0.05) by 35, 8.1 and 15 per cent on feeding BES at the levels of 5, 10 and 15 mg/kg BW (P<0.001, P=0.007 and P=0.009, respectively). The in vitro true digestibility of feed was not affected at lower levels but was significantly improved at 15 mg BES level (P=0.026). The population of protozoa, was significantly reduced at 5 mg BES (P=0.014) level but at 10 mg level, fungi and methanogens were reduced significantly (P=0.031, P=0.034) and at 15 mg BES level only fungal population was reduced (P=0.029). The results indicated that BES can reduce rumen methanogenesis but cannot eliminate methanogens completely from the rumen.

Keywords: Bromoethanesulphonic acid, Crossbred cattle calves, Methane, Methanogen, Rumen

*Corresponding author: dnkamra@rediffmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00003.9

Effect of Supplementation of Chromium and Spirulina on Quality and Cholesterol Profile of Chicken Eggs

D.K. Hajra*, Praveen K. Tyagi, Promod K. Tyagi and A.B. Mandal

Avian Nutrition and Feed Technology Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122, India


Hajra, D.K., Tyagi Praveen, K., Tyagi Promod, K. and Mandal, A.B. 2019. Effect of supplementation of chromium and spirulina on quality and cholesterol profile of chicken eggs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 27-35.
A trial was conducted for a period of 45 days in factorial (3x3) model to study the effect of three dietary levels of supplemental organic form of chromium (0.0, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg) each with three levels of Spirulina (0.0, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg) in order to produce egg with low cholesterol. Seventy two White Leghorn (WLH) laying hens were randomly divided into nine equal groups and housed in individual cages from where records for each bird were collected. Egg production, feed intake, yolk cholesterol and plasma lipids were evaluated at the end of the experimental feeding. No differences were found in feed intake, egg weight and egg production. Yolk cholesterol showed a dose dependent reduction (P≤0.01) due to supplementation of spirulina. The level of plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and VLDL as well as blood glucose, mostly followed a similar trend of gradual reduction for interaction of spirulina and chromium, although the values were statistically similar. A combination of spirulina (1g kg-1) and chromium (2 mg kg-1) produced lowest total yolk cholesterol (157.2 mg) with a reduction of more than 35% compared to the content of a normal egg (213 mg). Thus, the combination of spirulina and chromium may be used for production of low cholesterol containing egg without affecting the production performance of laying hens.

Keywords: Chromium, Egg cholesterol, Laying performance, Spirulina.

*Corresponding author: dhajra@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00004.0

Production of Egg with Low Cholesterol and High Omega-3 Fatty Acid through Dietary Manipulation

D.K. Hajra*, Praveen K. Tyagi, Promod K. Tyagi and A.B. Mandal

ICAR-Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India


Hajra, D.K., Tyagi Praveen, K., Tyagi Promod, K. and Mandal, A.B. 2019. Production of egg with low cholesterol and high omega-3 fatty acid through dietary manipulation. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 37-46.
In order to produce egg, containing low cholesterol and high n3 fatty-acid (FA) an experiment with three groups (n=54) of laying WLH hens was undertaken for a period of 45 days. Group-1 (T1) was provided with standard layer ration (control). In T2 group diet was supplemented with chromium picolinate (1.0 ppm), Spirulina (0.02%), fish oil (1.5%) and α-tocopherol (250 ppm) and T3 group diet was supplemented with Atorvastatin (0.02%), EDTA (0.25%), Niacin (375 ppm), α-tocopherol (250 ppm) and fish oil (1.5%). The fish oil was prepared from abdominal content of the local fish. The results showed that daily feed intake was low (P≤0.05) in T3, compared to control. Egg quality or the performances of hens were not affected by the treatments. The total cholesterol was reduced (P≤0.05) by about 20% in T2 and T3 than the control. A significant increase in omega-3 fatty acid was noted in the eggs from T3. Eggs from T2 group was found to have higher (P≤0.05) linolenic acid (C18:3n3) concentration than the control. On the other hand, concentration of linoleic acid (C18:2n6), an omega-6 fatty acid was significantly higher in control compared with T2 and T3. Hence, for producing low cholesterol egg which has been preferred by health conscious consumers, dietary supplements as used in the T2 and T3 may be used without affecting production efficiency of laying hen. Fish oil from local fish may be effectively used for production of n3 FA enriched egg.

Keywords: Egg cholesterol, Fish oil, n3 fatty-acid, Spirulina, WLH.

*Corresponding author: dhajra@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00005.2

Effect of Groundnut Cake Replacement with Whole Cottonseed or Cottonseed Cake on Performance of Lactating Crossbred Cows

A.A. Ganie*, I.A. Mir, F.A. Sheikh and J.P. Sehgal

Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132001, India


Ganie, A.A., Mir, I.A. Sheikh, F.A. and Sehgal, J.P. 2019. Effect of groundnut cake replacement with whole cottonseed or cottonseed cake on performance of lactating crossbred cows. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 47-56.
Eighteen lactating crossbred cows in early stage of lactation were assigned to treatments to determine the effects of type of cottonseed product on nutrient intake, productive performance, feed efficiency and economics of production in a 150d experiment. Cows in control group were fed with wheat straw, chaffed green oats fodder and compounded concentrate mixture as per NRC (2001) while in Groups T1 and T2 cows were fed the same control ration except that 50% of groundnut cake in concentrate mixture was replaced with crushed whole cottonseed and expeller processed cottonseed cake, respectively. Results revealed that dry matter intake (DMI), body weight and body condition score were not influenced by partial replacement of groundnut cake with whole cottonseed (WCS) or cottonseed cake (CSC). Milk yield was significantly (P<0.05) higher in T1 group fed WCS than control and T2. Similarly, 4% fat corrected milk (FCM), energy corrected milk (ECM), solid corrected milk (SCM) and milk energy (ME) were also significantly (P<0.05) higher for the WCS fed group compared to control and CSC fed group. Milk fat (% and kg/d) was significantly higher and protein (%) was significantly lower with feeding WCS. Lactose, solid not fat (SNF) and total solids (%) were similar among treatments (P>0.05) but their yields (kg/d) increased with WCS based diet, however, feed efficiency (in terms of FCM/DMI) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in T1 indicating that efficiency was improved by supplementing WCS in the respective group. It is concluded that replacement of GNC with WCS in the rations of lactating crossbred cows during early lactation significantly increased milk yield and milk fat and was cost effective as the net income per animal/day was higher with the animals fed WCS and CSC.

Keywords: Cottonseed cake, Cost, Lactating cows, Milk production, Whole cottonseed

*Corresponding author: dganie@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00006.4

Rumen Degradability of Selected Forage Legumes Using the In Sacco Nylon Bag Technique

S. Katsande*, J.J. Baloyi, F.V. Nherera-Chokuda, N.T. Ngongoni and J. Gusha

Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture, University of Venda Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, South Africa


Katsande, S., Baloyi, J.J., Nherera-Chokuda, F.V., Ngongoni, N.T. and Gusha, J. 2019. Rumen degradability of selected forage legumes using the in sacco nylon bag technique. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 57-63.
The in sacco rumen disappearance of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) of silverleaf (Desmodium uncinatum), velvetbean (Mucuna pruriens) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) legume forages were evaluated. Two cows fitted with 10 cm diameter rumen cannulae on a complete dairy feed ration were used. The forages were shade dried and milled through a 2mm sieve and incubated using the nylon bag technique for 0 , 2, 4, 8, 18, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hour periods. Cowpea forage had the highest disappearance values of DM and CP (P<0.05) from 3 to 72 hours followed by velvetbean. Forage of cowpea had the highest (a) and (b) values on DM disappearance and were statistically significant (P<0.05). Velvetbean had the highest values of (a) and (b) on CP disappearance and were not significantly different from cowpea. Similar results were observed on effective degradability where cowpea had the highest values at the outflow rates P=0.02, 0.04 and 0.06 on DM disappearance and they were statistically significant (P<0.05). The disappearance profiles of these forage legumes indicated that they are highly degradable in the rumen and can be used as alternative protein supplements by smallholder farmers.

Keywords: Forage legumes, Nylon bag technique, Rumen degradability

*Corresponding author: simbarashe46@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00007.6

Effects of Feed Restriction and Additional Fat Supplementation on Growth Performance and Nutrient Utilization in Broilers

Kunal Malpotra, Udeybir Singh*, A.P.S. Sethi and J.S. Hundal

Department of Animal Nutrition, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-141004, India


Malpotra, K., Singh, U., Sethi, A.P.S. and Hundal, J.S. 2019. Effects of feed restriction and additional fat supplementation on growth performance and nutrient utilization in broilers. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 65-76.
Effects of feed restrictions and additional (1%) fat supplementation on growth performance of broilers was studied. 480 chicks were distributed randomly into 8 treatments having total 60 birds per treatment (4 replicates x 15 chicks in each replicate).T0: Control group fed ad-libitum as per ICAR (2013) specification, T1: T0 with additional 1% fat supplementation, T2: T0 with feed restriction at 8-14 day of age (DOA) (8-10 hours), T3 : T1 with feed restriction at 8-14 DOA (8-10 hours), T4 : T0 with feed restriction at 15-21 DOA (8-10 hours), T5: T1 with feed restriction at 15-21 DOA (8-10 hours), T6: T0 with feed restriction at 22-28 DOA (8-10 hours) and T7: T1 with feed restriction at 22-28 DOA (8-10 hours). Results were presented for starter phase (up to 2 weeks), grower phase (3rd week) and finisher phase (4th-5th week) and for overall period (1-5 weeks). Significantly lower feed intake was observed in second and third week feed restricted groups as compared to control. Additional fat supplementation reduced feed intake during growth period. Significant reduction was reported for average body weight gains for finisher phase in fourth week feed restrictions. Significant reduction for average body weight gain was found during growth phase. Feed conversion ratio was poorer for finisher phase for feed restriction in 4th week. When interaction was studied, feed conversion ratio was found to be the best in 2nd week for second week feed restricted groups without additional fat supplementation. PER and CER were reduced during finisher phase in 4th week feed restricted group. It was concluded that feed restriction reduced the feed intake and body weight gain during feed restriction period but not for overall period.

Keywords: Broilers, Feed restriction, Fat supplementation, FCR, Growth performance.

*Corresponding author: udeybirchahal@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00008.8

Studies on Utilization of Calcium Phosphate Nano Particles as Source of Phosphorus in Broilers

G. Samanta*, S.K. Mishra, N.C. Behura, G. Sahoo, K. Behera, R.K. Swain, K. Sethy1, S. Biswal and N. Sahoo

Post Graduate Department of Poultry Science College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar-751003, India


Samanta, G., Mishra, S.K., Behura, N.C., Sahoo, G., Behera, K., Swain, R.K., Sethy, K., Biswal, S. and Sahoo, N. 2019. Studies on utilization of calcium phosphate nano particles as source of phosphorus in broilers. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 77-88.
Calcium phosphate nanoparticles (NCP) for the experiment were prepared by wet chemical method. Commercial (BV 400) day old broiler chicks (n=192) were distributed randomly in seven dietary treatments. T1: Control (dicalcium phosphate-100%) (DCP), T2: 75% DCP+25% NCP, T3: 25% NCP, T4: 50% DCP+50% NCP, T5: 50% NCP, T6: 75% NCP+25% DCP, T7: 75% NCP, T8: 100% NCP. The experiment continued in two phases: starter phase- 0-4 weeks and finisher phase- 5-6 weeks of age. Weekly body weight and feed consumption were recorded. At 6th week, serum biochemical parameters and carcass traits of the experimental birds were determined. The size of NCP was found to be 51nm to 200nm. The average body weight gain of broiler birds at the end of 6th week of age were 1460.2±33.7, 1470.8±17.5, 1367.4±24.8, 1466.5±27.9, 1490.2±34.4, 1444.8±25.4, 1441.0±25.2 and 1394.3±24.9g in the group of T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7 and T8, respectively. Significantly (P<0.05) higher body weight was recorded in group T5 which differed non-significantly with T2, T4, T5 and T6 groups. At 6th week, the cumulative feed consumption and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of experimental birds did not differ significantly (P>0.05). The carcass characteristics and studied biochemical parameters of the broiler birds under different dietary treatments did not differ significantly (P>0.05). The growth performance of the birds was better at NCP 50% level either as sole source or in combination with DCP, the FCR remained unchanged among treatment groups, indicate that the ideal level of incorporation of NCP could be 50% in broiler ration.

Keywords: Biochemical, Body weight, Broiler, Feed consumption, Carcass, Nano calcium phosphate

*Corresponding author: samantagourab@yahoo.in

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00009.X

Cereal Sources Alter Response to Supplementary Polyphenols on Performance, Serum Biochemistry and Internal Organs in Wistar Rats

Gopi, M, Narayan Dutta, S.E. Jadhav, and A.K. Pattanaik*

Division of Animal Nutrition Centre of Advance Faculty Training ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122


Gopi, M., Dutta, N., Jadhav, S.E. and Pattanaik, A.K. 2019. Cereal sources alter response to supplementary polyphenols on performance, serum biochemistry and internal organs in Wistar rats. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 89-100.
An experiment was carried out with 21-d old weaned Wistar rats (n=60) to assess the polyphenols response to dietary manipulations. The rats were divided into six groups with five replicated having two in each. The rats were fed with two different types of cereal sources (corn vs. rice-sorghum combined) as soybean meal served as protein source in both cereal categories. The treatment groups included corn- soybean meal without polyphenol extract (PPE) supplementation (T1), corn-soybean meal with 50 ppm of PPE (T2), corn-soybean meal with 100 ppm of PPE (T3), rice-sorghum-soybean meal diet without PPE (T4), rice-sorghum-soybean meal diet with 50 ppm of PPE (T5) and rice-sorghum-soybean meal diet with 100 ppm of PPE (T6). The rats were maintained under polypropylene cages and reared for 45 d under air-conditioned laboratory animal house. The body weight of rats was significantly higher in corn based diet supplemented with PPE at 50 and 100 ppm than the rice-sorghum based diet. The supplementation of PPE significantly reduced the serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and plasma glucose content in rats irrespective of cereal sources. The organ weights and tibial bone weight did not affect by the combination of cereal sources and PPE levels. The caecal and colon aerobic, E. coli and lactobacillus population remained unaffected by the diet composition and PPE levels. It could be concluded that supplementation of pomegranate peel extract exhibited better performance with corn-soybean meal based diet.

Keywords: Corn, Diet composition, Performance, Pomegranate peel extract, Rats, Rice, Sorghum.

*Corresponding author: akpattanaik1@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00010.6

Effects of Supplementing Different Linoleic to α−Linolenic Acid Ratios and Vitamin A on Performance and Egg Quality Characteristics of Laying Hens during Summer Months

S. Ahmad*, M. Yousaf, Z. Kamran, M.U. Sohail, M.N. Tahir K.C. Koutoulis, S. Ali and A. Manzoor

Poultry Production Division, Al-Watania Poultry Institute of Technology Al-Bukayriyah-51941, Saudi Arabia


Ahmad, S., Yousaf, M., Kamran, Z., Sohail, M.U., Tahir, M.N., Koutoulis, K.C., Ali, S. and Manzoor, A. 2019. Effects of supplementing different linoleic to α-linolenic acid ratios and vitamin A on performance and egg quality characteristics of laying hens during summer months. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 101-110.
In present feeding trial, responses of laying hens, reared at high ambient temperature, to various dietary ratios of linoleic acid (LNA) to α-linolenic acid (ALA) and vitamin A levels for performance and egg characteristics were observed. A total of 360, 40-wk-old, Leghorn laying hens were fed on diets with various combinations of canola oil and linseed oil to achieve LNA to ALA dietary ratios of 20:1, 10:1, 4:1, 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2, each supplemented with 3000 IU or 10000 IU vitamin A/kg diet. The diets were fed ad libitum in a 6×2 factorial Completely Randomized Design that continued from 40 to 52 weeks of age. Standard managemental and housing conditions were provided to all hens. Feed intake, weight gain, egg production and egg quality traits were recorded during the trial on weekly basis. The results showed that decreasing dietary LNA to ALA ratio diet negatively affected (P<0.05) the body weight gain and yolk percent. While, feed intake, hen-day and hen-housed egg production and shell quality remained unaffected (P>0.05) by dietary treatments, with the exception of FCR per kg egg mass, egg weight and egg-shell thickness which were improved significantly (P<0.05) in hens fed on diets with lower LNA:ALA. Although dietary ratio of LNA to ALA of 4:1 or less could produce eggs by hens with high quantities of n-6 and n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids that are characteristics of functional diets, the performance of laying hens in terms of body weight gain and egg-yolk percentage was slightly compromised, but, on over- all-basis, performance of laying hens was similar among all LNA to ALA ratio in the diet.

Keywords: Layers, Fatty acids, Vitamin A, Performance, Egg quality, Hot climate

*Corresponding author: drshakeel@mail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00011.8

Use of Feed Resources in Intensive Urban Ruminant Production Systems of West Africa: A Case Study from Burkina Faso

L.H. Dossa*, R.V.C. Diogo, M. Sangare, A. Buerkert and E. Schlecht

Animal Husbandry in the Tropics and Subtropics, Universität Kassel and Georg- August-Universität Göttingen, Steinstrasse 19, D-37213 Witzenhausen, Germany


Dossa, L.H., Diogo, R.V.C., Sangare, M., Buerkert, A. and Schlecht, E. 2019. Use of feed resources in intensive urban ruminant production systems of West Africa: A case study from burkina faso. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 111-121.
A longitudinal study was conducted in the built-up area of Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso) to assess the resource use efficiency in zero-grazing beef cattle production enterprises, determine the animals’ liveweight (LW) changes; and evaluate whether the feeding regime was able to meet the animals’ energy requirements for maintenance and growth. Five representative farms were purposively selected out of a total of 133 farms surveyed in a previous study. The average number of cattle per farm was 3.6±2.01. Measurements were carried out in bi-weekly intervals for ten months. LW of animals averaged 270±128.8 kg and LW gain (LWG) ranged from 162 to 423g/day with an average of 290±161 g/day. The average 0.75 daily supplies of crude protein (CPoffer) and metabolizable energy (MEoffer) of 25±12.7g/kg and 1.3±0.67 MJ/kg0.75 (dry season) and 33±9.6 g/kg0.75 and 1.8±0.63 MJ/kg0.75 (rainy season), respectively, clearly exceeded the animals’ requirements for maintenance plus growth. Hence, the calculated conversion ratios for offered feed and protein as well as energy use efficiency were very low. With the current management, part of the offered feeds ends up at the dung heap. Monthly manure mass collected per farm and tropical livestock unit averaged 93±30.9 kg dry matter; if well recycled, it could contribute substantially to crop production and yield high revenue, especially, in urban vegetable production.

Keywords: Cattle fattening, Energy use efficiency, Feed conversion ratio, Live weight gain, Urban livestock

*Corresponding author: dolhip@yahoo.com; hippolyte.dossa@fsa.uac.bj

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00012.X

Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Nitrogen Metabolism of Ram-Lambs Fed Single Feed Protein

R. Rezaei*, A. Moharrery and M.J. Zamiri

Animal Science Department, Agricultural College Shahrekord University P.O. Box 115, Shahrekord, Iran


Rezaei, R., Moharrery, A. and Zamiri, M.J. 2019. Growth performance, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen metabolism of ram-lambs fed single feed protein. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 123-136.
The experiment was conducted to determine the effect of single feed proteins. Twenty native lambs were divided into five groups in individual metabolic cages and fed five different single protein sources including urea as control (Con), barley (Bar), cotton seed meal (CSM), corn gluten (CG) and canola meal (CM) for 75 days. During the last four days of the trial, faeces and urine were collected to determine nutrient digestibility and N balance. Blood samples were taken 3-4 h after feeding at the end of the trial. Results showed that average daily gain (ADG) followed approximately the same pattern as the dry matter (DM) intake. The ADG was higher in lambs fed with the CSM compared to other groups (P<0.05). Higher DM and N intake was recorded for CSM being significantly different from the Con, Bar and CG (P<0.05). Nutrient digestibility (DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF, NFC and TDN) showed significant difference among groups (P<0.05). Plasma urea nitrogen was higher in lambs fed CSM compared with Con (P<0.05). Urine and digestible N were different between CSM and CM (P<0.05). Faecal N was significantly different among the treatments except Con (P<0.05) that was intermediate between CG and Bar. Purine derivatives, absorbed purine and daily microbial N were higher in Con group (P<0.05). The results showed that single feed proteins, by influencing nitrogen metabolism, can impact on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, purine derivatives and consequently lamb performance.

Keywords: Blood metabolites, Digestibility, Nitrogen balance, Protein source, Sheep, Urea.

*Corresponding author: rs.rezaei@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00013.1

Evaluation of Selected Invasive Alien Species via Bioprospecting as Potential Sources of Food Supplements

S. Datta, B.K. Sinha, S. Bhattacharjee and T. Seal*

Industrial Section, Indian Museum, Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata, India


Datta, S., Sinha, B.K. Bhattacharjee, S. and Seal, T. 2019. Evaluation of selected invasive alien species via bioprospecting as potential sources of food supplements. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 137-146.
The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the proximate composition, minerals content (Na, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Mn, Mg and Zn), simultaneous quantification of water soluble vitamins (ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine and folic acid) by HPLC of five different invasive alien species (IAS) viz. Alternanthera paronychioides, Cleome rutidosperma, Mikania micrantha, Pilea microphylla and Scoparia dulcis. The results showed the highest calorific value of C. rutidosperma (124.22±0.58 kcal/100g) which was also found to contain highest amount of crude protein (15.80±0.12%). An appreciable quantity of carbohydrate was estimated in the leaves of S. dulcis (13.91±0.13%) and A. paronychioides (13.61±0.22%). A. paronychioides had the highest potassium content (3.92±0.003 mg/ g) and calcium content (5.90±0.01 mg/g). The sodium content ranged between 0.071–0.125 mg/g. The leaves of M. micrantha (152.25±0.03 mg/100g) contained a very good amount of vitamin C. The water soluble B vitamin content in these plants under investigation ranged between 0.014 to 2.457 mg/100g. The results indicate that these invasive alien species can be utilized as food supplement.

Keywords: Invasive alien species, Nutritional composition, Mineral content, Water soluble vitamins.

*Corresponding author: kaktapan65@yahoo.co.in

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2019.00014.3

Effect of Betaine on Growth Performance, Nutrients Digestibility, Blood Cells, Meat Quality and Organ Weights in Broiler Chicks

J.H. Park and I.H. Kim*

Department of Animal Resource and Science, Dankook University Cheonan, 31116, Republic of Korea


Park, J.H. and Kim, I.H. 2019. Effect of betaine on growth performance, nutrients digestibility, blood cells, meat quality and organ weights in broiler chicks. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 19: 147- 155.
This study examined the effects of dietary betaine supplementation on growth performance, digestibility, blood profile, meat quality and organ weights. A total of 765 Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly divided into five treatments with 9 replicate (17 birds/pen) per treatment for 28 days. Treatments were 1) 0 ppm betaine; 2) 250 ppm betaine; 3) 350 ppm betaine; 4) 650 ppm betaine; 5) 1000 ppm choline chloride. The results showed that broilers fed with different levels of betaine during 1-7, 8-21, 22-28 d and overall showed no significant differences in growth performance compared with choline treatments (P>0.05). The digestibility of dry matter and nitrogen in broilers fed a betaine supplement followed a linear pattern (P<0.05). There were no significant effects on white blood cells, red blood cells and lymphocytes of broilers fed with betaine compared with choline treatments (P>0.05). Breast muscle pH, breast muslce color, drip loss, water holding capacity and relative organ weights did not change among treatments (P>0.05). These results suggests that betaine does not improve growth performance, blood cells, meat quality and organ weights, but may affect the digestibility of dry matter and nitrogen in broiler chickens.

Keywords: Betaine, Broiler chicks, Choline, Digestibility, Meat quality

*Corresponding author: inhokim@dankook.ac.kr


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