Y.H. Shim, M.H. Ryu1, A. Hosseindoust2, J.S. Kim2, Y.H. Choi2, M.J. Kim2, J.H. Lee3 and B.J. Chae2*
1685-18 Hamyeong-ro, Hampyeong-eup, Hampyeong-gun Jeollanam-do, Korea 57136
Shim,Y.H., Ryu, M.H., Hosseindoust,A., Kim, J.S., Choi,Y.H. Kim, M.J., Lee, J.H. and Chae, B.J..
Evaluation of β-mannanase and different dietary energy levels on egg production, apparent digestibility
and blood metabolites of laying hen. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 131-140.
A trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary energy levels and β-mannanase supplementation on egg production performance, nutrient retention and blood metabolites of laying hens. Hy-Line Brown layers (n=240, 68 wk-old) were randomly allotted to 6 treatments on the basis of laying performance. Each treatment had 8 replicates with 5 birds. Laying hens were fed three energy levels (2650, 2750 and 2850 kcal/kg) and 0 and 0.4 g β-mannanase/kg diet in a 2×3 factorial arrangement for 56d. Laying hens fed diets supplemented with β-mannanase or high energy (2750 and 2850 kcal) had greater overall egg production. Addition with either high energy diet or β-mannanase improved the egg mass in the second production phase as well as overall egg mass. Feed intake was decreased in laying hens fed the highest (2850 kcal) dietary energy level. Moreover, laying hens fed the highest energy diets had a greater feed conversion ratio. Laying hens fed diets with β-mannanase had greater retention of DM, GE and CP than hens fed diets without β-mannanase. Retention of mannose was greater in laying hens fed diets supplemented with β-mannanase or high energy diets. The results obtained indicate that a high energy content in diets had positive effect on the performance of laying hens and that dietary supplementation with β-mannanase has the potential to improve laying hen performance and nutrient retention.
Keywords: β-mannanase, Blood metabolite, Egg, Laying hen, Mannan, Nutrient retention.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
N.A. Mir*, Praveen K. Tyagi, A.K. Biswas, Pramod K. Tyagi, A.B. Mandal, R. Hazarika, C. Deo and D. Sharma
ICAR-Central Avian Research Institute Izatnagar-243 122, India
Mir, N.A., Tyagi, Praveen K., Biswas, A.K., Tyagi, Pramod K., Mandal, A.B., Hazarika, R., Deo, C.
and Sharma, D. 2018. Response of broiler chicken in terms of growth and efficiency, carcass characteristics,
sensory quality of meat and serum biochemical profile to different lysine levels in flaxseed based diet.
Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 141-152.
A 42-d experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design to evaluate the effect of lysine in flaxseed based diet on the growth performance, efficiency, carcass characteristics, sensory evaluation of meat and serum biochemistry of broiler chicken. Five diets were formulated with no flaxseed (FS) but normal (100%) lysine in first one (CON),while the other four diets contained 10% FS along with 100 (FS-L0),105 (FS-L1), 115 (FS-L2), and 125 (FS-L3) per cent of the required levels of lysine. Each treatment was allocated 6 replicates with 8 birds in each at random. The feeding of FS-L3 diet resulted in significantly (P<0.01) better feed conversion ratio, production efficiency ratio, protein efficiency ratio, and energy efficiency ratio of birds followed by CON diet compared to other diets. No significant effects were found on various carcass traits except for the significantly (P<0.01) higher percentages of eviscerated weight, dressed weight and breast yield in birds fed either FS-L2 or FS-L3 diets. Significantly (P<0.01) higher meat:bone ratios in breast and thigh were observed in birds fed FSL3 diet followed by CON diet compared to other diets. No dietary effects were observed on mortality pattern of birds and sensory evaluation of broiler chicken meat. Significant (P<0.05) and progressive reduction of serum cholesterol was observed in birds from CON diet to FS-L3 diet. The serum antioxidant enzyme activities and malonaldehyde concentration were significantly (P<0.01) lower in birds fed CON diet followed by FS-L3 and FS-L2 diets compared to FS-L1 and FS-L0 diets. From the present study it was concluded that 10% flaxseed can be used in broiler diet along with 125% of the BIS-recommended lysine without any adverse effect on broiler growth, efficiency, carcass traits and serum biochemical profile.
Keywords: Broiler, Flaxseed, Lysine, Performance, Serum.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
A. Alkhtib1*, J. Wamatu, T. Ejeta2, B. Rischkowsky
International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA) PO Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Alkhtib, A., Wamatu, J., Ejeta, T. and Rischkowsky, B. 2018. Improving the nutritive value of cereal
and pulse straws using dung ash and wood ash treatments. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18:
The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of treatment of straws with cow dung ash treatment and wood ash on their nutritive value. Accordingly, straws of barley, wheat, chickpea, faba bean and lentil were treated with dung ash at levels of 0, 100, 200 or 300 g dung ash/L) and wood ash at levels of 0, 100, 150 or 200 wood ash/L. All straw samples were evaluated for proximate analysis and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) using a combination of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy and conventional laboratory analyses. The effects of straw origin, the level of treatment and their interactions on the nutritive value of straw was analyzed for each treatment separately using general linear model procedure. The effect of dung and wood ash treatment depended on the origin of straw (P<0.001). Soaking straw in plain water did not alter IVOMD regardless of the origin. Dung ash treatment at the level of 300 g ash/L improved significantly IVOMD of barley straw. Ash treatment at of 200 and 300 g/L levels significantly (P<0.001) decreased the IVOMD of faba bean straw. Soaking straws of chickpea and faba bean in wood ash solutions decreased IVOMD significantly. Treating lentil straw by a solution containing 200g wood ash/L decreased significantly IVOMD. Wood ash treatment did not alter IVOMD of straws of barley and wheat. The study indicates that dung ash treatment at a level up to 300 g/L and wood ash treatment at a level up to 200 g/L failed in improving the nutritive value of straws of barley, wheat, chickpea, faba bean and lentil.
Keywords: Alkaline treatment, Cereal, Nutritive value, Pulse, Straw.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
P. Govintharaj1*, S.K. Gupta, M. Blummel2, M. Maheswaran1, P. Sumathi1, D.G. Atkari, V. Anil Kumar, A. Rathore, M. Raveendran1 and V.P. Duraisami1
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) Patancheru-502 324, India
Govintharaj, P., Gupta, S.K., Blummel, M., Maheswaran, M., Sumathi, P., Atkari, D.G., Anil Kumar,
V., Rathore, A., Raveendran, M. and Duraisami, V.P. 2018. Genotypic variation in forage linked
morphological and biochemical traits in hybrid parents of pearl millet. Animal Nutrition and Feed
Technology, 18: 163-175.
A set of 116 pearl millet hybrid parents was evaluated in two summer seasons for 30 forage specific morphological and quality traits. Green forage yield (GFY) ranged from 15.0 to 29.0 t/ha at first cut and 12.0 to 42.0 t/ha at second cut, while the dry forage yield (DFY) ranged from 3.0 to 6.0 t/ha at first cut and 5.0 to 9.0 t/ha at second cut. Important forage quality traits like stover nitrogen varied from 1.84 to 2.34% at first cut and 1.77 to 2.00% at second cut, while metabolizable energy (ME) ranged from 7.42 to 7.76 MJ/kg at first cut and 6.95 to 7.68 MJ/kg at second cut. In vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) varied from 54.0 to 56.0% at first cut and 51.0 to 55.0% at second cut. Pollinator parents showed higher mean values for most of the forage traits than the seed parents. Small but significant negative correlation was found between crude protein (CP), IVOMD and DFY indicating that modifications are needed to breed for higher forage biomass coupled with better forage quality traits. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on forage specific morphological and quality traits delineated 116 pearl millet hybrid parents into 6 distinct clusters. This evaluation identified clusters of hybrid parents having high mean values for specific promising forage quality traits, this information can be used for developing promising forage-type hybrids in pearl millet.
Keywords: Hybrid parents, Dry forage yield, Green forage yield, Forage quality, Pearl millet.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
Rojita Yengkhom, A.K. Verma, Narayan Dutta*, S.E. Jadhav and A.K. Pattanaik
Centre of Advance Faculty Training, Division of Animal Nutrition ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India
Yengkhom, R, Verma, A.K., Dutta, N, Jadhav, S.E. and Pattanaik, A.K. 2018. Effect of a customized
mineral supplement on nutrient metabolism, serum mineral profile and growth performance of kids.
Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 177-187.
The study was carried out to examine the effects of a customized mineral mixture (Boostermin) supplementation on nutrient metabolism, serum minerals profile and growth performance of kids. Eighteen kids of about 6 months age with mean BW of 10.70±0.67 kg were randomly divided into 3 groups consisting of 6 kids each in a completely randomized block design. The kids were randomly allocated to control (CON), CMS and BMS groups. In CON group kids were offered a concentrate mixture without any mineral supplement; however, kids in CMS and BMS groups were given concentrate mixture having commercial- and Boostermin-mineral supplement, respectively. The feeding-cum-growth trial lasted for a period of 135d. The daily DM intake did not differ significantly (P>0.05) among the treatment groups. Digestibility coefficientsfor DM, OM, EE, NDF and ADF did not differ (P>0.05) among the three groups; however, digestibility of CP was significantly higher (P<0.05) in BMS than CON. The balances of Ca and P were significantly (P<0.01) higher in BMS and CMS as compared to CON. The DCP intake was improved (P<0.01) in BMS as compared to CON, however, TDN intake did not differ (P>0.05) among the treatment groups. The serum minerals profile viz. Ca, P, Zn, Cu, Mn and iron were significantly higher in mineral supplemented groups, however, BMS was found to be better. The average daily gain for the period of 135 d were significantly (P<0.01) higher in BMS as compared to CON. It is concluded that Boostermin supplementation significantly improved the performance of growing kids.
Keywords: Boostermin, Kids, Metabolic profile, Minerals, Nutrient metabolism, Supplement.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
A.S. Shinde1, Jaydip Rokade2, Akshat Goel, Manish Mehra, A.B. Mandal3, Laxmi Chouhan4 and S.K. Bhanja*
Poultry Housing and Management Section ICAR-Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India
Shinde, A.S., Rokade, J., Goel, A., Mehra, M., Mandal, A.B., Chouhan, L. and Bhanja, S.K. 2018.
Delayed post-hatch feeding influences the performance, intestinal morphology and the expression profiles
of gut associated genes in slow growing broiler chickens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18:
The effects of post-hatch (PH) feed deprivation (FD) for 6, 12, 24 and 36 h were assessed on performance, gut development and differential expression of gut associated genes in slow-growing broiler chickens. A significantly higher (P=0.001) yolk sac weight was observed in all the FD chicks. The residual yolk sac of 24h and 36h FD chicks had a higher ether extract but lower protein content than that of control (immediately fed) chicks. The relative weights of the proventriculus, gizzard, intestine, liver and pancreas were lower in 24h and 36h FD chicks. The 36h FD chicks had lower (P<0.05) body weights, lower feed intake and inferior FCR than those of control or 6h FD chicks. Lower serum glucose but higher cholesterol and uric acid were recorded in 36 h FD chicks. Villus height and width in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum decreased (P=0.001) with an increase in the FD period, and significant changes were primarily observed in 36h FD chicks. The relative expression of Cdx decreased with the feed restriction period. Expression of the SGLT and FABP genes did not differ significantly in FD and control chicks, while that of the EAAT gene increased in 24h and 36h FD chicks. Villus height correlated positively with Cdx gene, but negatively with SGLT or EAAT gene expression. It is concluded that post hatch feed deprivation for first 24h did not affect performance, intestinal development and morphology. Correlation of jejunum villi with Cdx and EAAT gene expression indicates their role in the intestine development of broiler chickens.
Keywords: Broiler chicken, Delayed post hatch feeding, Gene expression, Gut development.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
N. Veena, K.C. Singh, T.M. Prabhu*, R.G. Gloridoss, Y.B. Rajeshwari and K.S. Ajith
Department of Animal Nutrition, Veterinary College Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Bengaluru-560 024, India
Veena, N., Singh, K.C., Prabhu, T.M., Gloridoss, R.G., Rajeshwari, Y.B. and Ajith, K.S. 2018. Effect
of supplementing slow release nitrogen product on the lactation performance of dairy cows. Animal
Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 205-214.
A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of feeding slow-release nitrogen product (SRNP) on the lactation performance of crossbred dairy cows. Eight crossbred cows in mid-late lactation were used in a Youden Latin square design. Treatment diets were T1 containing 2% urea in the concentrate portion of diet, and T2 and T3 diets containing 2 and 4 percent of SRNP, replacing urea on iso-nitrogen and iso-soluble nitrogen basis. The SRNP used in the study was a polymer coated urea compound containing 42% total N with 52.1% soluble N. The diet of the experimental cows comprised corn silage and finger millet straw as roughage source and a compounded feed mixture. There were no differences (P>0.05) in DM intake, milk yield (both total and 4%fat FCM) or milk constituents of cows among the treatment groups. A similar (P>0.05) digestibility of nutrients in the diets of three experimental groups indicated that the supplementation of SRNP had no influence on the utilization of nutrients in the lactating dairy cows. In the current feeding management system, comprising of corn silage, finger millet straw and a compounded feed mixturein the diet of dairy cows, feeding SRNP to replace urea on isonitrogenbasis was found not advantageous. It is concluded that the slow-release nitrogen product used in the present study can replace urea in the diet of lactating dairy cowswithout affecting their performance.
Keywords: Dairy cows, Milk composition, Nutrient utilization, Slow-release nitrogen, Urea.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
W.C. Liu1 and I.H. Kim*
Department of Animal Resource & Science, Dankook University Cheonan, Choongnam 330-714, South Korea
Liu, W.C. and Kim, I.H. 2018. Effects of multi-strain probiotics with variable energy density diets on
growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, faecal microflora, and noxious gas
emission in finishing pigs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 215-224.
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of multi-strain probiotics with variable energy density diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, faecal microflora and noxious gas emission in finishing pigs. Eighty [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc] pigs with initial BW of 79.95±2.49 kg were used in this 6-wk feeding trial. Pigs were allotted to one of 4 dietary treatments in a 2×2 factorial design with two levels of energy density (low or high) and probiotics (0 or 0.02% of diet). There were four replications and five pigs per pen. The pigs fed high energy density diet had better gain:feed ratio (P<0.001) and dry matter digestibility (P<0.01). Probiotics supplementation with both the density diet increased the faecal lactobacilli population (P<0.01) and decreased the E. coli counts (P<0.001). The noxious gas emission (NH3 and H2S) was reduced by inclusion of probiotics (P<0.001). There was no interactive effects between probiotics and energy density of the diet (P>0.05). In conclusion, administration of 0.02% multi-strain probiotics exerted beneficial effects on faecal microbial shedding and noxious gas emission irrespective of energy density of the diets.
Keywords: Direct-fed microbes, Energy density, Faecal microflora, Noxious gas emission, Pigs.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
Z.A. Sa’aci, O.J. Alabi1, D. Brown2* and J.W. Ng’ambi2
Department of Animal Production, School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria
Sa’aci, Z.A., Alabi, O.J., Brown, D. and Ng’ambi, J.W. 2018. Effect of aqueous ginger (zingiberofficinale)
extract on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and economy of feed conversion of broiler chickens.
Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 225-231.
A study was conducted to determine the effect of aqueous ginger extract (AGE) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and economy of feed conversion of broiler chickens. A total of 192 day-old Marshal broiler chicks were randomly allocated to six treatments each consisting of four replicates with eight birds per replicate in a completely randomized design. The treatments were tagged AGE0, AGE25, AGE50, AGE75, AGE100 and AGE125 whereinthe birds of the different groups were administered aqueous ginger extract orally at 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 ml/L, respectively,via drinking water. The experiment lasted for 49d. The results showed that the AGE supplementation had positive effects (P<0.05) on total feed consumed, final BW and feed conversion ratio. The aqueous ginger extract supplementation level of 127.49 ml/L maximized daily weight gain while FCR was maximized at an inclusion level of 88.79 ml/L. The AGE supplementation had no effect (P>0.05) on the digestibility of DM, CP, EE and NFE. However, digestibilityof crude fibre were affected (P<0.05) by AGE.Aqueous ginger extract also had effect (P<0.05) on total cost of feed consumed and cost/weight gain. Cost of feed per kilogram was not influenced by the treatment. These results suggest that AGE in drinking water of chickens could replace synthetic antibiotics and could be regarded as natural feed additives in poultry diets.
Keywords: Digestibility, Extract, Feed, Ginger, Performance.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
M. Arif1, M.E. Abd El-Hack, A. Rehman1, Z. Bashir1, Z. Iqbal1, M. Emam2, A. Noreldin3 and M. Alagawany*
Department of Poultry, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University Zagazig 44511, Egypt
Arif, M., Abd El-Hack, M.E., Rehman, A., Bashir, Z., Iqbal, Z., Emam, M., Noreldin, A. and Alagawany,
M. 2018. Consequences of partial substitution of starch with fibre on growth, carcass traits, nutrient
digestibility and blood parameters in growing rabbits. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 233-
The study aimed to investigate the partial substitution of starch with fibre on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and select blood indices of growing rabbits. One hundred-twenty 28 d-old male rabbits were equally distributed into four groups in a 2×2 factorial design. Four diets were formulated wherein starch was partially replaced with two different levels each of acid detergent fibre (ADF) at 23.6 and 29.2% and neutral detergent soluble fibre (NDSF) at 14.5 and 15.5%. At the end of the experiment (90 days of age), the weight gain and feed conversion increased in rabbits fed a high level of NDSF. However, rabbits fed low level of ADF showed a significant improvement in the digestibility of DM and CP. Feed intake was increased by 3.5% with lower level of ADF. Carcass traits and blood indices did not show significant differences among the treated groups. It may be concluded that partial substitution of starch with (15.5%) NDSF and (23.6) ADF had beneficial effects on the performance and nutrients digestibility without any adverse effects on health status of rabbits.
Keywords: Blood metabolites, Digestibility, Fibre, Growth performance, Rabbits.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
Nibedita Sahoo*, S.K. Mishra, R.K. Swain, N.C. Behura1, K. Sethy, P.K. Pati2, L. Sahoo3, G. Samanta1 and N.R. Debata
Animal Nutrition Department, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar-751 003, India
Sahoo, N., Mishra, S.K., Swain, R.K., Behura, N.C., Sethy, K., Pati, P.K., Sahoo, L., Samanta, G.
and Debata, N.R. 2018. Comparative and combined effect of turmeric and ginger supplementation on
growth, carcass characteristics, bloodparameters and economics of productions in broiler birds. Animal
Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 243-256.
Day-old broiler chicks (n=182) were distributed randomly in seven dietary treatments. The treatments included dietary supplementation of turmeric powder (TP) and ginger powder (GP) alone or in combination, each at 0.5 and 1.0 percent levels, i.e., T1 (control), basal diet alone; T2, 0.5% TP; T3, 1.0% TP; T4, 0.5% GP; T5, 1.0% GP; T6, both TP and GP each at 0.5%; T7, both TP and GP each at 1% levels. The experiment was continued for 35 d. At 35d, significantly (P<0.05) higher BW gain was recorded in T3 followed by T6; the cumulative BW gain also significantly (P<0.05) higher in T3 followed by T6 and T2. There were, however, no differences (P>0.05) evident among groups T1, T4, T5 and T7. No significant difference was found in feed consumption among treatment groups. The FCR was significantly (P<0.05) lower in T3 and T2. The carcass traits of broiler birds at 35d of age did not differ significantly except for the breast yield. The weight of liver and abdominal fat differed significantly (P<0.05) among the treated groups. Except for the serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, all other blood parameters including serum levels of glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, calcium and phosphorus did not differ (P>0.05) among birds of all dietary treatments. The margin of profit/kg LW was recorded higher in T3 and lowest in T7 group. It is concluded that supplementation of 1% turmeric powder in broiler ration improved the BW and feed efficiency, and lowered total cholesterol and triglyceride levels accompanying abetter economics of production.
Keywords: Biochemical, Broiler birds, Carcass, Economics, Ginger, Growth, Turmeric
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
S.M. Durge1, A. Das*, S.K. Saha, Y. Bhardwaj2, A.K. Verma and A.K. Sharma3
Center for Advanced Faculty Training in Animal Nutrition ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India
Durge, S.M., Das, A., Saha, S.K., Bhardwaj, Y., Verma, A.K. and Sharma, A.K. 2018. Effect of dietary
supplementation of fish oil on nutrient utilization, haematology and serum metabolites of captive Indian
leopards (Panthera pardus fusca). Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 257-266.
This experiment was conducted to asses the effect of fish oil supplementation on nutrient utilization, haematology and serum metabolites of captive Indian leopards fed solely on buffalo meat on bone (BMB). Nine adult leopards (age 3-18 yrs; average BW 42.5 kg) were randomly distributed into 3 equal groups, in a replicated Latin square design. All the animals were fed normal zoo diet of BMB at 2.5 kg/d/animal for 6-d a week. The basal diets of the animals in three groups were supplemented with either 13 g of tallow (T1), 6.5 g of tallow and 6.5 g of fish oil (T2), or 13 g of fish oil (T3). Intake of nutrients was similar (P>0.05) among the groups. Digestibility of OM, CP and gross energy was higher (P<0.01) in groups T2 and T3. Serum concentrations of urea (P<0.001), total protein and globulins were higher and ratio of albumin:globulin was lower (P<0.05) in T2 and T3 as compared T1. However, serum total cholesterol was lower (P<0.05) in T3, only. Thus, it is concluded that supplementation of fish oil in captive Indian leopards would improve protein digestion and reduce serum cholesterol without affecting diet palatability, nutrient utilization and haematology.
Keywords: Fish oil, Haematology, Indian leopard, Nutrient digestibility, Serum metabolites.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
M. Wadhwa, Balwinder Kumar1 and M.P.S. Bakshi*
Department of Animal Nutrition Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-141 004, India
Wadhwa, M., Kumar, B. and Bakshi, M.P.S. 2018. Nutritional evaluation of ensiled baby corn fodder
as livestock feed. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 267-272.
This study was taken up to assess the conservation method and nutritional value of ensiled baby corn fodder in comparison to conventional ensiled maize fodder variety J-1006. Both the fodders procured from university farm were wilted in the field after harvesting; chaffed and ensiled in low density poly ethylene tube of 15 ft length and 6 ft diameter for 42d. The ensiled fodders were evaluated as such; as well as in total mixed rations (TMRs) containing 60:40 roughage to concentrate ratio on DM basis by in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT) and in vivo feeding trial on male buffalo calves. The chemical composition, net gas production, digestibility of nutrients, VFA production and methane production potential of ensiled maize fodder (J-1006) were statistically comparable, with ensiled BC fodder; TMR containing ensiled maize fodder (J-1006) with TMR containing ensiled BC fodder. The feeding trial on buffalo calves revealed that digestibility of nutrients in animals fed TMR containing ensiled BC fodder was comparable with ensiled maize fodder. The blood profile and nitrogen utilization was also similar in both the groups. It was concluded that nutrients from ensiled baby corn fodder could be utilized as efficiently as from conventional ensiled maize fodder by buffalo calves. Further besides getting handsome amount by selling baby corn cobs for human consumption, the dairy farmers can get additional income by feeding ensiled baby corn fodder to dairy cattle.
Keywords: Baby corn fodder, Blood profile, Buffalo, Ensiling, In vitro, Nutrient utilization
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
S.T. Singh1*, S.K. Uppal, C.S. Randhawa and S.S. Randhawa
Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Science Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Ludhiana-141 004, India
Singh, S.T., Uppal, S.K., Randhawa, C.S. and Randhawa, S.S. 2018. Status of selected minerals in soil,
fodder and dairy animals in the semi-arid central alluvial plain of Punjab. Animal Nutrition and Feed
Technology, 18: 273-280.
Three districts in the semi-arid central alluvial plain of Punjab, India were investigated for status of copper, molybdenum, zinc, calcium, phosphorus and iron in soil-plant-animal system. Inadequacy in nutritional management of animals was evident. Considerable population of dairy animals had anoestrus, repeat breeding, poor body condition and low milk yield. Deficiencies of zinc and phosphorus, and excess of molybdenum were detected in 25.8, 6.5 and 9.7 percent soil samples, respectively. Fodder copper, zinc, calcium and phosphorus contents in 71.7, 45.7, 17.4 and 30.4 percent of the samples, respectively, were lower, and 21.7 per cent samples were higher in molybdenum than the critical levels for dairy cattle. Marked deficiencies of copper, calcium, phosphorus and excess of molybdenum were found in buffaloes and cattle. It is concluded that current feeding regime cannot supply required mineral nutrients to dairy animals resulting in poor health and reproductive problems in dairy animals of the region.
Keywords: Buffaloes, Cattle, Deficiency, Fodder, Minerals, Soil.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
D.V. Neeff, A.C.P. Carão1, B.L. Gonçalves2, K. Bordin3, C.H. Corassin2, D.R. Ledoux4, G.E. Rottinghaus5 and C.A.F. Oliveira2*
Department of Animal Science, School of Animal Science and Food Engineering University of São Paulo, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte 225, Pirassununga, SP, 13630-000, Brazil
Neeff, D.V., Carão, A.C.P., Gonçalves, B.L., Bordin, K., Corassin, C.H., Ledoux, D.R., Rottinghaus,
G.E. and Oliveira, C.A.F. 2018. Natural antioxidants as detoxifying agents for aflatoxins in animal feed.
Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 281-295.
Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi species of Aspergillus, mainly A. flavus,A. parasiticus and A. nomius. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most toxic compound, being hepatotoxic and carcinogenic in vertebrate animals including humans. The mechanisms of toxicity of AFB1 include oxidative stress, which leadsto DNA, protein and lipid damages at the cell level.Antioxidants have been used as food additives to protect against oxidative degradation, and are also known to inhibit fungal growth. This review presents the updated knowledge on the use of natural antioxidants as detoxifying agentsfor animal feed contaminated with aflatoxin.
Keywords: Aflatoxin B1, Detoxification, Fungi, Natural antioxidants, Reactive oxygen species.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
R.S. Bhatt* and A. Sahoo
Division of Animal Nutrition, Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute Avikanagar-304 501, India
Bhatt, R.S. and Sahoo, A. 2018. Effect of feeding milk replacer alone or in combination with probiotic
on pre-weaning performance, nutrient utilization and rumen fermentation in malpura lambs. Animal
Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 1-12.
To assess influence of feeding milk replacer alone and with probiotic (Lactobacillus acidophillus) supplementation on pre-weaning growth performance and nutrient utilization, 48 Malpura lambs of 7d of age were distributed randomly into three equal groups. Lambs were maintained individually under feeding regimens of ad libitum creep mixture along with green and dry roughage (C-0; Control), and the same supplemented with milk replacer alone (C-MR), or milk replacer in combination with live probiotic culture (C-MRP). Lambs were allowed to suckle their respective dams in the morning and evening till 91d of age, and fed ad libitum green leaves of Prosopis cinereria and dry cowpea hay. Pre-weaning performance of lambs in terms of weaning weight (20.7 kg, P=0.009), average daily gain (ADG; 183.1g, P=0.003) and feed conversion ratio was higher (P=0.019) in C-MRP lambs as compared to control (C0). The DM intake was significantly (P=0.026) higher in C-MR and C-MRP lambs due to higher plane of nutrition. Rumen pH was lowest (P=0.023) in C-MR lambs. Ammonia concentration decreased and total VFAs increased with milk replacer feeding in both C-MR and C-MRP groups. Level of propionic acid increased and acetic acid decreased in C-MR and C-MRP lambs. Rumen ciliate protozoa population (x104/ml) decreased (P=0.022) in C-MR (91.3) and C-MRP (95.4) group lambs than in C-0 lambs (122.8). Milk replacer feeding in C-MR and C-MRP lamb improved (P<0.05) the nutrient digestibility. Thus, milk replacer feeding during pre-weaning has significant influence on weight gain, feed efficiency and nutrient utilization; however, the influence of probiotic feeding on lamb growth needs further studies.
Keywords: Lamb performance, Milk replacer, Probiotic, Rumen fermentation
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
B. Balamuralikrishnan2, J.H. Lee1 and I.H. Kim*
Department of Animal Resource and Science Dankook University, Cheonan, 330-714, South Korea
Balamuralikrishnan, B., Lee, J.H. and Kim, I.H. 2018. Effects of dietary β-mannanase supplementation
with soybean meal on the performance of weanling pigs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18:
This study examined the efficacy of β-mannanase supplementation with types of soyabean meal (SBM; 44 and 48% CP) diet on the performance of weanling pigs. One hundred forty pigs [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc] with an initial BW of 5.97±1.01 kg were used in a 6-week feeding trial. The piglets were randomly allotted to four dietary groups in a 2×2 factorial arrangement, with feed rations consisting of hulled or dehulled SBM with or without 0.05% β-mannanase. The pigs fed diets containing β-mannanase showed greater average daily feed intake (P=0.033) at week 2 and ADG (P=0.082) at week 6 and improved digestibility of DM (P=0.008), N (P=0.008), energy (P=0.036) and phosphorus (P=0.047). Further, the interaction between SBM diets and β-mannanase was found significant for the diegstibility of DM (P=0.011), N (P=0.042) and phosphorus (P=0.052). The type of SBM had significant (P=0.013) effects on the RBC concentration at week 6. Supplementation of β-mannanase tended (P<0.10) to improve the RBC and lymphocytes of the pigs at week 6. The types of SBM reduced the faecal score at day 3 (P=0.047) accompanying a similar tendency at day 5 (P=0.095). The supplementation of β- mannanase on faecal microflora (E. coli and Lactobacillus) showed significant (P<0.05) differences among the groups at week 6. These results suggest the improving effects of β-mannanase when supplemented to low-CP SBM diet of weanling pigs in terms of performance, nutrients digestibility, and faecal microbiota.
Keywords: β-mannanase, Growth performance, Soybean meal, Weanling pigs.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
J. Raju, B. Sahoo1*, A. Chandrakar, A.K. Garg and R.K. Mohanta
ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Mukteswar-263 138, India
Raju, J., Sahoo, B., Chandrakar, A., Garg, A.K. and Mohanta, R.K. 2018. Effect of varied sources of
tannin on micro-mineral bioavailability in goats fed oak leaves based diets. Animal Nutrition and Feed
Technology, 18: 25-35.
Eighteen crossbred (Chegu×Jamunapari) goats (15.99 kg; 7-9 months) were randomly assigned to three groups. The animals were fed a common concentrate mixture as a supplement to three different forage sources (with a concentrate to roughage ratio of 30:70) namely, green grass (PC, Pennisetum clandestinum), oak leaves i.e. Quercus semecarpifolia (QS) and Quercus leucotricophora (QL) with the latter two groups serving as tannin-containing diets while the PC group as a control. The condensed and hydrolysable tannin content of the QS and QL diets was CT 1, HT 3.4 vs. CT 1.9, HT 1.6, respectively. A metabolism trial of six days duration was conducted at 90 d post-feeding. Blood samples were collected on 0, 60 and 120 d of experiment for estimation of serum minerals. The digestibility of DM, CP and fibre fractions were lower (P<0.05) in QL than PC and similar with QS. Daily intake and balance of Fe, Mn and Zn was higher (P<0.01) in QS and QL groups than the control group. Serum level of Co, Fe and Zn were higher (P<0.05) in QS than PC, but at par with QL. Average daily gain was higher in QS and QL as compared to PC. Feed gain ratio was better in QS (22.9±0.08) than PC (39.5±0.06), but at par with QL (29.9±0.04). Overall, the study revealed that goats fed tannin-from QS-based diet showed comparatively better performance than that of QL-based diet. Further, feeding of oak leaves was beneficial in augmenting feed intake, micro-mineral balance and growth performance of goats as compared to animals fed grass based diet.
Keywords: Goat, Minerals, Oak leaves, Tannins.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
J.I. Sotelo-Rodríguez, A.N. Rombenso*, F. Barreto-Curiel, J.A. Mata-Sotres1 and M.T. Viana
Institute of Oceanographic Research Autonomous University of Baja California (UABC) Km 107 carretera Tij/Eda, 22860, Baja California, Mexico
Sotelo-Rodríguez, J.I., Rombenso, A.N., Barreto-Curiel, F., Mata-Sotres, J.A. and Viana, M.T. 2018.
Insights on feed characteristics of tuna moist extruded aquafeeds using glycerol. Animal Nutrition and
Feed Technology, 18: 37-53.
Extruded aquafeeds have been used to replace natural food supplies. As tuna aquaculture still relies on fish stocks, the development of formulated extruded diets is essential to guarantee its responsible intensification. Accordingly, three extrusion trials were done aiming to optimize the extrusion process in extruded tuna diets, namely, a pre-trial with varying levels of dietary lipid (6, 8, or 10%), trial 1 with varying die temperature (40, 80 and 100°C), and trial 2 with varying dietary glycerol content (0, 4, and 8%). Rich-lipid diets were successfully manufactured through a single-screw extruder, and additional lipid content could be added through coating. Die temperature between 40°C to 100°C significantly (P<0.05) influenced the feed characteristics (e.g. moisture content decreased with increasing die temperature), except penetration. Finally, the addition of glycerol significantly (P<0.05) increased moisture content and penetration of moist extruded feeds. It is concluded that a supply around 0.5-1.0% of glycerol might be valuable towards the development of moist diets. However, further research on the effects of glycerol addition in the diet on digestibility and performance of fish need to be continued for developing moist extruded diets.
Keywords: Aquafeed, Extrusion, Feed characteristic, Glycerol, Tuna.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
V.B. Awachat1, A.V. Elangovan*, C.G. David, J. Ghosh, S.K. Bhanja2 and S. Majumdar2
ICAR-National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology Bengaluru-560 030, India
Awachat, V.B., Elangovan, A.V., David, C.G., Ghosh, J., Bhanja, S.K. and Majumdar, S.. 2018. Influence
of in ovo and pre-starter amino acid supplementation on growth performance and immune response in
broiler chicken. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 55-66.
An experiment was designed to assess the effect of in ovo and pre-starter amino acid supplementation on growth performance and immune response of broiler chicken. Two hundred and sixty Cobb broiler eggs of uniform size were set for incubation. The fertile eggs were divided into two groups; one group was administered with in ovo amino acid solution (lysine 22 mg, methionine 10 mg and threonine 16 mg per egg) into the amniotic cavity on day 18 of incubation and other group remained without administration. After hatching, the chicks from each of the two groups were further sub-divided into two groups (with or without post-hatch amino acid supplementation) resulting in four groups. The post-hatch supplemented groups were fed a diet supplemented with 25% higher level of amino acids (lysine 1.68 mg, methionine 0.63 mg and threonine 0.99 mg). Consequently, group I served as a control without in ovo and without post-hatch supplementation, group II was without in ovo and with post-hatch supplementation, group III was with in ovo and without post-hatch supplementation, and group IV was with in ovo and with posthatch supplementation. The results showed a decreased hatchability on in ovo administration of amino acids. Chick weight and egg weight did not vary significantly (P>0.05). The BW gain, feed intake and FCR during 0-3 weeks of age did not differ (P>0.05) among the treatment groups. On the other hand, in ovo administration of amino acids alone or in combination with post-hatch supplemented diet significantly (P<0.05) increased BW gain of chicks during 3-5 weeks of age and overall phase of 0-5 week of age. Humoral and cellular immune response did not differ (P>0.05) in terms of in ovo, post-hatch supplementation or their interaction. The in ovo or post-hatch supplementation of amino acids diet did not influence (P>0.05) the weights of digestive organs except for significantly (P>0.05) higher breast meat weight in post-hatch supplemented diet. It is concluded that supplementation of lysine, methionine and threonine in ovo and in pre-starter diet is beneficial for growth and breast meat yield of broiler chicken.
Keywords: Amino acid, Broiler, Growth, Immune response, In ovo.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
V. Phulia1, P. Sardar*, N.P. Sahu, B.N. Sanap, N. Shamna, F.J. Fawole2 and S. Gupta
Fish Nutrition, Biochemistry and Physiology Division ICAR-Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai-400 061, India
Phulia,V., Sardar, P., Sahu, N.P., Sanap, B.N., Shamna, N., Fawole, F.J. and Gupta, S. 2018. Effect
of detoxification methods on anti-nutritional factors and proximate composition of defatted Jatropha
curcas kernel meal. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 67-77.
A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of chemical treatment and solid state fermentation on the anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) and proximate composition of defatted Jatropha kernel meal (DJKM). The DJKM samples were treated with alkaline methanol (90% methanol containing 0.2M NaOH; CT- 1), alkaline ethanol (80% ethanol containing 0.1M NaOH; CT-2), highly alkaline methanol (90% methanol and 3% NaOH; CT-3), modified ethanol (4-times extraction using 80% ethanol; CT-4) and modified methanol (4-times extraction using 90% methanol; CT-5), in combination with moist heat treatment in all cases. Another sample was treated by solid state fermentation (SSF) using Aspergillus niger fungus (FT). The untreated sample was considered as control (J0). In comparison to control and the chemical treated samples (CT-1, CT-2, CT-3, CT-4 and CT-5), SSF treated sample contained significantly (P<0.05) lower levels of moisture and crude fibre, and higher levels of ether extract and total ash. However, these parameters did not vary (P>0.05) among the control and chemically treated samples. Though the CP content of FT sample was significantly higher than the control, it was found comparable to all the chemically treated samples. The moisture and ether extract contents of control and treated samples exhibited a reverse trend. Significantly lower and higer GE values were observed in CT-2 and CT-3, respectively; however, it was not affected much due to other treatments. Results indicated that any of the chemical treatments could not result in significant (P>0.05) removal of phytic acid and tannin, whereas FT was able to significantly (P<0.05) remove 100% phytic acid and 65.79% tannin from DJKM. However, all the treatments were equally effective in removal (100%) of trypsin inhibitor from DJKM. It is concluded that among the different treatment methods used, solid state fermentation was found to be the most effective method for removal of ANFs from DJKM.
Keywords: Anti-nutritional factors, Chemical treatment, Jatropha, Solid state fermentation.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
J. Sobczak, J. Stangierski1*, P. Marek and J. Kijowski1
Institute of Technology and Life Sciences Poznan Department of Engineering Production and Animal Welfare Biskupiñska 67, 60-463 Poznañ, Poland
Sobczak, J., Stangierski, J., Marek, P. and Kijowski, J. 2018. Effect of probiotic administration on
productivity and quality of broiler chicken meat. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 79-88.
The impact of a probiotic addition to feed and litter on production results in rearing of ROSS 308 broiler chickens and meat quality were assessed. The flock was divided into three testing variants of 60 birds each, namely, probiotic added to both feed and litter (PRO-FL); the control group with no probiotic (CON), and probiotic applied to litter alone (PRO-L). The rearing period of broiler chickens was 43 days. In the course of the study daily feed consumption, BW gains, culling and wastage of birds were recorded. Productive trait parameters indicated a positive effect of the applied bacterial cultures. The highest BW was obtained from chickens of PRO-FL, receiving probiotics in both feed and litter, which were, on an average, heavier by over 500g from control (CON) birds. Chickens from the pen where the probiotic was applied to the litter (PRO-L) were also heavier, on an average, by about 350g from the control birds. Feed consumption (kg/kg BW) in individual groups was the lowest (P<0.05) in the group receiving the feed and litter (PRO-FL; 1.55) vis-a-vis only litter (PRO-L; 1.83) and the control (CON; 2.20). The highest mortality (normal) was 4% in the group receiving the probiotic only in feed, and it was 1% in the remaining two groups. There were no differences (P<0.005) in percent of the share of breast muscles and in edible and inedible parts among the testing variants of chickens. The quality of the poultry meat, i.e. colour, texture and sensory evaluation were similar among the testing variants.
Keywords: Broiler, Chickens, Carcass, Meat quality, Probiotic, Production.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
Chandra Deo*, A.B. Mandal and Praveen K. Tyagi
Avian Nutrition and Feed Technology Division ICAR-Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnager-243 122, India
Chandra Deo, Mandal, A.B. and Tyagi, P.K. 2018. Response of supplementary sources and levels of
copper in diet on the performance of broiler chickens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 89-
The response of broiler chickens to dietary supplemental copper sources and levels in terms of growth performance, serum cholesterol level and carcass yield of broiler chicks was studied in a 3×4 factorial design involving three copper sources (copper sulphate, CuS; copper chloride, CuCl and copper propionate, CuP) each at four dietary levels of copper (8, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg) during starting (0- 3 wk) and finishing (4-6 wk) phases. Each of the diets was offered ad libitum as mash to three replicated groups of 10 chicks each. Significantly (P<0.05) higher BW gain was observed in CuP than CuS group during 0-3 wks of age. The BW gain during 4-6 and 0-6 wks of age did not differ significantly due to dietary Cu sources. However, BW gain during 0-3 and 0-6 wk of age was significantly (P<0.05) higher with 200 mg Cu/kg diet than other dietary Cu levels. During 4-6 wk of age, the BW gain was significantly higher at 200 mg Cu/kg than that recorded at 150 mg Cu/kg diet. The feed intake during different growth phases did not differ (P>0.05) due to either main effect or interaction between copper sources and levels. The FCR during 4-6 and 0-6 wk was significantly (P<0.05) better in CuP supplemented diet than the other Cu sources. The FCR was also significantly (P<0.05) better at 200 mg/kg diet than at other dietary Cu levels during different growth phases. Serum cholesterol concentration was significantly (P<0.01) lower with 200 mg Cu/kg diet than other Cu levels. Significantly lower heart weight was observed in CuS supplemented group than other copper sources. Dressed weight and eviscerated weight was significantly higher at 150 and 200 mg Cu/kg diet than those recorded at other levels of copper in the diet. It is concluded that a dietary copper concentration of 200 mg/kg through supplementation of organic copper (copper propionate) in broiler diet is more effective in promoting growth, feed conversion efficiency, carcass yield and reducing serum cholesterol concentration.
Keywords: Carcass quality, Chicks, Copper, Growth performance, Pharmacological dose, Cholesterol.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
H.L. Li, H.Y. Sun, S.C. Kim, and I.H. Kim*
Department of Animal Resource and Science Dankook University, Cheonan, Choongnam, 330-714, South Korea
Li, H.L., Sun, H.Y., Kim, S.C. and Kim, I.H. 2018. Effects of lactulose supplementation on production
performance of sows and their offspring. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 97-106.
A total of 18 multiparous sows (Landrace×Yorkshire) and their litters were used in the present study to evaluate the effect of dietary lactulose supplementation on the performance of the sows and their offspring. On day 107 of gestation, all sows were allotted into three dietary groups, namely CON, fed a basal diet; L1, fed CON diet with 0.1% lactulose; and L2, fed CON diet with 0.2% lactulose. Results indicated no significant differences (P>0.05) in BW, back-fat thickness, average daily feed intake, and return to estrus interval among the three treatments. Also, no significant differences (P>0.05) were observed in the number of piglets born and their birth weight, weanling weight, ADG, survival rate, and diarrhoea score among the piglets born to different groups of sows. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) observed in the nutrient digestibility by the sows, and select blood parameters of the sows as well the piglets. Sows fed lactulose supplemented diet did not exhibit any variations (P>0.05) in the emission of faecal ammonia and acetic acid among the treatments. At parturition, there was no differences (P>0.05) observed in faecal population of E. coli and Lactobacillus populations, whereas higher (P<0.05) Lactobacillus population was observed in L2 group when compared to CON at the time of weaning. In conclusion, the results suggested that the inclusion of lactulose at the level of 0.2% in the diet could increase the faecal lactobacillus concentration in sows, but this beneficial effect could not be observed on the production performance either the sows or their piglets.
Keywords: Lactulose, Micorbiota, Piglet, Performance, Sow.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
P.G. Peiretti*, G. Meineri1, E. Longato1 and S. Tassone2
Institute of Sciences of Food Production, National Research Council Largo P. Braccini 2, 10095 Grugliasco (TO), Italy
Peiretti, P.G., Meineri, G. Longato, E. and Tassone, S. 2018. Chemical composition, in vitro digestibility
and fatty acid profile of Amaranthus caudatus herbage during its growth cycle. Animal Nutrition and Feed
Technology, 18: 107-116.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of plant ageing on the chemical composition, gross energy, in vitro true digestibility, neutral detergent fibre digestibility and fatty acid (FA) profile of amaranth. The herbage was harvested at seven maturity stages, namely early-, mid- and late-vegetative, shooting, budding, early flowering and grain fill. The effects of maturity were analysed by polynomial contrasts. The quality of crop decreased with increasing morphological stages. The chemical composition of amaranth was found closely connected to plant development; while the OM and CP contents decreased (P<0.05), the contents of NDF, ADF, and lignin(sa) increased from the first to the last stage (P<0.05). Consequently, nutritive parameters decreased with increasing growth stage. Even though the lipid content did not differ significantly during plant development, the pattern of FA changed during plant growth. The -linolenic acid content decreased (linear P<0.01; quadratic P<0.05; cubic P<0.01), while linoleic acid content increased (linear P<0.01; quadratic P<0.05) with increasing maturity. As far as other FAs are concerned, palmitic, stearic and oleic acid increased (P<0.01), while stearidonic acid decreased (P<0.05) in later growth stage. A minor FA such as -linolenic acid did not differ significantly during the growth cycle. It is concluded that since its nutritional quality deteriorates and polyunsaturated FA content decreases when cutting is delayed, the first cut of amaranth should be before or at the shooting stage.
Keywords: Amaranth, Forage, Lipids, Morphological stage, Nutritive value.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
K.C. Das*, K.N. Mohanta, S.K. Nayak, T. Mohanty, S. Toppo1 and P. Swain2
Fish Nutrition and Physiology Division Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Bhubaneswar-751 002, India
Das, K.C., Mohanta, K.N., Nayak, S.K., Mohanty, T. Toppo, S. and Swain, P. 2018. Effect of extrusion
temperature on quality of carp floating feed prepared from local feed resources. Animal Nutrition and
Feed Technology, 18: 117-123.
A fish feed for rohu (Labeo rohita) was formulated from locally available feed ingredients and processed using four different extrusion temperatures i.e., 110, 130, 150 and 170°C maintaining constant moisture and pressure. The extruded feeds so produced were evaluated for physical and chemical characteristics to ascertain their quality. A digestibility study was conducted during a 60d feeding trial to determine the intake and digestibility of nutrients. Intestinal enzyme activity of rohu was also assessed. Results indicated that processing the feed at 130 and 150°C resulted in 100% floating whereas higher or lower extrusion temperatures reduced the floating percentage. As temperature of extrusion increased, the water holding capacity of feed was increased, but lower and higher temperatures of 130 or 150°C, increased the apparent density of feed. The nutrient composition of the four feeds in terms of DM, EE, CF, NFE and total ash were not affected except for the CP which was reduced (P<0.05) while extruded at 170°C. The digestibility of nutrients was not affected by the extrusion temperature of the feeds. The feed intake was significantly higher (P<0.05) with the feed produced at 130 or 150°C extrusion temperature as compared to the feed produced at 110 and 170°C. The amylase and lipase activity of intestine did not show any significant changes after feeding the feeds produced at four different extrusion temperatures. The results indicates that the quality of floating feed for rohu can be maintained optimally by extruding it at temperature between 130 to 150°C.
Keywords: Extrusion, Fish, Feed quality, Floating feed, Rohu, Temperature.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
N. Saini* and N.V. Patil
National Research Centre on Camel Bikaner-334 001, India
Saini, N. and Patil, N.V. 2018. Influence of pre-partum supplementary feeding on calving performance
of dromedary camels. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 125-130.
In order to assess the effect of supplementary feeding pre-partum on the reproductive performance of dromedary camels, 34 pregnant she-camels of 6-12 years age and 4-9 parity at 90d pre-partum were divided into three groups. The dietary treatments inlcuded feeding a complete pelleted diet (10% CP; 63% TDN) at three different levels, namely 2 (G1), 3 (G2) and 4 (G3) kg/d, respectively, in addition to ad libitum feeding of groundnut haulm. Additionally, all animals were allowed grazing for 7-8 h daily. The net gain in BW at calving was 99.30±11.80, 112.80±5.71 and 120.68±15.79 kg in the dietary groups G1, G2 and G3, respectively, without any significant differences. There was no variations (P>0.05) apparent in the gestation length, percentage loss in BW at calving as well as the birth weight of calves among the three dietary groups. Blood biochemical indices namely, total protein, urea, total cholesterol, and calcium and phosphorus remained similar among the groups. It is concluded that supplementary feeding of pelleted complete diet at 2 kg/d to grazing camels during the last 3 months of gestation is economical for camel farmers.
Keywords: Camel, Calving performance, Pre-partum, Supplementary feeding.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
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