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DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00001.X

Effect of Feeding Milk Replacer Alone or in Combination with Probiotic on Pre-weaning Performance, Nutrient Utilization and Rumen Fermentation in Malpura Lambs

R.S. Bhatt* and A. Sahoo

Division of Animal Nutrition, Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute Avikanagar-304 501, India


Bhatt, R.S. and Sahoo, A. 2018. Effect of feeding milk replacer alone or in combination with probiotic on pre-weaning performance, nutrient utilization and rumen fermentation in malpura lambs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 1-12.
To assess influence of feeding milk replacer alone and with probiotic (Lactobacillus acidophillus) supplementation on pre-weaning growth performance and nutrient utilization, 48 Malpura lambs of 7d of age were distributed randomly into three equal groups. Lambs were maintained individually under feeding regimens of ad libitum creep mixture along with green and dry roughage (C-0; Control), and the same supplemented with milk replacer alone (C-MR), or milk replacer in combination with live probiotic culture (C-MRP). Lambs were allowed to suckle their respective dams in the morning and evening till 91d of age, and fed ad libitum green leaves of Prosopis cinereria and dry cowpea hay. Pre-weaning performance of lambs in terms of weaning weight (20.7 kg, P=0.009), average daily gain (ADG; 183.1g, P=0.003) and feed conversion ratio was higher (P=0.019) in C-MRP lambs as compared to control (C0). The DM intake was significantly (P=0.026) higher in C-MR and C-MRP lambs due to higher plane of nutrition. Rumen pH was lowest (P=0.023) in C-MR lambs. Ammonia concentration decreased and total VFAs increased with milk replacer feeding in both C-MR and C-MRP groups. Level of propionic acid increased and acetic acid decreased in C-MR and C-MRP lambs. Rumen ciliate protozoa population (x104/ml) decreased (P=0.022) in C-MR (91.3) and C-MRP (95.4) group lambs than in C-0 lambs (122.8). Milk replacer feeding in C-MR and C-MRP lamb improved (P<0.05) the nutrient digestibility. Thus, milk replacer feeding during pre-weaning has significant influence on weight gain, feed efficiency and nutrient utilization; however, the influence of probiotic feeding on lamb growth needs further studies.

Keywords: Lamb performance, Milk replacer, Probiotic, Rumen fermentation

*Corresponding author:

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00002.1

Effects of Dietary β-mannanase Supplementation of Soybean Meal on the Performance of Weanling Pigs

B. Balamuralikrishnan2, J.H. Lee1 and I.H. Kim*

Department of Animal Resource and Science Dankook University, Cheonan, 330-714, South Korea


Balamuralikrishnan, B., Lee, J.H. and Kim, I.H. 2018. Effects of dietary -mannanase supplementation with soybean meal on the performance of weanling pigs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 13-23.
This study examined the efficacy of -mannanase supplementation with types of soyabean meal (SBM; 44 and 48% CP) diet on the performance of weanling pigs. One hundred forty pigs [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc] with an initial BW of 5.97±1.01 kg were used in a 6-week feeding trial. The piglets were randomly allotted to four dietary groups in a 2×2 factorial arrangement, with feed rations consisting of hulled or dehulled SBM with or without 0.05% -mannanase. The pigs fed diets containing -mannanase showed greater average daily feed intake (P=0.033) at week 2 and ADG (P=0.082) at week 6 and improved digestibility of DM (P=0.008), N (P=0.008), energy (P=0.036) and phosphorus (P=0.047). Further, the interaction between SBM diets and -mannanase was found significant for the diegstibility of DM (P=0.011), N (P=0.042) and phosphorus (P=0.052). The type of SBM had significant (P=0.013) effects on the RBC concentration at week 6. Supplementation of -mannanase tended (P<0.10) to improve the RBC and lymphocytes of the pigs at week 6. The types of SBM reduced the faecal score at day 3 (P=0.047) accompanying a similar tendency at day 5 (P=0.095). The supplementation of - mannanase on faecal microflora (E. coli and Lactobacillus) showed significant (P<0.05) differences among the groups at week 6. These results suggest the improving effects of -mannanase when supplemented to low-CP SBM diet of weanling pigs in terms of performance, nutrients digestibility, and faecal microbiota.

Keywords: β-mannanase, Growth performance, Soybean meal, Weanling pigs.

*Corresponding author:

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00003.3

Effect of Varied Sources of Tannin on Micro-Mineral Bioavailability in Goats Fed Oak Leaves Based Diets

J. Raju, B. Sahoo1*, A. Chandrakar, A.K. Garg and R.K. Mohanta

ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Mukteswar-263 138, India


Raju, J., Sahoo, B., Chandrakar, A., Garg, A.K. and Mohanta, R.K. 2018. Effect of varied sources of tannin on micro-mineral bioavailability in goats fed oak leaves based diets. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 25-35.
Eighteen crossbred (Chegu×Jamunapari) goats (15.99 kg; 7-9 months) were randomly assigned to three groups. The animals were fed a common concentrate mixture as a supplement to three different forage sources (with a concentrate to roughage ratio of 30:70) namely, green grass (PC, Pennisetum clandestinum), oak leaves i.e. Quercus semecarpifolia (QS) and Quercus leucotricophora (QL) with the latter two groups serving as tannin-containing diets while the PC group as a control. The condensed and hydrolysable tannin content of the QS and QL diets was CT 1, HT 3.4 vs. CT 1.9, HT 1.6, respectively. A metabolism trial of six days duration was conducted at 90 d post-feeding. Blood samples were collected on 0, 60 and 120 d of experiment for estimation of serum minerals. The digestibility of DM, CP and fibre fractions were lower (P<0.05) in QL than PC and similar with QS. Daily intake and balance of Fe, Mn and Zn was higher (P<0.01) in QS and QL groups than the control group. Serum level of Co, Fe and Zn were higher (P<0.05) in QS than PC, but at par with QL. Average daily gain was higher in QS and QL as compared to PC. Feed gain ratio was better in QS (22.9±0.08) than PC (39.5±0.06), but at par with QL (29.9±0.04). Overall, the study revealed that goats fed tannin-from QS-based diet showed comparatively better performance than that of QL-based diet. Further, feeding of oak leaves was beneficial in augmenting feed intake, micro-mineral balance and growth performance of goats as compared to animals fed grass based diet.

Keywords: Goat, Minerals, Oak leaves, Tannins.

*Corresponding author:

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00004.5

Insights on Feed Characteristics of Tuna Moist Extruded Aquafeeds Using Glycerol

J.I. Sotelo-Rodríguez, A.N. Rombenso*, F. Barreto-Curiel, J.A. Mata-Sotres1 and M.T. Viana

Institute of Oceanographic Research Autonomous University of Baja California (UABC) Km 107 carretera Tij/Eda, 22860, Baja California, Mexico


Sotelo-Rodríguez, J.I., Rombenso, A.N., Barreto-Curiel, F., Mata-Sotres, J.A. and Viana, M.T. 2018. Insights on feed characteristics of tuna moist extruded aquafeeds using glycerol. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 37-53.
Extruded aquafeeds have been used to replace natural food supplies. As tuna aquaculture still relies on fish stocks, the development of formulated extruded diets is essential to guarantee its responsible intensification. Accordingly, three extrusion trials were done aiming to optimize the extrusion process in extruded tuna diets, namely, a pre-trial with varying levels of dietary lipid (6, 8, or 10%), trial 1 with varying die temperature (40, 80 and 100°C), and trial 2 with varying dietary glycerol content (0, 4, and 8%). Rich-lipid diets were successfully manufactured through a single-screw extruder, and additional lipid content could be added through coating. Die temperature between 40°C to 100°C significantly (P<0.05) influenced the feed characteristics (e.g. moisture content decreased with increasing die temperature), except penetration. Finally, the addition of glycerol significantly (P<0.05) increased moisture content and penetration of moist extruded feeds. It is concluded that a supply around 0.5-1.0% of glycerol might be valuable towards the development of moist diets. However, further research on the effects of glycerol addition in the diet on digestibility and performance of fish need to be continued for developing moist extruded diets.

Keywords: Aquafeed, Extrusion, Feed characteristic, Glycerol, Tuna.

*Corresponding author:

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00005.7

Influence of In ovo and Pre-starter Amino Acid Supplementation on Growth Performance and Immune Response in Broiler Chicken

V.B. Awachat1, A.V. Elangovan*, C.G. David, J. Ghosh, S.K. Bhanja2 and S. Majumdar2

ICAR-National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology Bengaluru-560 030, India


Awachat, V.B., Elangovan, A.V., David, C.G., Ghosh, J., Bhanja, S.K. and Majumdar, S.. 2018. Influence of in ovo and pre-starter amino acid supplementation on growth performance and immune response in broiler chicken. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 55-66.
An experiment was designed to assess the effect of in ovo and pre-starter amino acid supplementation on growth performance and immune response of broiler chicken. Two hundred and sixty Cobb broiler eggs of uniform size were set for incubation. The fertile eggs were divided into two groups; one group was administered with in ovo amino acid solution (lysine 22 mg, methionine 10 mg and threonine 16 mg per egg) into the amniotic cavity on day 18 of incubation and other group remained without administration. After hatching, the chicks from each of the two groups were further sub-divided into two groups (with or without post-hatch amino acid supplementation) resulting in four groups. The post-hatch supplemented groups were fed a diet supplemented with 25% higher level of amino acids (lysine 1.68 mg, methionine 0.63 mg and threonine 0.99 mg). Consequently, group I served as a control without in ovo and without post-hatch supplementation, group II was without in ovo and with post-hatch supplementation, group III was with in ovo and without post-hatch supplementation, and group IV was with in ovo and with posthatch supplementation. The results showed a decreased hatchability on in ovo administration of amino acids. Chick weight and egg weight did not vary significantly (P>0.05). The BW gain, feed intake and FCR during 0-3 weeks of age did not differ (P>0.05) among the treatment groups. On the other hand, in ovo administration of amino acids alone or in combination with post-hatch supplemented diet significantly (P<0.05) increased BW gain of chicks during 3-5 weeks of age and overall phase of 0-5 week of age. Humoral and cellular immune response did not differ (P>0.05) in terms of in ovo, post-hatch supplementation or their interaction. The in ovo or post-hatch supplementation of amino acids diet did not influence (P>0.05) the weights of digestive organs except for significantly (P>0.05) higher breast meat weight in post-hatch supplemented diet. It is concluded that supplementation of lysine, methionine and threonine in ovo and in pre-starter diet is beneficial for growth and breast meat yield of broiler chicken.

Keywords: Amino acid, Broiler, Growth, Immune response, In ovo.

*Corresponding author:

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00006.9

Effect of Detoxification Methods on Anti-nutritional Factors and Proximate Composition of Defatted Jatropha curcas Kernel Meal

V. Phulia1, P. Sardar*, N.P. Sahu, B.N. Sanap, N. Shamna, F.J. Fawole2 and S. Gupta

Fish Nutrition, Biochemistry and Physiology Division ICAR-Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai-400 061, India


Phulia,V., Sardar, P., Sahu, N.P., Sanap, B.N., Shamna, N., Fawole, F.J. and Gupta, S. 2018. Effect of detoxification methods on anti-nutritional factors and proximate composition of defatted Jatropha curcas kernel meal. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 67-77.
A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of chemical treatment and solid state fermentation on the anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) and proximate composition of defatted Jatropha kernel meal (DJKM). The DJKM samples were treated with alkaline methanol (90% methanol containing 0.2M NaOH; CT- 1), alkaline ethanol (80% ethanol containing 0.1M NaOH; CT-2), highly alkaline methanol (90% methanol and 3% NaOH; CT-3), modified ethanol (4-times extraction using 80% ethanol; CT-4) and modified methanol (4-times extraction using 90% methanol; CT-5), in combination with moist heat treatment in all cases. Another sample was treated by solid state fermentation (SSF) using Aspergillus niger fungus (FT). The untreated sample was considered as control (J0). In comparison to control and the chemical treated samples (CT-1, CT-2, CT-3, CT-4 and CT-5), SSF treated sample contained significantly (P<0.05) lower levels of moisture and crude fibre, and higher levels of ether extract and total ash. However, these parameters did not vary (P>0.05) among the control and chemically treated samples. Though the CP content of FT sample was significantly higher than the control, it was found comparable to all the chemically treated samples. The moisture and ether extract contents of control and treated samples exhibited a reverse trend. Significantly lower and higer GE values were observed in CT-2 and CT-3, respectively; however, it was not affected much due to other treatments. Results indicated that any of the chemical treatments could not result in significant (P>0.05) removal of phytic acid and tannin, whereas FT was able to significantly (P<0.05) remove 100% phytic acid and 65.79% tannin from DJKM. However, all the treatments were equally effective in removal (100%) of trypsin inhibitor from DJKM. It is concluded that among the different treatment methods used, solid state fermentation was found to be the most effective method for removal of ANFs from DJKM.

Keywords: Anti-nutritional factors, Chemical treatment, Jatropha, Solid state fermentation.

*Corresponding author:

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00007.0

Effect of Probiotic Administration on Productivity and Quality of Broiler Chicken Meat

J. Sobczak, J. Stangierski1*, P. Marek and J. Kijowski1

Institute of Technology and Life Sciences Poznan Department of Engineering Production and Animal Welfare Biskupiñska 67, 60-463 Poznañ, Poland


Sobczak, J., Stangierski, J., Marek, P. and Kijowski, J. 2018. Effect of probiotic administration on productivity and quality of broiler chicken meat. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 79-88.
The impact of a probiotic addition to feed and litter on production results in rearing of ROSS 308 broiler chickens and meat quality were assessed. The flock was divided into three testing variants of 60 birds each, namely, probiotic added to both feed and litter (PRO-FL); the control group with no probiotic (CON), and probiotic applied to litter alone (PRO-L). The rearing period of broiler chickens was 43 days. In the course of the study daily feed consumption, BW gains, culling and wastage of birds were recorded. Productive trait parameters indicated a positive effect of the applied bacterial cultures. The highest BW was obtained from chickens of PRO-FL, receiving probiotics in both feed and litter, which were, on an average, heavier by over 500g from control (CON) birds. Chickens from the pen where the probiotic was applied to the litter (PRO-L) were also heavier, on an average, by about 350g from the control birds. Feed consumption (kg/kg BW) in individual groups was the lowest (P<0.05) in the group receiving the feed and litter (PRO-FL; 1.55) vis-a-vis only litter (PRO-L; 1.83) and the control (CON; 2.20). The highest mortality (normal) was 4% in the group receiving the probiotic only in feed, and it was 1% in the remaining two groups. There were no differences (P<0.005) in percent of the share of breast muscles and in edible and inedible parts among the testing variants of chickens. The quality of the poultry meat, i.e. colour, texture and sensory evaluation were similar among the testing variants.

Keywords: Broiler, Chickens, Carcass, Meat quality, Probiotic, Production.

*Corresponding author:

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00008.2

Response of Supplementary Sources and Levels of Copper in Diet on the Performance of Broiler Chickens

Chandra Deo*, A.B. Mandal and Praveen K. Tyagi

Avian Nutrition and Feed Technology Division ICAR-Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnager-243 122, India


Chandra Deo, Mandal, A.B. and Tyagi, P.K. 2018. Response of supplementary sources and levels of copper in diet on the performance of broiler chickens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 89- 96.
The response of broiler chickens to dietary supplemental copper sources and levels in terms of growth performance, serum cholesterol level and carcass yield of broiler chicks was studied in a 3×4 factorial design involving three copper sources (copper sulphate, CuS; copper chloride, CuCl and copper propionate, CuP) each at four dietary levels of copper (8, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg) during starting (0- 3 wk) and finishing (4-6 wk) phases. Each of the diets was offered ad libitum as mash to three replicated groups of 10 chicks each. Significantly (P<0.05) higher BW gain was observed in CuP than CuS group during 0-3 wks of age. The BW gain during 4-6 and 0-6 wks of age did not differ significantly due to dietary Cu sources. However, BW gain during 0-3 and 0-6 wk of age was significantly (P<0.05) higher with 200 mg Cu/kg diet than other dietary Cu levels. During 4-6 wk of age, the BW gain was significantly higher at 200 mg Cu/kg than that recorded at 150 mg Cu/kg diet. The feed intake during different growth phases did not differ (P>0.05) due to either main effect or interaction between copper sources and levels. The FCR during 4-6 and 0-6 wk was significantly (P<0.05) better in CuP supplemented diet than the other Cu sources. The FCR was also significantly (P<0.05) better at 200 mg/kg diet than at other dietary Cu levels during different growth phases. Serum cholesterol concentration was significantly (P<0.01) lower with 200 mg Cu/kg diet than other Cu levels. Significantly lower heart weight was observed in CuS supplemented group than other copper sources. Dressed weight and eviscerated weight was significantly higher at 150 and 200 mg Cu/kg diet than those recorded at other levels of copper in the diet. It is concluded that a dietary copper concentration of 200 mg/kg through supplementation of organic copper (copper propionate) in broiler diet is more effective in promoting growth, feed conversion efficiency, carcass yield and reducing serum cholesterol concentration.

Keywords: Carcass quality, Chicks, Copper, Growth performance, Pharmacological dose, Cholesterol.

*Corresponding author:

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00009.4

Effects of Lactulose Supplementation on Production Performance of Sows and their Offspring

H.L. Li, H.Y. Sun, S.C. Kim, and I.H. Kim*

Department of Animal Resource and Science Dankook University, Cheonan, Choongnam, 330-714, South Korea


Li, H.L., Sun, H.Y., Kim, S.C. and Kim, I.H. 2018. Effects of lactulose supplementation on production performance of sows and their offspring. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 97-106.
A total of 18 multiparous sows (Landrace×Yorkshire) and their litters were used in the present study to evaluate the effect of dietary lactulose supplementation on the performance of the sows and their offspring. On day 107 of gestation, all sows were allotted into three dietary groups, namely CON, fed a basal diet; L1, fed CON diet with 0.1% lactulose; and L2, fed CON diet with 0.2% lactulose. Results indicated no significant differences (P>0.05) in BW, back-fat thickness, average daily feed intake, and return to estrus interval among the three treatments. Also, no significant differences (P>0.05) were observed in the number of piglets born and their birth weight, weanling weight, ADG, survival rate, and diarrhoea score among the piglets born to different groups of sows. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) observed in the nutrient digestibility by the sows, and select blood parameters of the sows as well the piglets. Sows fed lactulose supplemented diet did not exhibit any variations (P>0.05) in the emission of faecal ammonia and acetic acid among the treatments. At parturition, there was no differences (P>0.05) observed in faecal population of E. coli and Lactobacillus populations, whereas higher (P<0.05) Lactobacillus population was observed in L2 group when compared to CON at the time of weaning. In conclusion, the results suggested that the inclusion of lactulose at the level of 0.2% in the diet could increase the faecal lactobacillus concentration in sows, but this beneficial effect could not be observed on the production performance either the sows or their piglets.

Keywords: Lactulose, Micorbiota, Piglet, Performance, Sow.

*Corresponding author:

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00010.0

Chemical Composition, In Vitro Digestibility and Fatty Acid Profile of Amaranthus caudatus Herbage During its Growth Cycle

P.G. Peiretti*, G. Meineri1, E. Longato1 and S. Tassone2

Institute of Sciences of Food Production, National Research Council Largo P. Braccini 2, 10095 Grugliasco (TO), Italy


Peiretti, P.G., Meineri, G. Longato, E. and Tassone, S. 2018. Chemical composition, in vitro digestibility and fatty acid profile of Amaranthus caudatus herbage during its growth cycle. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 107-116.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of plant ageing on the chemical composition, gross energy, in vitro true digestibility, neutral detergent fibre digestibility and fatty acid (FA) profile of amaranth. The herbage was harvested at seven maturity stages, namely early-, mid- and late-vegetative, shooting, budding, early flowering and grain fill. The effects of maturity were analysed by polynomial contrasts. The quality of crop decreased with increasing morphological stages. The chemical composition of amaranth was found closely connected to plant development; while the OM and CP contents decreased (P<0.05), the contents of NDF, ADF, and lignin(sa) increased from the first to the last stage (P<0.05). Consequently, nutritive parameters decreased with increasing growth stage. Even though the lipid content did not differ significantly during plant development, the pattern of FA changed during plant growth. The -linolenic acid content decreased (linear P<0.01; quadratic P<0.05; cubic P<0.01), while linoleic acid content increased (linear P<0.01; quadratic P<0.05) with increasing maturity. As far as other FAs are concerned, palmitic, stearic and oleic acid increased (P<0.01), while stearidonic acid decreased (P<0.05) in later growth stage. A minor FA such as -linolenic acid did not differ significantly during the growth cycle. It is concluded that since its nutritional quality deteriorates and polyunsaturated FA content decreases when cutting is delayed, the first cut of amaranth should be before or at the shooting stage.

Keywords: Amaranth, Forage, Lipids, Morphological stage, Nutritive value.

*Corresponding author:

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00011.2

Effect of Extrusion Temperature on Quality of Carp Floating Feed Prepared from Local Feed Resources

K.C. Das*, K.N. Mohanta, S.K. Nayak, T. Mohanty, S. Toppo1 and P. Swain2

Fish Nutrition and Physiology Division Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Bhubaneswar-751 002, India


Das, K.C., Mohanta, K.N., Nayak, S.K., Mohanty, T. Toppo, S. and Swain, P. 2018. Effect of extrusion temperature on quality of carp floating feed prepared from local feed resources. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 117-123.
A fish feed for rohu (Labeo rohita) was formulated from locally available feed ingredients and processed using four different extrusion temperatures i.e., 110, 130, 150 and 170°C maintaining constant moisture and pressure. The extruded feeds so produced were evaluated for physical and chemical characteristics to ascertain their quality. A digestibility study was conducted during a 60d feeding trial to determine the intake and digestibility of nutrients. Intestinal enzyme activity of rohu was also assessed. Results indicated that processing the feed at 130 and 150°C resulted in 100% floating whereas higher or lower extrusion temperatures reduced the floating percentage. As temperature of extrusion increased, the water holding capacity of feed was increased, but lower and higher temperatures of 130 or 150°C, increased the apparent density of feed. The nutrient composition of the four feeds in terms of DM, EE, CF, NFE and total ash were not affected except for the CP which was reduced (P<0.05) while extruded at 170°C. The digestibility of nutrients was not affected by the extrusion temperature of the feeds. The feed intake was significantly higher (P<0.05) with the feed produced at 130 or 150°C extrusion temperature as compared to the feed produced at 110 and 170°C. The amylase and lipase activity of intestine did not show any significant changes after feeding the feeds produced at four different extrusion temperatures. The results indicates that the quality of floating feed for rohu can be maintained optimally by extruding it at temperature between 130 to 150°C.

Keywords: Extrusion, Fish, Feed quality, Floating feed, Rohu, Temperature.

*Corresponding author:

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2018.00012.4

Influence of Pre-Partum Supplementary Feeding on Calving Performance of Dromedary Camels

N. Saini* and N.V. Patil

National Research Centre on Camel Bikaner-334 001, India


Saini, N. and Patil, N.V. 2018. Influence of pre-partum supplementary feeding on calving performance of dromedary camels. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 18: 125-130.
In order to assess the effect of supplementary feeding pre-partum on the reproductive performance of dromedary camels, 34 pregnant she-camels of 6-12 years age and 4-9 parity at 90d pre-partum were divided into three groups. The dietary treatments inlcuded feeding a complete pelleted diet (10% CP; 63% TDN) at three different levels, namely 2 (G1), 3 (G2) and 4 (G3) kg/d, respectively, in addition to ad libitum feeding of groundnut haulm. Additionally, all animals were allowed grazing for 7-8 h daily. The net gain in BW at calving was 99.30±11.80, 112.80±5.71 and 120.68±15.79 kg in the dietary groups G1, G2 and G3, respectively, without any significant differences. There was no variations (P>0.05) apparent in the gestation length, percentage loss in BW at calving as well as the birth weight of calves among the three dietary groups. Blood biochemical indices namely, total protein, urea, total cholesterol, and calcium and phosphorus remained similar among the groups. It is concluded that supplementary feeding of pelleted complete diet at 2 kg/d to grazing camels during the last 3 months of gestation is economical for camel farmers.

Keywords: Camel, Calving performance, Pre-partum, Supplementary feeding.

*Corresponding author:


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This privacy policy sets out how we use and protect any information that you give us when you use this website.

We are committed to ensuring that your privacy is protected. Should we ask you to provide certain information by which you can be identified when using this website, then you can be assured that it will only be used in accordance with this privacy statement.

We may change this policy from time to time by updating this page. You should check this page from time to time to ensure that you are happy with any changes.

What we collect

We may collect the following information:

What we do with the information we gather

We require this information to understand your needs and provide you with a better service, and in particular for the following reasons:


We are committed to ensuring that your information is secure. In order to prevent unauthorised access or disclosure we have put in place suitable physical, electronic and managerial procedures to safeguard and secure the information we collect online.

How we use cookies

A cookie is a small file which asks permission to be placed on your computer's hard drive. Once you agree, the file is added and the cookie helps analyse web traffic or lets you know when you visit a particular site. Cookies allow web applications to respond to you as an individual. The web application can tailor its operations to your needs, likes and dislikes by gathering and remembering information about your preferences.

We use traffic log cookies to identify which pages are being used. This helps us analyse data about webpage traffic and improve our website in order to tailor it to customer needs. We only use this information for statistical analysis purposes and then the data is removed from the system.

Overall, cookies help us provide you with a better website, by enabling us to monitor which pages you find useful and which you do not. A cookie in no way gives us access to your computer or any information about you, other than the data you choose to share with us.

You can choose to accept or decline cookies. Most web browsers automatically accept cookies, but you can usually modify your browser setting to decline cookies if you prefer. This may prevent you from taking full advantage of the website.

Links to other websites

Our website may contain links to other websites of interest. However, once you have used these links to leave our site, you should note that we do not have any control over that other website. Therefore, we cannot be responsible for the protection and privacy of any information which you provide whilst visiting such sites and such sites are not governed by this privacy statement. You should exercise caution and look at the privacy statement applicable to the website in question.

Controlling your personal information

You may choose to restrict the collection or use of your personal information in the following ways:

We will not sell, distribute or lease your personal information to third parties unless we have your permission or are required by law to do so. We may use your personal information to send you promotional information about third parties which we think you may find interesting.

You may request details of personal information which we hold about you. A small fee will be payable. If you would like a copy of the information held on you please write to us at the address mentioned at the start of this Privacy Policy.

If you believe that any information we are holding on you is incorrect or incomplete, please write or email us as soon as possible, at the above mentioned address. We will promptly correct any information found to be incorrect.

Contacting Us

If there are any questions regarding this Privacy Policy you may contact us at the above mentioned address.