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DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00033.5

Silage Quality, Fermentation Dynamics and Chemical Composition of Alfalfa Silage Prepared with Salt and Lactic Acid Bacteria Inoculants

S. Ergin and H. Gumus*

Department of Animal Nutrition and Nutritional Diseases Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy, 15100, Burdur, Turkey


Ergin, S. and Gumus, H. 2020. Silage quality, fermentation dynamics and chemical composition of alfalfa silage prepared with salt and lactic acid bacteria inoculants. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20:367-380.
The present study was carried out to investigate the silage quality, fermentation profile and chemical composition of alfalfa silage prepared with salt (NaCl) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as inoculants. After harvesting, fresh alfalfa samples were chopped into small pieces and the silage additives were manually applied to fresh alfalfa in a plastic basin. Four groups were established of salt and LAB inoculant i.e., CON (no supplementation); LAB (LAB supplementation), SALT (salt supplementation) and SALT-L (LAB inoculant and salt supplementation). Four silos from each group were opened for the analysis of silage quality, fermentation quality and chemical composition on 7, 14, 30 and 60th d of ensiling. The physical quality of silages revealed that good and excellent quality silages were obtained regardless of the duration of ensiling. All additives remarkably increased (P<0.01) the Flieg point during ensiling. After 7 d of ensiling, the pH value was linearly decreased in all silages throughout fermentation (P<0.01). There were no significant differences (P>0.05) among groups in terms of NH3-N/TN content on all treatment days. All inoculants tended to increase acetate and lactate levels (P<0.01) and decrease propionate and butyrate levels (P<0.01) compared to CON- silage irrespective of the days of ensiling. The highest LAB numbers were observed in LAB-treated silages than CON-silage. Silage prepared with salt had greater (P<0.01) CO2 production whereas those prepared with LAB exhibited lower CO2 production (P<0.05) compared to CON-silage. There were significant differences (P<0.01) among groups in DM, CP, ash CF, NDF, ADF and hemicellulose at d 60 of ensiling. This study showed that LAB inoculant was more efficient than S and SALT-L inoculant to improve fermentation quality.

Keywords: Aerobic stability, Alfalfa, Fermentation, Lactic acid bacteria, Salt, Silage

*Corresponding Author: hdrgumus@gmail.com, hgumus@mehmetakif.edu.tr

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00034.7

Ensiling Potential of Fresh Tomato Waste with Dehydrated Beet Pulp and Cereal Straw as Additives

S. Álvarez*, A. Martínez-Fernández and P. Méndez

Department of Animal Production, Grassland and Forages Canary Agronomic Research Institute (ICIA), La Laguna, 38200, Spain


Álvarez, S., Martínez-Fernández, A. and Méndez, P. 2020. Ensiling potential of fresh tomato waste with dehydrated beet pulp and cereal straw as additives. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 381-392.
This study evaluated the ensilability, fermentation metabolites and nutritive value of fresh waste tomatoes with two different additives namely, dehydrated beet pulp and cereal straw. Initially, the comparative ensilability parameters were assessed in two different types of waste tomato fruits, i.e. interior market (Ti) and ecological (Te) tomatoes. Subsequently, as per the observed ensilability attributes, Ti was selected for further investigation. Accordingly, the waste tomatoes were ensiled as such (Ti) or in combination with 25% dehydrated beet pulp (Ti-DBP) and 25% cereal straw (Ti-CS) in laboratory microsilos. The quality and stability of the silages were assessed over time i.e., on d 35 and 70. In both the treatments, 3.5 L of formic acid was added per ton of silage to improve the fermentation. Both waste tomato types, ecological and interior tomatoes, showed high water-soluble carbohydrates content, but low DM, buffering capacity and fermentability ratio. Chemical analysis data showed significant differences (P<0.05) in the composition (except for OM content) between the silage materials before ensiling, with or without as additives. Both the silages presented good fermentative attributes with significant differences only in the concentrations of ammonia (P=0.004) and formic acid (P<0.001). In contrast, the chemical composition data showed significant differences (P<0.001) in all parameters analyzed except DM and OM contents. Moreover, no differences were detected between ensiling periods (35 and 70 d). In general, waste tomatoes ensiled with dehydrated beet pulp showed better fermentative and nutritional quality than silage with cereal straw.

Keywords: By-product, Fermentation parameter, Nutritive value, Tomato, Silage.

*Corresponding Author: salvarez@icia.es

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00035.9

Evaluation of Newly Developed Maize Hybrids for Yield, Whole Plant Composition and Ensiling Characteristics under Indian Climate

J.S. Hundal, M. Wadhwa*, A. Sharma, G. Singh and H. Kaur

Department of Animal Nutrition Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Science University Ludhiana-141004, India


Hundal, J.S., Wadhwa, M., Sharma, A., Singh, G. and Kaur, H. 2020. Evaluation of newly developed maize hybrids for yield, whole plant composition and ensiling characteristics under Indian climate. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 393-407.
To evaluate the yield, whole plant composition and ensiling characteristics, five newly developed maize hybrids (BL 1850, BL 4162, BL 9556, BL 8417 and PL 1844) were grown in a completely randomized block design, each with three replications. The entire maize hybrids were shown variable emergence potential as stand count, plant height, number of cobs and cob length remained variable (P<0.05) among different maize hybrids. The biological yield was recorded highest in BL 8417 (549.3 q/ha; P<0.05) in comparison to BL 1850 (459.3 q/ha) and PL 1844 (433.4 q/ha) whereas DM yield remained at par (P>0.05) among all maize hybrids. The values for TDN (%) and net energy lactation (NEL Mcal/kg) were significantly higher for BL 8417 and PL 1844 maize hybrids whereas the lowest values for TDN (68.64%), NEl (1.56 Mcal/kg), digestible DM (67.54%), relative feed value (RFV; 1.34) and relative feed quality (RFQ; 3.13) were reported in BL 9556 maize hybrid. Following ensiling for 45 d, non-significant (P>0.05) variations in silage pH, acetic acid and ammonia-N were observed among different maize hybrids; however, lactic acid content remained statistically lower (P=0.013) in PL 1844 hybrid silage. The values for TDN, digestible DM, NEL, RFV and RFQ in silages prepared from BL 8417 and PL 1844 were highest in comparison to other maize varieties whereas NDF digestibility, ME, OM digestibility, ammonia-N and fermentation efficiency remained comparable (P>0.05) among the tested maize hybrids. Overall, BL 8417 and PL 1844 maize hybrids emerged as superior cultivars with respect to pre-ensiling and post-ensiling characteristics; however, due to better crop yield and nutritive value as silage for ruminants, BL 8417 was considered the best among all the tested hybrids.

Keywords: In vitro evaluation, Maize hybrids, Silage, Whole plant composition, Yield

*Corresponding Author: mw_7in@yahoo.co.in

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00036.0

Comparative Analysis of Bioactive Compounds and Nutritive Quality of Select Plants as Antioxidant Phytoadditives for Poultry Feed

I. Varzaru*, A.E. Untea, M. Saracila, M. Ropota and M. Olteanu

National Research Development Institute for Animal Biology and Nutrition IBNA Balotesti, Balotesti, Ilfov, 077015, Romania


Varzaru, I., Untea, A.E., Saracila, M., Ropota, M. and Olteanu, M. 2020. Comparative analysis of bioactive compounds and nutritive quality of select plants as antioxidant phytoadditives for poultry feed. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 409-418.
This study was designed to investigate the content of bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties from three local plants: dandelion, burdock and lady’s bedstraw and the possibility of using them as feed additives in poultry nutrition. The investigated bioactive compounds in the selected plants included lutein and zeaxanthin, β-carotene, vitamin E and total polyphenols. The antioxidant capacity of the plants was assessed by DPPH (2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6- sulphonic acid)] radical-scavenging activity. Proximate analysis and fatty acids composition was also studied. Dandelion registered the highest content of lutein and zeaxanthin (185.78 µg/g), β-carotene (57.57 µg/g) and vitamin E (63.77 µg/g) from among the analysed plants. The phenolic compounds contributed significantly to the antioxidant capacity, which was reflected in the ABTS radical-scavenging activity. Lady’s bedstraw showed the highest ABTS radical-scavenging activity (39.3 mM eq trolox), followed by dandelion (33.33 mM eq trolox) and burdock (23.16 mM eq trolox). The DPPH radical-scavenging activity (mM eq trolox) were in the same range of values for all studied plants, proving a comparable proton- donating ability of plant extracts. These results showed that the plant extracts had an increased antioxidant capacity most likely because of the synergistic effects of antioxidant components. The assessment of nutritional quality proved the potential use of studied plants in animal nutrition.

Keywords: Antioxidant capacity, Burdock, Dandelion, Lady’s bedstraw, Nutritional value.

*Corresponding Author: iulia_maros@yahoo.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00037.2

Effect of Smart Poultry on Growth Performance, Blood Biochemical Parameters and Caecal Fermentation Indices of Broiler Chickens

V.A. Zammit and S.O. Park*

Metabolic Biochemistry, Warwick Medical School University of Warwick, Coventry CV47AL, UK


Zammit, V.A. and Park, S.O. 2020. Effect of smart poultry on growth performance, blood biochemical parameters, caecal fermentation indices of broiler chickens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20:419-432.
This study was conducted to assess the effect of a smart poultry feeding system on growth performance of broiler chickens. A total of 2,000 one-day-old mixed-sex broiler chicks (Ross-308) were assigned randomly into two treatments namely, conventional (CON) and smart poultry (SP) feeding system; each replicated 5 times, 200 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design and reared for 35d. Results indicated that the BW gain and feed intake were higher (P<0.05) for broiler chickens in the SP group than those in the CON group. However, FCR was lower (P<0.05) in the SP group. Eviscerated carcass, breast, thigh, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius yields were higher in the SP group whereas abdominal fat was lower in the SP group than that in the CON group (P<0.05). Blood H/L ratio, ALT, AST, and PCO2 were lower in the SP group than those in the CON group whereas pH, glucose, electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl”), RBC, HCT, Hb, PLT, PCT, PO and HCO3 were higher in the SP group (P<0.05). The number of Lactobacillus was higher in the SP group whereas numbers of E. coli, total aerobic bacteria, and coliform bacteria were higher in the CON group than those in the SP group (P<0.05). Total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), acetic acid, and propionic acid were higher in the SP group than those in the CON group while butyric acid, isobutyric acid, valeric acid, and isovaleric acid were higher in the CON group (P<0.05). These results suggested that the productivity of broiler chickens with the smart poultry feeding system was higher than that with the conventional rearing through improvements in metabolic status.

Keywords: Blood parameters, Broiler, Cecum bacteria, Performance, Smart poultry

*Corresponding Author: sopark@kangwon.ac.kr

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00038.4

Evaluation of a Rumen Modifier in Buffaloes to Mitigate Methane Production

P. Agarwal, D.N. Kamra*, Neeta Agarwal, Anju Kala and L.C. Chaudhary

ICAR National Professorial Chair, Animal Nutrition Division ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122, India


Agarwal, P., Kamra, D.N., Agarwal, Neeta, Kala, Anju and Chaudhary, L.C. 2020. Evaluation of a rumen modifier in buffaloes to mitigate methane production. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 431-452.
The experiment was conducted on six fistulated male buffaloes with an average body weight of 415±11.8 kg divided into two groups of three each. The diet of the animals comprised of concentrate mixture and wheat straw in 40:60 ratio and was fed as per ICAR feeding standard. The effect of a rumen modifier (RM-7) consisting of mahua (Madhuka latifolia) seed cake, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seed, neem (Azadirachta indica) seed cake, baheda (Terminalia bellerica), amla (Emblica officinalis), ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi) seed and harad (Terminalia chebula) seed pulp mixed in 2:2:2:1:1:1:1 ratio along with sulphur (as sodium sulphate) were fed at the rate of 2.4 and 0.1 per cent of dry matter intake. On feeding RM-7 and sulphur, the activities of CMCase and avicelase were not affected, whereas, xylanase, amylase, α-glucosidase and â-glucosidase activities increased (P<0.01) and protease activity decreased (P=0.011). The population density of total fungi, protozoa, Ruminococcus albus and R. flavefaciens remained unchanged but total bacteria increased (P<0.05) in RM-7 supplemented group. Further, a trend for a decreased population of methanogens and F. succinogenes was observed in RM-7 supplemented group. When the rumen liquor of the buffaloes was used as inocula for in vitro studies, the methane production (ml/g DM and ml/g DDM) decreased (P<0.001) and in vitro feed digestibility tended (P=0.087) to increase in RM-7 supplemented group. The results indicated that supplementation of RM-7 along with sulphur has shown potential to be used as a feed additive for reduction of enteric methane production and increase in feed digestibility in buffaloes.

Keywords: Feed digestibility, Methane, Microbial profile, Rumen modifier, Rumen, Sulphur,

*Corresponding Author: dnkamra@rediffmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00039.6

Supplementation of Inorganic and Organic Selenium on Antioxidant, Immunity Status and Bioavailability in Broiler Breeder Hen

P.P. Mohanty, N. Panda*, R.K. Swain, N.C. Behura, B. Panigrahi and P. Ray

Department of Animal Nutrition College of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry Odisha University of Agriculture & Technology, Bhubaneswar-751003, India


Mohanty, P.P., Panda, N., Swain, R.K., Behura, N.C., Panigrahi, B. and Ray, P. 2020. Supplementation of inorganic and organic selenium on antioxidant, immunity status and bioavailability in broiler breeder hen. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 441-451.
The experiment was conducted to ascertain the effect of supplementation of inorganic and /or organic selenium on the antioxidant and immunity status of coloured broiler breeder hens. Forty week- old coloured broiler breeder hens (n=144) were randomly distributed into six treatment groups each with three replicates having eight chicks per replicate. The dietary treatments included the feeding of the basal diet alone (CON) and with supplementation of Se either in inorganic (sodium selenite) form at 0.3 (SS- L) and 0.6 ppm (SS-H) or in organic (selenium yeast) form at 0.3 ppm (SY-L) and 0.6 ppm (SY-H) levels or a combination of 0.3 ppm each of inorganic and organic forms (SS-SY). The supplementation was continued for 12 weeks. The results indicated a higher glutathione peroxides activities in all the selenium supplemented groups but higher superoxide dismutase was seen in SY-L, SY-H and SS-SY groups but no effect was seen in catalase activity of the birds. In 46th and 52nd week, there was significantly lower MDA in all the selenium supplemented groups. Significantly higher cutaneous basophilic hypersensitivity response was seen in all the selenium supplemented groups, whereas organic as well as combination groups showed a higher response than inorganic groups. The HI titre against sheep RBC was significantly higher in SS-H, SY-H and mixed supplemented groups. Higher egg selenium content was observed in SY-H and SS-SY than other groups. It is concluded that supplementation of a combination of inorganic and organic selenium at equal proportion improved the antioxidant status, immune response in broiler breeder hens.

Keywords: Antioxidant, Bioavailability, Broiler breeder hen, Immunity, Inorganic, Organic, Selenium

*Corresponding Author: npandaouat@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00040.2

Effects of Different Energy Levels on Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility of Pigs Reared in Different Seasons in Korea

J.H. Park, S. Sureshkumar and I.H. Kim*

Department of Animal Resource and Science Dankook University, Cheonan, 31116, Republic of Korea


Park, J.H., Sureshkumar, S. and Kim, I.H. 2020. Effects of different energy levels on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of pigs reared in different seasons in Korea. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 453-463.
The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of different energy levels and seasons on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of pigs in Korea. Data were collected from 20 experiments conducted in 2015 to 2017, during the winter period (Dec to next Mar) and summer period (Jun to Sep), with half of them conducted in the summer period and a half in winter. Experiments lasted for 6, 5, and 5 wk for weaning (n=700; BW 7.07±0.12 kg), growing (n=768; BW 27.10±1.65 kg), and finishing pigs (n=768; BW 74.21±0.70 kg), respectively. Animals were fed two energy levels (differed by 150 kcal ME/kg) with soybean oil supplemented at 0 and 3%. There was no effect of different energy levels evident on growth performance in weaning pigs. However, pigs reared during summer period had lower (P < 0.01) average daily feed intake and higher (P<0.01) feed efficiency than those reared in winter. The growing pigs consumed more (P<0.01) feed and grew faster (P<0.01) in winter period than in the summer period. The effect of high energy was shown to increase ADG and FCR, and the increasing effect of the high energy diet was more evident in summer season (interactive effect, P<0.01). The mortality was higher (P<0.01) in summer than in winter period. The apparent total tract digestibility of DM and gross energy were increased (P<0.05) with higher energy. In finishing pigs, ADG was affected by both energy levels and ambient temperature, with the high energy level leading to higher (P<0.01) ADG in summer period than low energy level. Pigs raised in winter period consumed more feed than the summer period. The DM digestibility was higher (P<0.01) in high energy; there was no difference apparent due to season. In conclusion, the ambient temperature could negatively influence the pig growth performance and mortality. Feeding pigs with high energy density diet (by addition of 3% soybean oil) can improve growth performance and nutrient digestibility in growing and finishing phase, and this growth improving effect was much more evident in the summer period. However, gross energy digestibility was not influenced during weaning and finishing phases.

Keywords: Body weight, Dietary energy, Nutrient digestibility, Season, Growing pig

*Corresponding Author: inhokim@dankook.ac.kr

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00041.4

Effect of Different Levels of Concentrate Feed Supplementation on Post-Weaning Growth, Carcass Traits and Economics in Salem Black Kids

N. Bharathy*, D.A.P. Singh, K. Sivakumar, A. Natarajan, P. Vasanthakumar and N. Murali

Department of Livestock Production Management Veterinary College and Research Institute Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Namakkal-637002, India


Bharathy, N., Singh, D.A.P., Sivakumar, K., Natarajan, A., Vasanthakumar, P. and Murali, N. 2020. Effect of different levels of concentrate feed supplementation on post-weaning growth, carcass traits and economics in Salem Black kids. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 465-475.
A feeding trial was carried out for three months to assess the post-weaning growth, carcass traits and economics in Salem Black kids fed different levels of concentrate supplement (CS). Thirty-two weaned kids from a previous experiment were divided into four treatment groups namely T1,T2, T3, and T4 (comprising four male and four females in each) at the age of three months. The kids of all groups were allowed for 6 h grazing daily. While the kids of T1 were not supplemented and served as a control, the kids of T2, T3 and T4 groups were offered CS at 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 per cent of BW, respectively. At the end of the feeding trial, four representative animals from each group were slaughtered for assessing the carcass traits. Results revealed that net BW gain and ADG were higher (P<0.01) in T3 and T4 groups as compared to the T1 group. The ADG recorded was 41.64, 46.61, 51. 47 and 58.45 g in T1, T2, T3, and T4 groups, respectively. When compared to T1 the ADG was 11.9, 23.6 and 40.4 per cent more in T2, T3 and T4 groups, respectively. Similarly, the CS-supplemented kids had better (P<0.01) carcass traits in terms of dressing percentage, loin eye area, carcass length. The weight of cut-up parts viz., leg, loin, rack were also higher (P<0.01) in CS-supplemented groups. Feeding of CS resulted in better economic returns. It is concluded that supplementation of CS at the rate of 2.5 per cent of BW during the post-weaning period improved the body weight gain, carcass traits and monetary returns in Salem Black kids.

Keywords: Carcass traits, Concentrate, Supplementation, Economics, Growth, Kids, Salem Black

*Corresponding Author: lpmbharathi@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00042.6

Utilization of Chitosan Extracted from Shrimp Waste Meal as a Prebiotic for Broilers

A.V. Janbandhu, A. Ravi*, J.V. Ramana and D. Narendranath

Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupati-517502, India


Janbandhu, A.V., Ravi, A., Ramana, J.V. and Narendranath, D. 2020. Utilization of chitosan extracted from shrimp waste meal as a prebiotic for broilers. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 477-490.
The objective of the study was to extract chitosan from shrimp waste meal by a bioremediation method using organic acids along with yeast and to evaluate the prebiotic effect of the extracted chitosan in commercial broilers. The optimum concentration of the acids and time of incubation was initially studied by incubating the shrimp waste meal with 1, 4 and 8 per cent HCl or 5, 10 and 20 per cent organic acids (namely, fumaric, propionic and lactic acids) for 24, 48 and 72 h and based on the pH change, demineralization and deproteinization of shrimp waste meal. Subsequently, 8% HCl and 20% organic acids were used for the extraction of the chitosan for evaluation in broiler diets. The extracted chitosan was characterized by FT-IR. Commercial broiler chicks (n=360) were allotted to five groups (T1 to T5) with four replicates per treatment and each replicate containing 18 birds. While T1 served as the control group with no chitosan, the diets for groups T2, T3, T4 and T5 additionally contained 1% chitosan (as a prebiotic) extracted using 8% HCl, 20% fumaric acid, 20% lactic acid and 20% propionic acid, respectively. The growth trial was carried out for 6 weeks. The overall BW gain and FCR was improved in birds under the chitosan- supplemented groups T2 to T5 than the control (T1) birds. There was a significant (P<0.01) reduction in Eschorihia coli and Salmonella counts in caecal contents, increase in the villi length (VL) of duodenum, jejunum and ileum, reduction in crypt depth (CD) and increase in the VL:CD ratio in the treatment groups of birds (T2 to T5) than in T1 group of birds. It is concluded that 20% organic acids along with yeast were effective as an alternative to the chemical method for extracting chitosan from shrimp waste meal as revealed by the characteristics and prebiotic effect of the extracted chitosan in commercial broilers.

Keywords: Broilers, Chitosan, Organic acids, Prebiotic, Shrimp waste meal, Yeast

*Corresponding Author: arunachalamravi@yahoo.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00043.8

Effect of a Synbiotic Supplementation on the Growth Performance, Nutrient Utilization and Production Economics of Grower-Finisher Landlly Pigs

M. Manobhavan, A.K. Verma*, N.R. Sahoo, Neeta Agarwal and Putan Singh

Centre of Advanced Faculty Training in Animal Nutrition ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122, India


Manobhavan, M., Verma, A.K., Sahoo, N.R., Agarwal, Neeta and Singh, Putan. 2020. Effect of a synbiotic supplementation on the growth performance, nutrient utilization and production economics of grower-finisher Landlly pigs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 491-499.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of a probiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici strain FT28) and a prebiotic (fructooligosaccharides, FOS) alone and in combination as a synbiotic on the performance and nutrient utilization of weaned Landlly (Landrace × Local) piglets. Twenty-four piglets (40±2 d-old) were divided into four groups namely, CON, PRO, PRE and SYN following a completely randomized design. The CON (control) group animals were fed the basal diet without any additives; additionally, PRO, PRE and SYN groups were supplemented, respectively, with a probiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici FT28; 1x109 cfu/g), prebiotic (FOS, 2 g/kg diet) and both probiotic and prebiotic for a period of 180 d. The ADG, feed intake and FCR did not vary (P>0.05) among the four groups in grower, finisher and overall phases of the experiment. In the finisher phase, significantly (P<0.05) higher crude fibre digestibility was observed in the synbiotic group (SYN) whereas higher nitrogen-free extract digestibility was noticed in the CON group. Significantly (P<0.05) higher GE digestibility was noticed in the SYN group compared to the CON group. Feed cost per kg gain was least in PRO and SYN during the grower and finisher phase, respectively. Based on the results, it can be concluded that dietary inclusion of the tested feed additives in the diet of pigs has positive effects on performance, nutrient digestibility and cost economics.

Keywords: Cost economics, Nutrient utilization, Performance, Piglets, Synbiotic

*Corresponding Author: vermaak62@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00044.X

Effect of Dietary Levels of a Synbiotic on Immunity, Serum Biochemicals, Intestinal Morphometry and Expression of Nutrient Transporter Genes of Broiler Chicken

Avishek Biswas*, Kapil Dev, N.A. Mir and A.B. Mandal

Avian Nutrition and Feed Technology Division ICAR-Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122, India


Biswas, Avishek, Dev, Kapil, Mir, N.A. and Mandal, A.B. 2020. Effect of dietary levels of a synbiotic on immunity, serum biochemicals, intestinal morphometry and expression of nutrient transporter genes of broiler chicken. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 501-514.
An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of a synbiotic supplementation on immune response, expression of nutrient transporter genes and gut health status of broiler chickens. Day-old chicks (n=240) were randomly assigned to six dietary treatments (each with 5 replicates of 8 birds), and fed a basal diet alone (T1) or supplemented with bacitracin methylene di-salicylate (BMD) at 20 mg/kg diet (T2 ), Lactobacillus acidophilus (LBA) at 106 cfu/g + 0.1% mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS; T4), LBA at 107 cfu/g + 0.1% MOS (T ), LBA at 106 cfu/g + 0.2% MOS (T5), LBA at 107 cfu/g + 0.2% MOS (T6). Results of the 6 weeks study indicated that the haemagglutination titre to sheep RBC and foot pad index following sensitization with phytohaemagglutinin-P were significantly (P<0.05) higher in T5 and T6 groups. Significant increases (P<0.05) were observed in serum proteins and decreases in aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase, creatinine, uric acid, total cholesterol, high- and low density- lipoprotein concentrations in T5 and T6 group. Villus height and crypt depth were increased (P<0.05) in T5 and T6 groups. The mRNA expression of glucose transporters-5 (GLUT5), sodium glucose transporter- 1 (SGLT1) and peptide transporter-1 (PepT1) gene in ileum, measured at 14 d of age, were significantly (P<0.05) upregulated in T5 and T6 groups. The results of the present study indicated that inclusion of a synbiotic containing 0.2% mannan-oligosachharide along with L. acidophilus (at 106 cfu/g) in the diet improved the immune response, serum biochemical parameters, intestinal morphometry and expression of nutrient transporter genes of broiler chickens.

Keywords: Antibiotic, Broiler, Immunity, Nutrient transporter gene, Synbiotic,

*Corresponding Author: drbiswas007@rediffmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00045.1

Effect of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) Root Powder Supplementation on Survival, Growth and Flesh Quality of an Indian Major Carp, Labeo rohita (Ham.) Fingerlings

A. Srivastava, M.D. Ansal* and S.O. Khairnar

Department of Aquaculture, College of Fisheries Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Ludhiana-141004, India


Srivastava, A., Ansal, M.D. and Khairnar, S.O. 2020. Effect of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) root powder supplementation on survival, growth and flesh quality of an Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Ham.) fingerlings. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 515-524.
Efficacy of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) root powder (ARP) supplemented feeds on survival, growth and flesh quality of an Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Ham.) fingerlings was evaluated through an outdoor study. Four experimental feeds, containing ARP at 0 (Control), 1 (ARP-1), 2 (ARP-2) and 3 (ARP-3) per cent levels, were fed to fingerlings at 2% of fish body weight for 180 d. In all the treatments, the water quality parameters remained well within the recommended range. In ARP fed treatments 93.75 to 95.63% fish survival was recorded as compared to 92.50% in control. Net weight gain (NWG) and specific growth rate (SGR) of fish were significantly improved (P<0.05) in all the ARP fed treatments, with significantly higher condition factor in ARP-2 and ARP-3 treatments (K-value 1.25 and 1.20, respectively) as compared to control (K-value 1.12). However, among all the treatments, fish recorded the best growth (NWG 134.16 g and SGR 1.51%) at 2% ARP inclusion level as compared to control (NWG 76.87 g and SGR 1.20%). Further, the FCR and protein efficiency ratio also improved significantly (P<0.05) in all the ARP fed treatments than control (1.80 and 2.19) and among ARP treatments, best FCR and PER were recorded in ARP-2 treatment (1.59 and 2.50, respectively). ARP supplementation also improved the flesh quality of fish significantly (P<0.05) by increasing the total protein content (wet weight basis) by 11.94% at 2% inclusion level. The overall results revealed that ashwagandha root powder can serve as a potential feed additive at 2% in the grow out feed of L. rohita for enhanced growth performance and improved flesh quality.

Keywords: Ashwagandha, Flesh quality, Growth, Rohu, Survival

*Corresponding Author: ansalmd@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00046.3

Protein Requirement of Ompok bimaculatus (Bloch, 1794) Larvae

B.N. Paul*, A. Das, R.N. Mandal, P. Singh, S. Adhikari, K. Ghosh, D. Chowdhury, P.P. Chakrabarti and S.S. Giri

Regional Research Centre ICAR-Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Kolkata-700118, India


Paul, B.N., Das, A., Mandal, R.N., Singh, P., Adhikari, S., Ghosh, K., Chowdhury, D., Chakrabarti, P.P. and Giri, S.S. 2020. Protein requirement of Ompok bimaculatus (Bloch, 1794) larvae. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 525-533.
A 22 d experiment was carried out to study the protein requirement of Ompok bimaculatus larvae (weight 0.11±0.01 g; length 20.49±0.70 mm). Three different formulated feeds were prepared with graded levels of crude protein i.e., with low (35% CP; LP), medium (40% CP; MP) and high (45% CP; HP) crude protein levels. The water quality parameters were optimum during the whole experimental duration. The survival rate was more than 70%. The fish grew to 0.34±0.06, 0.91±0.15 and 0.36±0.07 g, respectively in LP, MP and HP groups. The final weight was significantly (P<0.01) higher in MP having 40% CP in the diet. Both the net weight gain and specific growth rate were significantly (P<0.05) higher in MP having 40% CP in the diet as compared to LP and HP. The FCR was also significantly (P<0.05) lower in MP having 40% protein in the diet when compared with LP and HP. However, the protein efficiency ratio was similar (P>0.05) among the three treatment groups. Further, it was also revealed that the activities of enzymes in the digestive tract namely, α-amylase, lipase and pepsin were significantly (P<0.05) higher in MP diet having 40% crude protein. The present experiment, thus. revealed that 40% CP was sufficient for the optimum growth and survival of O. bimaculatus larvae.

Keywords: Amylase, Growth, Lipase, Ompok, Pepsin

*Corresponding Author: bnpaulcifa@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00047.5

Effect of Feed Supplement on In vitro Gas Production, Substrate Degradation and Efficiency of Microbial Biomass Production

S.K. Chaudhary, Narayan Dutta*, S.E. Jadhav and A.K. Pattanaik

Centre of Advanced Studies in Animal Nutrition ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122, India


Chaudhary, S.K., Dutta, N., Jadhav, S.E. and Pattanaik, A.K. 2020. Effect of feed supplement on in vitro gas production, substrate degradation and efficiency of microbial biomass production. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 535-542.
The present study was conducted to ascertain the efficacy of a special feed supplement (SFS) in the ration of dairy animals by in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT). For this, four substrates viz., wheat straw, SFS, the composite diet typically used by dairy farmers (control; CON) and a combination of the CON and SFS (TREAT) were studied for in vitro fermentation kinetics and substrate degradation. The total gas volume (mL/200 mg) produced after 24 h of incubation was significantly (P<0.01) higher for SFS as compared to CON, TREAT and wheat straw. The microbial biomass production (MBP, mg/ 200 mg), the efficiency of microbial biomass production (EMP,%TDOMR) and partitioning factor (PF) were found to be significantly (P<0.01) higher in SFS as compared to TREAT, CON and wheat straw. The fortification of CON diet with the SFS significantly (P<0.01) increased the MBP, EMP and PF as compared to CON. The cumulative gas production at different hours of incubation was significantly (P<0.05) higher in SFS followed by TREAT, CON and wheat straw. The addition of the SFS to CON diet had significantly (P<0.05) increased the cumulative gas production. The potential gas production (b) was significantly (P<0.05) higher for SFS as compared to other substrates; however, the inclusion of SFS to CON diet led to significantly (P<0.05) higher potential gas production as compared to CON and wheat straw. The fractional rate of fermentation (c) was also found to be significantly (P<0.05) higher in SFS followed by TREAT, CON and wheat straw. Furthermore, the addition of SFS to CON diet had significantly (P<0.05) reduced gas production at half time (t½) as compared to CON. Thus, it can be concluded that inclusion of the special feed supplement to CON significantly improved the fractional rate of fermentation ‘c’, TDOMR, MBP, EMP and PF. Furthermore, it reduced the half time (t½) of asymptotic gas production.

Keywords: Feed supplement, Fermentation kinetics, In vitro feed degradability, Microbial biomass.

*Corresponding Author: dutta65@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00048.7

Effect of Phytase on Nutrient Utilization of Cockerels

X. Xiao, Z. Yang*, S.S. Jiang, H.M. Yang and Z.Y. Wang

College of Animal Science and Technology, Yangzhou University Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, 225009, P.R. China


Xiao, X., Yang, Z., Jiang, S.S., Yang, H.M. and Wang, Z.Y. 2020. Effect of phytase on nutrient utilization of cockerels. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 543-551.
A metabolism experiment was conducted to assess the effects of four dietary phytase concentrations namely, 150, 300, 450 and 600 U/kg on the utilization of conventional nutrients and select trace elements in birds. Thirty healthy 40-week old male New Yangzhou cockerels with similar BW were randomized into five dietary groups with six replicates per treatment and one bird per replicate. The apparent utilization of DM, CP, crude ash, calcium, phosphorus, copper, manganese and zinc were measured. The results indicated significant (P<0.05) effects of dietary phytase on the utilization of DM, CP, crude ash, Ca, P, Mn and Zn except for Cu indicating that dietary phytase addition improved nutrient utilization. Additionally, the apparent utilization of DM, crude ash, Ca, P, Mn and Zn showed significant (P<0.05) quadratic response to increasing dietary phytase, while that of CP showed a linear (P<0.05) response. The apparent utilization of crude ash and Ca was the highest with phytase supplementation at 150 U/kg. The utilization of P and Cu was highest with 300 U phytase/kg while that of DM, CP, Mn and Zn reached the highest level with 450 U phytase/kg. However, there was no significant (P>0.05) difference recorded between phytase supplementation levels 300 and 450 U/kg. Overall, it is concluded that the optimal additional level of dietary phytase at 300 U/kg gave the best performance in New Yangzhou cockerels.

Keywords: Nutrients, New Yangzhou chicken, Phytase, Trace element

*Corresponding Author: zhiyang@yzu.edu.cn


DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00017.7

Influence of Bamboo Vinegar Powder Supplementation on Growth Performance, Apparent Digestibility and Expression of Growth-related Genes in Finishing Pigs

L.Yang, H. Feng, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, S. Wang, L. Dong, Y. Huo and W. Bao*

College of Animal Science and Technology, Key Laboratory for Animal Genetics, Breeding, Reproduction and Molecular Design of Jiangsu Province Yangzhou University, Jiangsu, Yangzhou, China


Yang, L., Feng, H., Liu, Y. Liu, Z., Wang, S., Dong, L., Huo, Y. and Bao, W. 2020. Influence of bamboo vinegar powder supplementation on growth performance, apparent digestibility, and expression of growth- related genes in finishing pigs. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 175-186.
The study was conducted with the objective to evaluate the effect of bamboo vinegar powder (BV) on growth performance and expression of growth-related genes in finishing pigs. Ninety pigs (140-d-old, 80.88±0.82 kg) were randomly allocated to five groups and were fed on a basal diet alone (CON; served as a control), or supplemented with either antibiotics (AB) or BV at 0.5 (BV-0.5), 1.0 (BV-1.0) and 1.5 (BV-1.5) per cent levels. Relative growth parameters and nutrient apparent digestibility were measured. Expression of IGF-1, GHR, and LEP in muscle, liver, and adipose tissues were quantified by RT-q PCR. Addition of 1.0% BV significantly (P<0.05) increased ADG and reduced FCR of finishing pigs than CON. Additionally, the CP digestibility in BV-1.0 and BV-0.5 notably improved (P<0.05) than those in other groups. The pigs showed significantly (P<0.05) elevated levels of IGF-1 and GHR mRNA expression in liver in BV-1.0 and BV-1.5 than that in other groups. The IGF-1 also showed significant higher (P<0.05) expression in adipose tissues in BV-1.0 and BV-1.5 when compared to other groups. The expression of LEP increased significantly (P<0.05) in muscle and liver tissues in BV-1.0 than that in other groups. Overall, it is concluded that BV can be supplemented at 1.0% level to promote growth and development in finishing pigs.

Keywords: Antibiotic alternative, Gene expression, Growth performance, Pig, Tissues.

*Corresponding Author: wbbao@yzu.edu.cn

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00018.9

Wheat Stubble from Conventional or Conservation Agriculture Grazed by Ewes: Biomass Dynamics and Animal Performances

G. Hajer*, D. Cyrine, B.Y. Salah, C. Mohamed, A. Sourour, B.S. Hichem and M. Nizar

Ecosystems and Aquatic Resources Research Unit National Agronomic Institute of Tunisia, University of Carthage, Tunis, Tunisia


Hajer, G., Cyrine, D., Salah, B.Y., Mohamed, C., Sourour, A., Hichem, B.S. and Nizar, M. 2020. Wheat stubble from conventional or conservation agriculture grazed by ewes: Biomass dynamics and animal performances. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 187-200.
This experiment aimed to determine the effect of stocking rates and cropping systems (conventional agriculture; Conv A vs. conservation agriculture; Cons A) on biomass dynamics and animal performance parameters of ewes grazing on wheat stubble. Forty Barbarine ewes were divided into eight homogeneous groups and allotted equally to the two cropping systems. Two stocking rates of 15 (SR15) and 30 (SR30) ewes/ha were tested for each cropping system, during a period of 60 d. Stubble biomass and BW variations were monitored at periodic intervals. Blood was sampled thrice during the study period at 15 d intervals. Results showed that the stubble biomass exhibited a gradual decrease (P<0.0001) with the progression of the duration by margins of -85.6 and -81.3% on DM basis, respectively, in Conv A and Cons A, as compared to initial biomass. Further, the biomass was also significantly (P=0.03) affected by the cropping system with a higher values in Conv A than Cons A. The variations in biomass chemical composition showed that the CP content decreased (P<0.0001) with advancing of period, while that of ADF increased (P<0.0001). Additionally, there was a significant effect (P=0.0002) of cropping mode evident in the nutritional composition. Overall, the animals maintained their average BW between the beginning (47.16 kg) and the end (47.36 kg) of the experiment. The blood parameters measured were well within the ranges of normal values for sheep. The stocking rates did not show impact on any of the parameters, with the values being generally similar between stocking rates and cropping systems. It is concluded that while the stocking rate had no effect on the measured variables, conservation agricultural system seemed to keep a higher proportion of residual biomass at the end of the experiment as compared to conventional agriculture

Keywords: Conservation agriculture, Conventional agriculture, Ewes, Stocking rates, Wheat stubbles

*Corresponding author: guessmihajer55@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00019.0

Probiotic Potential of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolates from Indigenous Calves is Superior to Isolates from Crossbred Dairy Calves

Mokshata Gupta, A.K. Pattanaik*, Asmita Singh, Shalini Sharma, S.E. Jadhav and A.K. Verma

Clinical and Pet Nutrition Laboratory Centre of Advanced Faculty Training in Animal Nutrition ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122, India


Gupta, M., Pattanaik, A.K., Singh, A., Sharma, S., Jadhav, S.E. and Verma, A.K. 2020. Probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria isolates from indigenous calves is superior to isolates from crossbred dairy calves. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 201-216.
To investigate the effect of host genetics on gut microbiota probiotic potential, we performed a comparative study between the probiotic attributes of the Lactobacilli isolated from the faeces of indigenous (Tharparkar) as well as crossbred (Vrindavani) cattle. Accordingly, 69 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were isolated from faeces of new-born calves (40 from Tharparkar and 29 from Vrindavani), out of which 4 strains from each breed having auto-aggregation >40%, and cell surface hydrophobicity >70% were short-listed. The auto-aggregation and cell surface hydrophobicity values were significantly (P<0.05) higher in indigenous isolates compared to crossbred isolates. Additionally, indigenous isolates showed an optimal ability to ferment esculin. The salt (P=0.064) and bile (P=0.086) tolerance abilities tended to be higher along with a higher (P<0.05) phenol tolerance in indigenous isolates vis-à-vis crossbred isolates. The isolates from both the genetic groups were found susceptible to all the tested antibiotics except for vancomycin. Also, they showed a moderate tendency (P>0.05) to form biofilm and had comparable (P>0.05) antagonistic activity. Further assessments indicated that the per cent co-aggregation was significantly (P<0.05) higher in isolates from indigenous compared to that from the crossbred cattle. Thus, it can be concluded that LAB isolates from the indigenous Tharparkar cattle are superior over the isolates from crossbred cattle in terms of their in vitro probiotic efficacy.

Keywords: Calf, Faecal-origin, Lactobacilli, Probiotic, Tharparkar, Vrindavani

*Corresponding author: akpattanaik1@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00020.7

Mycotoxin-induced Cytotoxicity of Commercially Available Pelleted Feline Feed in Feline Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Ex Vivo

S.D. Singh, A. Phulukdaree, N.S. Abdul, C. Tiloke, S. Baijnath* and A.A. Chuturgoon

Discipline of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Health Sciences University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Durban, 3630, South Africa


Singh, S.D., Phulukdaree, A., Abdul, N.S., Tiloke, C., Baijnath, S. and Chuturgoon, A.A. 2020. Mycotoxin- induced cytotoxicity of commercially available pelleted feline feed in feline peripheral blood mononuclear cells ex vivo. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 217-229.
Mycotoxin contamination is a major concern in developing countries such as South Africa, with pelleted pet foods often being contaminated with mycotoxins that have a negative impact on pet health. This study investigated the cytotoxicity of some common mycotoxins found in commercial cat food. A total of 12 cat food samples consisting of six samples each from standard grocery store lines (SB) and premium veterinarian lines (PB) were collected from supermarkets and veterinary practices, respectively. Samples of pelleted cat food were extracted for mycotoxins. Cat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and treated with various feed extracts for 24 h to determine the oxidative stress and antioxidant status, using the thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) and glutathione assays, mitochondrial integrity and cell death using caspsase 3/7 luminometry and Annexin V flow cytometry assays, respectively. Both PB and SB extracts decreased ATP levels (P<0.05) and increased mitochondrial depolarization (P<0.05) except for the PB acid fraction. Lipid peroxidation was increased in both PB and SB extracts (P<0.05) with a concomitant decrease in glutathione levels (P<0.05). Apoptosis and necrosis of PBMCs were also increased (P<0.05) in PB and SB extracts, with executioner caspases-3/7 elevated (except for the PB acid fraction). Interestingly, initiator caspases were decreased (P<0.05). This study found that both PB and SB display immune toxicity in feline lymphocytes; however, PB fared better by demonstrating lower levels of cytotoxicity.

Keywords: Cytotoxicity, Feline, Mycotoxins, PBMCs, Pelleted feed

*Corresponding author: baijnaths@ukzn.ac.za

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00021.9

Evaluation of Date (Phoneix dactylifera) Seed Powder as Dietary Additive for Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L.

R.T. Mathew*, A.S. Alsaqufi and R.S. Al-Ngada

Fish Resources Research Center King Faisal University Al-Ahsa-31982, Saudi Arabia


Mathew, R.T., Alsaqufi, A.S. and Al-Ngada, R.S. 2020. Evaluation of date (Phoneix dactylifera) seed powder as dietary additive for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 231-242.
The effect of date seed powder (DSP) as a dietary additive on growth performance, whole-body composition and haematological parameters of Nile tilapia juveniles (45.1±0.03 g) were investigated in fibre glass aquaria (600 L) for a period of 90 d. Fishes were fed on four isonitrogenous-isocaloric diets with DSP inclusion levels of 0 (CON), 1 (DSP-1), 2 (DSP-2) and 3 (DSP-3) per cent. Each treatment consisted of three replicates and the fishes (30 in each tank) were fed with their respective experimental diets twice a day at the rate of 3% of their BW. The diet supplemented with DSP resulted in significantly higher (P<0.05) weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, feed efficiency, and energy- efficient ratio than those of control diet. Although DSP diets did not show any significant differences (P>0.05) in growth performances between them, DSP-1 performed marginally better. There were no remarkable differences noticed in body composition (dry matter, protein and ash) of fishes fed control and experimental diets except for lipid in DSP-1. The haematological evaluation showed a significant (P<0.05) improvements in the red blood cell, haemoglobin, hematocrit levels, with a significant reduction in blood glucose level for fish fed DSP-1. Other parameters (urea, aspartate-and alanine-aminotransferases) remained similar for control and other treatments. In addition, feeding cost reduced to 22, 19.8, and 19.10 per cent for fish fed DSP-1, DSP-2, DSP-3, respectively. In conclusion, the inclusion of small amount DSP (1%) in diet could be effective for the growth and development in Nile tilapia; however, further studies are required at farm level.

Keywords: Date seed, Dietary additive, Growth performance, Nile tilapia

*Corresponding author: rmathew@kfu.edu.sa; getroshmon@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00022.0

Effects of Glutamine Supplementation on Performance, Mucosal Enzymes and Intestinal Characteristics in Broilers

Q.J. Wu*, C. Jiao, Z.H. Liu, B.Y. Cheng, J.H. Liao, D.D. Zhu, S.W. Li, Y.Q. Wang and Y. Wang

College of Animal Science and Technology Henan University of Science and Technology Luoyang 471003, Henan, PR China


Wu, Q.J., Jiao, C., Liu, Z.H., Cheng, B.Y., Liao, J.H., Zhu, D.D., Li, S.W., Wang, Y.Q. and Wang, Y. 2020. Effects of glutamine supplementation on performance, mucosal enzymes and intestinal characteristics in broilers. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 243-255.
This study investigates the effects of glutamine (Gln) on growth, ileal nutrient digestibility, the activity of enzymes involved in metabolism and energy production, gastrointestinal characteristics in broilers. Day-old broilers (n=480) were randomly allocated to six dietary treatments, and fed on a common basal diet either alone (CON), or supplemented with glutamine at 0.2 (Gln-0.2), 0.4 (Gln-0.4), 0.6 (Gln-0.6), 0.8 (Gln-0.8), 1.0 (Gln-1.0) per cent levels for a 42-d period. The results showed that the FCR during the grower and overall periods improved (P<0.05) with Gln compared to control. The apparent ileal digestibility of DM, OM, CP, GE were higher (P<0.05) for birds supplemented with Gln in Gln-0.6, Gln-0.8 and Gln-1.0 groups than for control and Gln-0.2 groups. The brush border membrane- bound alkaline phosphatase activity of broilers in the Gln-0.8 and Gln-1.0 groups were higher (P<0.05) than that of broilers in the control, Gln-0.2, and Gln-0.4 groups at d 21 and 42 of the study. In addition, there were significant differences on the aspartate aminotransferase activities between groups Gln-1.0 and control at d 21 (P<0.05). The activities of alanine aminotransferase was significantly (P<0.05) higher in groups Gln-0.6, Gln-0.8, and Gln-1.0 as compared to the control group at d 21. Moreover, the activities of glutamine synthetase in groups Gln-0.8 and Gln-1.0 were lower (P<0.05) than control groups at d 42. The activities of ALT for groups Gln-0.8 and Gln-1.0 were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of the control groups at d 42. The activities of pyruvate kinase in Gln-0.8 and Gln-1.0 groups were lower than the control group (P<0.05), Gln-0.2, Gln-0.4, and Gln-0.6 groups at d 42. Birds in the Gln-1.0 group had the greatest villi height, and deepest crypts (P<0.05). It is concluded that supplementation of glutamine at 1.0% level improved FCR, enhanced the apparent ileal digestibility of, and increased enzyme activities related to glutamine metabolism possibly due to improvement of intestinal structure and function in broilers.

Keywords: Broiler, Digestibility, Enzyme activity, Glutamine, Morphometric

*Corresponding author: wuqiujue@163.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00023.2

Effect of Feeding Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi) Seed as a Feed Additive on Enteric Methane Production and Rumen Ecosystem in Murrah Buffaloes

Kundan Kumar, V.B. Chaturvedi, Anju Kala and L.C. Chaudhary*

Division of Animal Nutrition ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute Izatnagar-243122, India


Kumar, K., Chaturvedi, V.B., Kala, A. and Chadhary, L.C. 2020. Effect of feeding ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi) seed as a feed additive on enteric methane production and rumen ecosystem in Murrah buffaloes. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 257-266.
The present study, comprising of two experiments, was conducted to study the effect of ajwain seeds (Trachyspermum ammi) as feed additive on methane emission, nutrient utilization and rumen fermentation in male buffaloes. In the first experiment, 15 intact animals were divided into three equal groups and assigned to three treatments: T1 (control) animals were fed basal diet without additive, while animals under T2 and T3 were fed the basal diet with ajwain seeds at 1 and 2 per cent DM intake. The basal diet consisted of wheat straw and concentrate mixture in 50:50 ratio. The DM intake, BW gain, FCR and nutrient digestibility were similar among the three groups. The methane emission in terms of L/d and L/kg DMI were comparable in all the groups, whereas, in terms of L/kg digestible DM intake it was reduced by 18% (P=0.029) in T3 as compared to T1. In the second experiment, three rumen- fistulated animals were used in a switch over design with the same three dietary treatments. The results indicated that the rumen fluid pH, concentration of ammonia N, activities of carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase and avicelase, protozoal count as well as the population density of total bacteria, Fibrobacter succinogenes, methanogens, fungi and protozoa as assessed by real time PCR did not show any significant differences among the groups. It is concluded that dietary supplementation of ajwain at 2% of DM intake is capable of reducing methane emission in buffaloes without affecting the performance of the animals.

Keywords: Additives, Ajwain, Buffaloes, Methane, Rumen

*Corresponding author: lcchaudhary1@rediffmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00024.4

Effect of Concentrate Supplementation on Growth, Nutrient Availability, Carcass Traits and Meat Quality in Barbari Kids Reared Under Semi-intensive and Intensive Systems

T.K. Dutta1, A.K. Das*, P. Tripathi and R.K. Dular

Nutrition, Feed Resources and Products Technology Division ICAR-Central Institute for Research on Goats Makhdoom-281122, India


Dutta, T.K., Das, A.K., Tripathi, P. and Dular, R.K. 2020. Effect of concentrate supplementation on growth, nutrient availability, carcass traits and meat quality in Barbari kids reared under semi-intensive and intensive systems. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 267-278.
Eighteen post-weaned male Barbari kids (10.68±1.63 kg BW) were divided into three equal groups viz. T1, T2 and T3 to study the effects of supplementation of concentrate mixture under a semi-intensive as well as intensive system of management. The kids under T1 and T2 were allowed 5-6 h of grazing daily. Additionally, the kids were supplemented with either barley grain alone (T , control) or a concentrate mixture (CP 18.87%, TDN 70.33%) both at 2% of BW (T2). The kids under T3, reared under the intensive system, were fed with the same concentrate mixture as of T2 (at 2% of BW) along with gram straw and green fodder provided ad libitum. The ADG of the kids was similar (P>0.05) among the three groups. The TDN intake was significantly (P<0.05) higher in T2 and T3 than T1. Five kids from each group were sacrificed at 10 months of age. However, the highest (P<0.05) DCP intake was recorded in kids under the T2 group. The hot carcass weight was marginally higher in T2 (10.34 kg) and T (10.48 kg) than T1 (9.24 kg). Similarly, the dressing percentage tended to increase in T2 (49.12%) than T1 (46.10%); however, the difference was non-significant. The kids supplemented with concentrate mixture showed significantly (P<0.05) higher for equarter percentage (27.93% in T2 , 27.18% in T3 ) than the control T1 (25.61%). Kids under T2 had significantly (P<0.05) higher separated lean (71.65%) than T3 (66.38%), but T3 deposited more fat in the muscles. However, no differences were observed in the chemical composition of longissimus dorsi muscle among various dietary treatment groups. It is concluded that supplementation of concentrate mixture at 2% of the BW of finisher Barbari kids reared under semi- intensive or intensive system of management resulted in increased intake of nutrients which, in turn, resulted in higher growth and meat production.

Keywords: Barbari kids, Carcass traits, Feed intake, Meat quality, Supplementation

*Corresponding author: arun.das@icar.gov.in

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00025.6

Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal on Production Performance and Egg Quality of Vanaraja Laying Hens

S.L. Gayathri*, L.K. Babu and A.K. Panda

Department of Livestock Production and Management College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry Bhubaneswar-751003, India


Gayathri, S.L., Babu, L.K. and Panda, A.K. 2020. Effect of dietary supplementation of Moringa oleifera leaf meal on production performance and egg quality of Vanaraja laying hens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 279-287.
An experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary supplementation of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MLM) on the production performance and egg quality of Vanaraja laying hens for 12 weeks. One hundred twenty (120), Vanaraja laying hens of 24 weeks of age were selected at random and divided into four groups of 30 each with three replicates of 10 in each group in a complete randomized design. Four experimental diets were prepared with one supplemented with oxytetracycline at 50 g/quintal, while in the rest groups the birds were fed diets supplemented with MLM at levels of 0.25 (MLM-I), 0.5 (MLM- II) and 1.0 (MLM-III) per cent, respectively. The total egg production/bird, hen housed egg production, egg weight, egg mass and feed conversion ratio were comparable (P>0.05) among the dietary treatments during the experimental period (25-36 weeks). All the birds gained BW during the experimental period indicating that there was a positive energy balance. The mean values of egg quality parameters such as albumen index, albumen and shell percentages, shell thickness, and haugh unit showed significant difference (P<0.05) among the treatment groups. From the present findings, it is concluded that MLM up to 1 per cent level in the diet of Vanaraja laying hens is beneficial in terms of production performance and egg quality characteristics.

Keywords: Egg quality, Moringa leaf meal, Production performance, Vanaraja

*Corresponding author: gayathrisherlylal@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00026.8

Utilization of ICT-Based Feeding System on Egg Production, Egg Quality, Blood Parameters and Caecal Microflora in Laying Hens

K.H. Um, S.O. Park* and V.A. Zammit

Metabolic Biochemistry, Warwick Medical School University of Warwick Coventry CV47AL, UK


Um, K.H., Park, S.O. and Zammit, V.A. 2020. Utilization of ICT-based feeding system on egg production, egg quality, blood parameters and caecal microflora in laying hens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 289-300.
Smart poultry farm application technology that enables adequate maintenance and management of a livestock production environment was developed as a remote control method through the convergence of information and communications technology. The objective of this study was to investigate the improvement of egg production and egg-laying quality of laying hens in a smart poultry feeding system (SP) and its working mechanism. A total of 400 laying hens (50-week-old; Hy-line brown) were divided into two groups, in a randomized block design, namely, a conventional feeding system (CON) group and SP group using an enriched cage system of animal welfare type. The birds were reared for 10 weeks. Egg production and egg quality parameters were higher (P<0.05) in the SP group than those in the CON group. Blood RBC, HCT, Hb, platelet count, plateletcrit and electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl”) were higher in the SP group than those in the CON group while helerphils: lymphocyte ratio, ALT, and AST were lower in the SP group (P<0.05). Concentrations of HCO3 and blood partial presure levels were higher in the SP group than those in the CON group whereas partal pressure and total CO2 content in the blood was lower in the SP group (P<0.05). Blood IL-2 and IL-6 mRNA expression levels were higher (P<0.05) in the SP group than those in the CON group. Count of caecal Lactobacillus was higher in the SP group than those in the CON group while that of E. coli, total aerobic bacteria, and coliform bacteria were lower (P<0.05) in the SP group. These results of the blood parameters, immune cell growth, and caecal microflora balance indicate that the smart poultry feeding system can increase the productivity of laying hens in comparison to the conventional feeding system.

Keywords: Blood parameters, Caecal microflora, Egg production, IL-2, IL-6, Layers, Smart poultry

*Corresponding author: sopark@kangwon.ac.kr

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00027.X

Evaluation of the Feeding Value of Rice Gluten Meal for Broiler Chickens

O.P. Dinani*, Pramod K. Tyagi, A.B. Mandal, Praveen K. Tyagi and Narayan Dutta

Division of Avain Nutrition and Feed Technology ICAR-Central Avian Research Institute Izatnagar-243122, India


Dinani, O.P., Tyagi, P.K., Mandal, A.B., Tyagi, P.K. and Dutta, N. 2020. Evaluation of the feeding value of rice gluten meal for broiler chickens. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 301-310.
An experiment of six weeks duration was undertaken to investigate the effects of feeding rice gluten meal (RGM) on the growth performance, nutrient utilization, carcass traits and cost economics in broiler production. A total of 192 one-d-old chicks were divided into six treatments in a completely randomized design, each consisting of 4 replicates and 8 chicks in per replicate. Six experimental diets were prepared by incorporating graded levels (0, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 per cent) of RGM to the basal diet. The RGM contained 49.94% CP and had 4742 kcal /kg GE. Results showed that incorporation of RGM up to 15% showed no significant differences (P>0.05) in growth performance and nutrient utilization as compared to the control with no RGM. However, at 20% RGM level of inclusion, it led to a similar growth rate but with a significantly (P<0.05) poorer feed conversion ratio and nutrient utilization. Further, at 25 and 30 per cent levels, RGM inclusion showed significantly (P<0.05) decreased growth rate, nutrient utilization and feed conversion ratio as compared to control and other dietary treatments. There were no differences (P>0.05) on various carcass traits among the groups with the incorporation of various levels of RGM. The cost of production per kg LW and kg meat yield were significantly (P<0.01) lower in groups fed diets containing RGM at all levels as compared to the control. It is concluded that RGM can be safely incorporated in broiler chickens diets up to 15% for safe and economic broiler production

Keywords: Carcass traits, Economics, Growth performance, Nutrient utilization, Rice gluten meal

*Corresponding author: dr_dinani@rediffmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00028.1

Adhesion of Cellulase Genes of Recombinant Lactobacilli to Gut Epithelial Cells and Its Effect on Digestibility of Crude Fibre in Chicks

W. Li*, K. Ding, Y.-X. Li, W.-L. He, P.-H. Cao and X.-H. Wu

College of Animal Science and Technology Henan University of Science and Technology Luo Yang, China


Li, W., Ding, K., Li, Y.-X., He, W.-L., Cao, P.-H. and X.-H. Wu. 2020. Adhesion of cellulase genes of recombinant Lactobacilli to gut epithelial cells and its effect on digestibility of crude fiber in chicks. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 311-320.
Recombinant Lactobacillus could play the role of a probiotic besides other new functions. This experiment aimed to study the gut adhesion ability of recombinant Lactobacilli and its effect on the digestibility of crude fibre in chicks. The adhesion ability of Lactobacilli was observed through in vitro and in vivo tests. Intestinal epithelial cells and recombinant Lactobacillus were co-cultured for observation of adhesion in the in vitro study. A total of 100 one-d-old chicks were randomly divided into four equal groups, namely, C15, C73, C15-73 and control. Each chick in C15, C73, C15-73 and control groups were orally gavaged with 200 µL each of fermentation broth of recombinant Lactobacillus reuteri XNY-Cel15 (C15), recombinant Lactobacillus reuteri XNY-Cel73 (C73) and both containing 100 µl each of XNY- Cel15 and XNY-Cel73 (C15B), or 200 µL of MRS broth (control), respectively, once at the beginning of the trial. The digestibility of crude fibre was determined through a digestion trial. Results of in vitro study showed that recombinant Lactobacillus reuteri adhered to chick intestinal epithelial cells. After feeding for 30 d, the reporter genes of recombinant Lactobacillus were detected in the crop, small intestine, and cecum of chicks, with their sequences corresponding to those of the insert genes. The digestibility of crude fibre in the experimental groups was higher than that in the control group, and the digestibility in C15 group was significantly (P<0.01) higher than other groups. It is concluded that the recombinant Lactobacillus can survive in the digestive tract of chicken for more than 30 d, and help to degrade the crude fibre in the digestive tract.

Keywords: Cellulase gene, Crude fibre digestibility, Lactobacillus, Gastrointestinal adhesion

*Corresponding author: liwang@haust.edu.cn

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00029.3

Growth Performance, Nutrient Utilization and Carcass Characteristics of Sheep Fed Hydroponic Barley Fodder

R. Devendar, N. Nalini Kumari, Y. Ramana Reddy, K. Sarjan Rao, K. Kondal Reddy, J. Raju* and K. Sridhar

College of Veterinary Science PVNR Telangana Veterinary University Hyderabad-500030, India


Devendar, R. Nalini Kumari, N., Ramana Reddy, Y., Sarjan Rao, K., Kondal Reddy, K., Raju, J. and Sridhar, K. 2020. Growth performance, nutrient utilization and carcass characteristics of sheep fed hydroponic barley fodder. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 321-331.
A 120 d growth study was conducted in Deccani sheep to evaluate the effect of feeding hydroponically grown barley fodder (HBF) on growth performance, nutrient utilization and carcass characteristics. Eighteen Deccani ram lambs of 3 months age (13.0±0.42 kg) were divided into three groups of six in each in a completely randomized design. Three iso-nitrogenous rations were formulated, in which the control ration (CON) was prepared by using roughage (chopped sorghum stover) and concentrate at 60:40 ratio; the other two experimental rations were formulated by replacing 50 (L-HBF) and 75 (H-HBF), per cent of CP of concentrate mixture with HBF at low and high levels, respectively. The replacement of concentrate mixture at 50% in L-HBF significantly (P<0.05) improved the ADG compared to other dietary treatments accompanying a higher (P<0.05) DM intake. The cost per kg production was significantly (P<0.05) lowered in the L-HBF group compared to CON. Digestibility of DM, CP and NFE were significantly (P<0.05) improved with replacement of concentrate mixture with HBF in L-HBF group compared to control. The N balance was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the L-HBF lambs which were found to be on a higher plane of nutrition with greater intakes of DCP and TDN. The carcass characteristics did not vary among the three groups. The results indicated that replacement of concentrate mixture with hydroponic barley fodder at 50 per cent level of CP in the ration of growing lambs improved the nutrient utilization, N balance, plane of nutrition and growth performance and reduced the production cost.

Keywords: Barley, Digestibility, Growth, Hydroponic fodder, Sheep

*Corresponding author: drrajuj@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00030.X

Chemical Composition, Nutrient Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy of Germinated Paddy Rice

W. Likittrakulwong*, K. Srikaeo, P. Poolprasert, N. Laorodphan, T. Incharoen and S. Koonawootrittriron

Animal Science Program, Faculty of Food and Agricultural Technology Pibulsongkram Rajabhat University Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand


Likittrakulwong, W., Srikaeo, K., Poolprasert, P., Laorodphan, N., Incharoen, T., Koonawootrittriron, S. 2020. Chemical composition, nutrient digestibility and metabolizable energy of germinated paddy rice. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 333-343.
Germinated paddy rice (GPR) was examined for its potential as a feed ingredient in comparison with paddy rice (PR) without germination. The attributes related to the chemical composition, phytochemicals, thermal property, nutrient digestibility and ME value were evaluated. It was found that GPR samples contained 7.48% CP, 1.96% EE, 67.58% NFE and 12.55% crude fibre on an air-dry basis. The gross energy, 3.77 kcal/g, was found to be close to that of corn. Germinated paddy rice showed slightly lower ash, NFE and GE but higher CP, EE and CF than those of PR. The GPR exhibited high content of phytonutrients especially gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and this enhanced its antioxidant activities. Germination was found to alter gelatinization temperature as evidenced by the thermal property. The true digestibility and ME values were evaluated using eight 1-year old male White Tail Yellow chickens housed in individual cages. The results revealed the true digestibility values of CP, EE and CF as 35.41, 61.35 and 46.26 per cent, respectively. Apparent ME (AME) and true ME values were 3.20 and 3.28 kcal/ g on an air-dry basis, respectively. It is concluded that GPR could be a good alternative source of feed ingredient for poultry.

Keywords: Chemical composition, Chicken, Metabolizable energy, Phytochemical

*Corresponding author: wirotliki@psru.ac.th

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00031.1

Optimization of Energy and Protein Levels for Swarnadhara Female Parent Stock during Grower Stage

N. Suma* and B.S.V. Reddy

Department of Animal Nutrition, Veterinary College Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University Bengaluru-560024, India


Suma, N. and Reddy, B.S.V. 2020. Optimization of energy and protein levels of Swarnadhara female parent stock during grower stage. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 345-351.
A feeding trial was conducted in the grower period of Swarnadhara female parent stock by varying the levels of energy and protein in their diets. Accordingly, 384 growers were divided into four equal groups, each with eight replicates of 12 birds and fed one of the four diets, namely, high energy-high protein (HEHP), high energy-low protein (HELP), low energy-high protein (LEHP), and low energy-low protein (LELP). The levels of ME and CP evaluated were 2400 and 2500 kcal/kg, and 15 and 16 per cent, respectively. The experimental birds were reared on a deep litter system for 8 weeks from 13 till 20 weeks of age under uniform management. The results revealed that groups fed HELP diet showed higher (P<0.05) cumulative BW gain (421.58 g) than the LELP diet (344.08 g). With the same level of cumulative feed consumption across the four groups, the feed conversion rate was found improved (P<0.05) on both the energy levels with diets of diets (HEHP and HELP) when compared to the LELP diet. It is concluded that Swarnadhara grower female parent stock need to fed on diets with 15 per cent CP and 2500 kcal ME/kg for optimal performance.

Keywords: Energy, Feed efficiency, Growth performance, Feed restriction, Protein, Swarnadhara

*Corresponding author: sumavet@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00032.3

Acidifiers in Aquafeed as an Alternate Growth Promoter: A Short Review

P. Sardar*, N. Shamna and N.P. Sahu

Fish Nutrition, Biochemistry and Physiology Division ICAR-Central Institute of Fisheries Education Mumbai-400061, India


Sardar, P., Shamna, N., and Sahu, N.P. 2020. Acidifiers in aquafeed as an alternate growth promoter: A short review. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 353-366.
Optimum nutrient utilization is the key for accelerating the growth of fish and augmenting the production potential. Consumer preference for the antibiotic-free fish and fish products attracted the scientists to find out natural growth promoter, as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters in aquafeed. Dietary supplementation of organic acids and their salts as growth promoter has been proven in animal feed and well documented. Aquafeed sector has equally benefitted with this novel additive though it was lately introduced. However, unlike animal feed the use of acidifier in aquafeed needs a different approach due to diversified feeding habit and wide variation in structure of the digestive system and physiological function. Dietary organic acids can stimulate secretion of pancreatic enzymes, lower gastric pH, in hibit pathogens, act as a source of energy, improve mineral utilization and enhance nutrient digestibility, which could lead to enhanced growth performance of fish. It is envisaged that intensive aquaculture will be the major focus in coming decades to supply the quality protein to the burgeoning population with the limited water, land and feed resources. As aquafeed sector has to depend more on plant based feed due to scarcity of fish meal, the gut health management is the most critical factor to be considered for sustainable aquaculture. Feeding of unconventional plant ingredients containing some anti-nutritional factors, adversely affect the gut microbiota of fish. In this context, feeding acidifier facilitate better nutrient digestion by restoring the microbial composition of gut. Now acidifier is commonly used in animal feed including aquafeed and some next generation acidifier has been introduced by many manufactures with added advantage. The present review describes the acidifiers, their mode of action, effect on growth and immunity with future research scope.

Keywords: Finfish, Growth promoter, Immunomodulation, Nutrient utilization, Organic acids

*Corresponding author: parimalsardar@cife.edu.in


DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00001.3

Metabolic Profile of Japanese Black Breeding Cattle Herds: Its Usefulness in the Detection of Abnormal Metabolism Resulting from High Protein Diets

U. Shinya, O. Yamato, S. Sato, M. Kajisa and M. Takagi*

Soo Agriculture Mutual Aid Association, Kagoshima 899-8212, Japan


Shinya, U., Yamato, O., Sato, S., Kajisa, M. and Takagi, M. 2020. Metabolic profile of Japanese black breeding cattle herds: Its usefulness in the detection of abnormal metabolism resulting from high protein diets. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 1-12.
Metabolic profile tests (MPTs) in Japanese Black (JB) breeding cattle from 45 herds with poor reproductive performance revealed that one herd with an abnormal metabolic profile was fed excessive protein diet during parturition. The fullness rate of CP was 229%; as a feed quality improvement measure,the CP was reduced by 1 kg/day (equivalent to 202% of CP requirement). We performed another MPT six months later on a total of 10 cows,and compared the results before and after feed improvement, postpartum day open period, and occurrence of reproductive disorders. The occurrence and developmental conditions of diseases in the calves were also compared. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total protein (TP), and albumin (Alb) levels were within the reference range, but glucose level (Glu) was lower and 3-hydroxybutyric acid (3-HB) level was higher than the reference range before dietary intervention (n=9). After dietary intervention (n=10), BUN, TP, and Alb levels were within the reference range, but TP level increased significantly (P<0.01). Additionally, Glu level increased significantly (P<0.01) and 3-HB level decreased significantly (P<0.05), returning to the reference range. The postpartum days open tended to decrease after feed improvement. The number of reproductive treatments and treatment expenses for the mothers decreased after feed improvement, but there was no significant difference among the calves before and after feed improvement; there was no significant difference in the mean body weight of calves. Excessive protein feeding might result in a low energy state adversely affecting the reproductive performance. These results show that optimization of dietary energy and protein can improve the reproductive performance and economic efficiency of JB cattle.

Keywords: Blood urea nitrogen, Excess crude protein, Japanese Black cow, Metabolic profile, Reproductive performance

*Corresponding author: mtakagi@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00002.5

Occurrence of Organophosphate and Synthetic Pyrethroid Pesticide Residues in Animal Feed - An Assessment

Arpana Singh, S.K. Nag* and Sultan Singh

ICAR-Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute Jhansi-284003, India


Singh, A., Nag, S.K. and Singh, S. 2020. Occurrence of organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid pesticide residues in animal feed - an assessment. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 13-24.
Presence of pesticide residues are often reported in different feed resources. These residues may ultimately contaminate the food chain and accumulate in human body. The present study was conducted to find the extent and level of contamination in commonly used feed of different places with residues of few organophosphrus (OP) and synthetic pyrethroid (SP) pesticides and assessment of the risks associated with it. A total of 253 samples of diverse type of feed materials like oilseed cakes, straws, powdered hull of cereals and legumes, compound feed were collected from different places. Samples were processed, extracted with organic solvents, cleaned-up with chromatographic techniques and analysed in gas chromatograph. The analysis revealed that OP residues were present in 32.8% samples while SPs were detected in 19.76% samples. As maximum residue limit or tolerance limit of these pesticides in feed were not available under Indian regulation, so the concentrations of pesticides in different feeds could not be compared for risk assessment.

Keywords: Feed, Fodder, Organophosphate, Pyrethroid, Toxicants

*Corresponding author: nagsk_67 @rediffmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00003.7

Effect of Supplementing Herbal Feed Additive Anethum sowa on Nutrient Utilization, Productive Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Male Beetal Kids

J.S. Hundal, M. Wadhwa and M.P.S. Bakshi*

Department of Animal Nutrition Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Science University Ludhiana-141004, India


Hundal, J.S., Wadhwa, M. and Bakshi, M.P.S. 2020. Effect of supplementing herbal feed additive Anethum sowa on nutrient utilization, productive performance and carcass characteristics of male beetal kids. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 25-38.
A 90d growth trial was conducted on eight male Beetal goat kids (5 months old; average BW 14.85±0.31 kg) to assess the effect of supplementing Anethum sowa- a herbal feed additive (HFA) containing essential oils - on their nutrient utilization, productive performance and meat quality. The animals, divided into two equal groups, were offered either a control total mixed ration (CON) or the same supplemented with Anethum sowa at 2.0% of DM intake (HFA). Rumen studies were conducted simultaneously on three adult Beetal bucks fitted with permanent rumen fistulae adopting a complete crossover design involving two periods. Results indicated that the concentrations of various N fractions were higher (P<0.01) in the rumen contents of animals in the HFA group as compared to the CON; however, the ammonia-N as percent of total-N was depressed (P<0.01) in the HFA group. The total and individual VFAs concentrations were improved (P<0.01) in HFA group, with improved acetate to propionate ratio. The daily DM intake, digestibility of nutrients, N-retention, blood profile and urinary purine derivatives, and ADG were statistically comparable in both the groups. The dressing percentage and edible offal percentage were similar between the two groups. The ready-to-cook carcass expressed on weight basis (P<0.05) or as percent of live weight (P<0.01) basis was improved significantly in HFA group.The weight of non-carcass components was improved in the group fed HFA as compared to CON group. It was concluded that total mixed ration supplemented with A. sowa at 2.0% of DM intake improved the carcass characteristics of Beetal goat kids.

Keywords: Beetal kids, Carcass quality, Essential oil, Nutrient utilization, Purine derivatives, Rumen metabolites

*Corresponding author: bakshimps2@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00004.9

Effect of Boron Supplementation on the Performance and Metabolism of Minerals in Broiler Chicken

S.K. Pradhan*, B. Kumar, K.B. Banakara, V.R. Patel, H.R. Pandya and R.R. Singh

Department of Animal Science Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396450, India


Pradhan, S.K., Kumar, B., Banakara, K.B., Patel, V.R. Pandya, H.R. and Singh, R.R. 2020. Effect of boron supplementation on the performance and metabolism of minerals in broiler chicken. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 39-49.
An experiment was conducted to ascertain the effect of graded level of boron supplementation on the performance and mineral metabolism in broiler chicken. A total of 240 day-old broiler chicks (Vencob) of mixed sex (avg. BW 47.50±0.26 g) were distributed in a completely randomized design into five treatments each with four replicates of 12 birds (6 of each sex). The dietary treatments involved supplementation of boron (as boric acid) at 0 (B-0), 25 (B-25), 50 (B-50), 75 (B-75) and 100 (B-100) mg/kg diet. The performance indices like BW, weekly BW gain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were recorded till 42 d of age. A metabolism trial was conducted at the end to determine the balance of select minerals. The performances of broilers in term of BW, FCR and FI were significantly higher (P<0.05) in B-25 followed by B-50, B-0, B-75 and B-100. Conversely, the FCR and BW were significantly affected (P<0.05) in B-100 among the treatment groups. The retention percentage of calcium and phosphorus were significantly higher (P<0.05) in B-25 and B-50 as compared to B-0 and that of manganese and iron were significantly higher (P<0.05) in B-0 among the dietary treatment groups. A decreased trend in retention of manganese and iron were observed with increased level of boron supplementation from 25 to 100 mg/kg diet. Based on the above results, it is concluded that supplementation of boron at 25 mg/kg in diet improved the performance indices of the broiler chicken.

Keywords: Boron, Broiler chicken, Growth performance, Mineral balance, Serum minerals

*Corresponding author: sanjaypradhanm24@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00005.0

Effect of Supplementation of Graded Levels of Tanniferous Feeds on the Nutritional Quality of Hedge Lucerne Silage for Goats

D. Thirumeignanam*, M. Chellapandian and N. Arulnathan

Department of Animal Nutrition, Veterinary College and Research Institute Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Tirunelveli-627358, India


Thirumeignanam, D., Chellapandian, M. and Arulnathan, N. 2020. Effect of supplementation of graded levels of tanniferous feeds on the nutritional quality of Hedge lucerne silage for goats. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 51-60.
The effects of supplementation of graded levels of Acacia nilotica pods on the characteristics and in vitro rumen fermentation of hedge lucerne (Desmanthus virgatus) silage were evaluated in this study. Laboratory-scale silages were prepared in triplicates by adding Acacia nilotica pods (ANP) equivalent to 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 percent (w/w) of tannin to fixed quantity of hedge lucerne forage. Following 45d of ensiling, the silage characteristics, in vitro nutrient digestibility, total gas, methane and ammonia production were evaluated. The results revealed that there was an increase (P<0.01) in the DM and total VFA contents of the silages accompanying a reduction (P<0.01) in pH value, CP andammonia-N contents at higher tannin levels. However, in-vitro CP degradability (P<0.01) and methane production (P<0.05) were significantly reduced in hedge lucerne silage supplemented with 3% tannin equivalent of ANP than 5% tannin level. It was concluded that supplementation of graded levels (up to 5%) of tannin equivalent of Acacia nilotica pods in hedge lucerne silage improved the quality of silage, but reduction of in vitro ruminal protein degradability and methane gas production was possible only at 3% tannin equivalent level.

Keywords: Acacia nilotica pods, Desmanthus virgatus, Silage, Rumen fermentation, Tannins.

*Corresponding author: drgnanam80@yahoo.co.in

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00006.2

Growth Performance, Digestibility and Gut Morphology of Grower Pigs fed Diets Substituted with Watermelon Waste

O.A. Adebiyi, A.T. Adeshola*, C.C. Ekeh and M.D. Olumide

Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria


Adebiyi, O.A., Adeshola, A.T., Ekeh, C.C. and Olumide, M.D. 2020. Growth performance, digestibility and gut morphology of grower pigs fed diets substituted with watermelon waste. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 61-70.
This study was carried out to assess the performance of growing pigs fed diets substituted with watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) waste (WMW). Thirty-six crossbred (Landrace×Large White) pigs were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments in a completely randomised design. The control (CON) group was fed a ration containing 40% cassava peel meal and 60% concentrate, while the other three groups were fed the same diet but with 20 (WM-20), 40 (WM-40) and 60 (WM-60) parts of the concentrate component substituted with watermelon waste on an equivalence basis. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks. Data were collected on performance indices, nutrient digestibility, and gut morphology. Pigs on CON diet had highest (P<0.05) final body weight (31.70 kg) while least body weight of 21.76 kg was observed for pigs on WM-60. Weekly feed intake was highest (P<0.05) in pigs fed WM-20 (9.51 kg) but not different from pigs fed CON (9.15 kg) and WM-40 (9.16 kg) while pigs on WM-60 had the least intake of 7.75 kg. Feed conversion ratio increased (P<0.05) with increasing levels of WMW with pigs in CON having least FCR (3.51) while it was highest for WM-60 (5.11). Crude protein digestibility was highest (P<0.05) in pigs on WM-40 (71.48) and WM-60 (71.48) while fat (40.91) and crude fibre (21.13) digestibility were least in WM-60, compared to other treatments. Morphological measurements of ileum and jejunum were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by increasing levels of WMW except for the crypt depth in ileum and jejunum which was higher in CON (349.60 µm) and WM-60 (216.65 µm). In conclusion, it can be said that watermelon waste can be used as a substitute for concentrate at 20% level in diets of growing pigs without any detrimental effect on growth.

Keywords: Citrullus lanatus, Economics, Grower pigs, Gut morphology, Performance

*Corresponding author: oneayobami@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00007.4

Evaluation of Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) as an Alternative Growth Promoter in Broiler Chicks

M. Akbari, S.S. Ashrafi, M. Bouyeh, J.R. Jaber, A. Seidavi* and M.R. Ventura

Department of Animal Science Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran


Akbari, M., Ashrafi, S.S., Bouyeh, M., Jaber, J.R., Seidavi, A. and Ventura, M.R. 2020. Evaluation of Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) as an alternative growth promoter in broiler chicks. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 71-81.
This study was conducted to evaluate Matricaria chamomilla (MC), commonly known as chamomile, as a new growth promoter in broiler chicks and its effects on feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass characteristics, clinical biochemistry, immunity and digestive bacterial count. A total of 200 day-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned into five experimental treatments each with four replicates of 10 chicks. The treatments were feeding of commercial diet as a control (CD) and the same supplemented with M. chamomilla at 0.3 (MC-0.3), 0.6 (MC-0.6), 0.9 (MC-0.9) and 1.2 (MC-1.2) per cent levels. The addition of MC did not affect feed consumption. Although there were no differences (P>0.05) among the groups at any of the periods in the feed intake, BW gain and feed conversion ratio. There were, however, differences (P<0.05) in the European production index (EPI) with the index for chickens fed MC-0.6 being higher as compared with all the other treatments. The immune response to Newcastle disease was higher in MC-0.9 and MC-1.2 groups. The counts of lactobacilli in the intestinal digesta were higher (P<0.05) in broilers receiving MC-0.6 and MC-0.9 diets than those fed on the CD diet. In respect of plasma clinical biochemistry, differences (P<0.05) were found in glucose, HDL and uric acid for the different treatments when compared with the control, but the values were within the normal range for poultry. Overall, the present study indicates that the positive effects, if any, of dietary supplementation of chamomile in broilers apparently failed to present a definite trend. Thus, further evaluation is needed in order to establish the proper use, the level of supplementation and the potential beneficial effects that M. chamomilla would impart in broilers.

Keywords: Broiler chicks, Clinical biochemistry, Growth promoter, Matricaria chamomilla.

*Corresponding author: alirezaseidavi@iaurasht.ac.ir

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00008.6

Exploratory Studies on the Detoxification of Karanj Cake through Various Processing Techniques

V.K. Paswan*, Narayan Dutta, A.K. Pattanaik and K. Sharma

Centre of Advanced Faculty Training in Animal Nutrition Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122, India


Paswan, V.K., Dutta, N., Pattanaik, A.K. and Sharma, K. 2020. Exploratory studies on the detoxification of karanj cake through various processing techniques. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 83-92.
The present study aimed at ascertaining the comparative efficacy ofdetoxification of karanj (Pongamia glabra) cake through a combination of chemical and physical processing methods. The chemical treatments involved use of organic solvents (methanol and n-hexane) and dilute acids (1-1.5% HCl and glacial acetic acid) while the physical processing methods involved refluxing, cold maceration with agitation, soaking and finally drying. The efficacies of various detoxification methods applied were evaluated on the basis of the extent to which it has reduced the toxins along with possible alterations in its nutritive potential. Among all the chemical treatments employed, cold maceration with methanol along with agitation resulted in maximum reduction of karanjin (51% reduction; 0.25% vs. 0.51% in raw karanj cake). Maximum removal of pongamol (0.095% in original to non-detectable level) was observed upon soaking the karanj cake with methanol followed by water soaking. The acid treatments with hydrochloric and glacial acetic acids significantly (P<0.05) reduced trypsin inhibitor activity; however, levels of karanjin and pongamol remained unchanged. Maximum reduction in trypsin inhibitor activity (82% reduction; 5.40 vs. 30.06TIU/ mg of protein) was observed in detoxification method involving treatment with hydrochloric acid for 12h. None of the treatment attempted could alone reduce the level of all the three major toxins to maximal reduction level. Treatment with organic solvent led to substantial removal of karanjin and pongamol, but treatment with hydrochloric and glacial acetic acid reduced trypsin inhibitor activity substantially. It was concluded that, a combination of organic solvent treatment and acid or heat treatment has the potential to remove all the three major toxins of karanj cake.

Keywords: Anti nutritional factor, Detoxification, Pongamia glabra, Karanjin, Pongamol.

*Corresponding author: vkpaswan.vet@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00009.8

Effect of Dietary Palm Kernel on Semen Quality, Reproductive and Thyroid Hormones and Blood Chemistry Parameters of Arabi Rams

T. Mohammadabadi*, S. Tabatbaei, Z. Ghezi and A.A. Swelum

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Animal Science and Food Technology Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan Mollasani, Ahvaz, Iran


Mohammadabadi, T., Tabatbaei, S., Ghezi, Z. and Swelum, A.A. 2020. Effect of dietary palm kernel on semen quality, reproductive and thyroid hormones and blood chemistry parameters of Arabi rams. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 93-102.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding palm kernel on semen quality, thyroidal and reproductive hormones and some blood parameters of rams. Eighteen Arabi rams with an average BW of 39±5 kg and 10 months age, were fed with one of the following rations: a control ration (CON) with no date kernel or the same ration containing 5 (PK-5) or 10 (PK-10) per cent date palm kernel for a 60d period. At the end of the experiment, semen samples were collected and evaluated sperm quality and quantity. Additionally, thyroid and reproductive hormones and some blood parameters were determined. The highest (P<0.05) value for the semen volume, sperm concentration, motility and viability rate of the sperms were for PK-10 group. The CON treatment had the lowest (P<0.05) morphological abnormalities of sperms when compared with PK-5 and PK-10 groups. The levels of LH, FSH, and testosterone did not differ significantly (P>0.05) among the three experimental groups. The plasma levels of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, total- and HDL-cholesterol were higher (P<0.05) in PK-5 and PK-10 groups. Additionally, the plasma levels of triglyceride, LDL-cholesteroland BUN were lower (P<0.05) in PK-5 and PK-10 groups. The plasma levels of aspartate- and alanine-aminotransferases, alkaline phosphataseand glucose did not differ (P>0.05) amongthe experimental groups. In conclusion, palm kernel can be used as an alternative feed additive for sheep. Further, using 10 per cent palm kernel in sheep diet improved semen quality of rams.

Keywords: Blood parameters, Palm kernel, Reproductive hormones, Sperm quality

*Corresponding author: mohammadabadi@asnrukh.ac.ir

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00010.4

Effect of Replacing Finger Millet Straw with Jackfruit Residue Silage on Growth Performance and Nutrient Utilization in Mandya Sheep

P.N. Arun, B. Chittaragi, T.M. Prabhu*, H.K. Siddalingamurthy, N. Suma, M.D. Gouri, B.N. Suresh, B.C. Umashankar and K.P. Chethan

Department of Animal Nutrition, Veterinary College Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University Bengaluru-560024, India


Arun, P.N., Chittaragi, B, Prabhu, T.M., Siddalingamurthy, H.K., Suma, N., Gouri, M.D., Suresh, B.N., Umashankar, B.C. and Chethan, K.P. 2020. Effect of replacing finger millet straw with Jackfruit residue silage on growth performance and nutrient utilization in Mandya sheep. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 103-109.
An experiment was conducted to study the nutritional value of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) residue silage in terms of chemical composition, and nutrient utilization in lambs fed a straw-based diet. Eighteen Mandya lambs of about 3 to 6 months of age with average BW of 9.55±0.31 kg were divided into three groups of six each in a completely randomized design. The first group of lambs were fed on finger millet straw as the sole source of roughage and compounded feed mixture and served as a control (CON), while the second (JRS-25) and third (JRS-50) group lambs were fed with jackfruit residue silage (JRS) to replace 25 and 50%, respectively, of the finger millet straw. The feeding trial was continued for 82 d and a digestion trial of 6 d was carried out at 8th week of the experiment. The chemical analyses revealed that JRS had higher CP (8.77 vs. 3.35%) and EE (1.91 vs. 0.79%) and lower total ash (6.46 vs. 8.51%), NDF (34.08 vs. 71.84%), ADF (27.88 vs. 46.46%) and ADL (1.06 vs. 3.83%) contents as compared to the finger millet straw. There was no significant (P>0.05) difference in total DM intake among the dietary groups. The ADG was found significantly (P<0.05) higher in JRS-50 in comparison to the CON (98.17 vs. 81.09 g) group of lambs. However, the FCR was statistically comparable (P>0.05) among the three groups. The mean apparent digestibility of nutrients also did not vary among the groups. From the study, it can be deduced that jackfruit residue silage has the potential to be included in the diet of growing lambs by replacing up to 50% of finger millet straw.

Keywords: Digestibility, Feed intake, Feed conversion ratio, Jackfruit residue, Sheep, Silage

*Corresponding author: prabhutmann@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00011.6

Effect of Sulphur Supplementation on Methane Emission, Energy Partitioning and Nutrient Utilization in Goats

S. Uniyal, L.C. Chaudhary*, Anju Kala, Neeta Agarwal and D.N. Kamra

Animal Nutrition Division Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122, India


Uniyal, S., Chaudhary, L.C., Kala, A., Agarwal, N. and Kamra, D.N. 2020. Effect of sulphur supplementation on methane emission, energy partitioning and nutrient utilization in goats. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 111-119.
A study was designed to investigate the effect of sulphur supplementation (as sodium sulphate) on feed intake, nutrients digestibility, methane production and energy metabolism in goats. The experiment was conducted on 15 adult goats divided into three equal groups using a completely randomized design. Animals of T1 group served as a control with no additional sulphur, whereas, sulphur was supplemented @ 0.08 and 0.16 per cent of DM in T2 and T3 groups, respectively. The feeding trial was continued for 60 d. The feed intake and growth of the animals was similar (P>0.05) in all the three groups resulting in similar feed conversion ratio. The intake and digestibility DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF and ADF were not affected by sulphur supplementation. The sulphur supplementation also did not influence nitrogen metabolism in the goats. Dietary supplementation of sulphur resulted in 12.2 per cent reduction (P<0.07) in methane production (l/kg DM intake) in T3 group as compared to T1 (control) but energy partitioning was not affected. The data of the present study showed that dietary sulphur supplementation may help in reducing methane emission by ruminants.

Keywords: Goats, Methane, Nutrient digestibility, Energy partitioning, Sulphur

*Corresponding author: lcchaudhary1@rediffmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00012.8

In Vitro Methane Production Potential and In Sacco Degradability of Non-Leguminous and Leguminous Straws and Stovers

J.S. Lamba, M. Wadhwa and M.P.S. Bakshi*

Department of Animal Nutrition Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Ludhiana-141004, India


Lamba, J.S., Wadhwa, M. and Bakshi, M.P.S. 2020. In vitro methane production potential and in sacco degradability of non-leguminous and leguminous straws and stovers. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 121-130.
The study was taken up to assess the methane production potential and nutritional worth of non- leguminous [wheat straw (WS), paddy straw (PS), maize stovers (MS), and pearl millet stalks (PMS)], leguminous [soybean straw (SBS), groundnut straw (GNS) and moong straw] straws by in vitro gas production and in-sacco techniques. MS and SBS had highest (P<0.01) NDF content. The leguminous straws had higher CP (P<0.01) and ADL (P<0.05) contents and lower NDF (P<0.01) and hemicelluloses (P<0.05) content as compared to non-leguminous straws. The net gas production (NGP), digestibility of NDF and true OM, partitioning factor (PF) and ME availability in MS was higher (P<0.01) than all other non- leguminous straws. Total and individual VFAs production was the highest (P<0.01) in PMS. The methane production at t-half was lowest (P<0.01) in PMS comparable with MS, but was highest (P<0.01) in PS. Among leguminous straws all parameters were higher (P<0.01) in GNS except methane production which was lowest (P<0.01) as compared to all other straws. The comparative evaluation revealed that the leguminous straws had lower (P<0.01) methane production as compared to non-leguminous straws. The digestion kinetic parameters for DM and NDF revealed that MS had the highest (P<0.01) effective degradability (ED), undegradable fraction (UDF), true degradability (TD) and lowest rumen fill (RF)- predicting higher DM intake as compared to other straws. Amongst the leguminous straws, GNS had highest (P<0.05) UDF, TD and lowest in SBS. The comparative evaluation revealed higher (P<0.01) ED in non- leguminous straws, while other parameters were higher (P<0.05) in leguminous straws. It was concluded that MS and GNS were considered as the best in their respective category. Overall, methane production was low and nutrient availability was higher in leguminous as compared to non-leguminous straws

Keywords: Digestion kinetics, Leguminous straws, Methane emission, Non-leguminous straws

*Corresponding author: bakshimps2@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00013.X

Evaluation of Extruded Finger Millet Straw Based Complete Diet in Lactating Dairy Cows

A.N. Chandrasagara, B.C. Umashankar, K. Chandrapal Singh, T.M. Prabhu*, D.R. Nagesh, M.D. Gouri and S. Bhajantri

Department of Animal Nutrition, Veterinary College, Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Bengaluru-560024, India


Chandrasagara, A.N., Umashankar, B.C., Singh, K.C., Prabhu, T.M., Nagesh, D.R., Gouri, M.D. and Bhajantri, S. 2020. Evaluation of extruded finger millet straw based complete diet in lactating dairy cows. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 131-140.
A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of feeding finger millet straw based extruded complete feed on the lactational performance of dairy cows. Six crossbred cows in late lactation were divided into two groups of three each and used in a switch over design. Treatment diets included control group (CON) fed compounded feed mixture and finger millet straw as a roughage source offered separately and ECF group fed with the same diet in the form of extruded complete feed. Digestibility (%) of DM, OM and NDF was higher in the ECF compared to the CON diet (P<0.05). The total milk (5.34 vs. 5.97 kg/d) and 4% FCM (5.63 vs. 6.66 kg/d) were significantly higher (P<0.05) in ECF compared to CON group. Considering the milk constituents (per cent) of CON and ECF groups, the fat (4.37 and 4.71%), SNF (9.02 and 9.23%), protein (3.31 and 3.39%) and lactose (4.94 and 5.06%) contents were significantly higher in ECF group (P<0.05). The efficiency of net energy (NE) utilisation for milk production was higher with feeding of extruded complete feed, with more NE diverted to milk production than the cows of control group. Considering the overall results of the study, it is concluded that feeding of finger millet straw based extruded complete feed could improve the lactational performance of cows in late lactation possibly leading to the increased efficiency of feeding management in dairy production.

Keywords: Finger millet straw, Extruded complete feed, Milk composition, Milk production

*Corresponding author: prabhutmann@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00014.1

Effect of a Blend of Commercial Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi) Oil and Nitrate on the Fermentation and Microbial Profile of Buffalo Rumen

Anju Kala*, D.N. Kamra, Neeta Agarwal and L.C. Chaudhary

Division of Animal Nutrition Indian Veterinary Research Institute Izatnagar-243122, India


Kala, A., Kamra, D.N., Agarwal, N. and Chaudhary, L.C. 2020. Effect of a blend of commercial Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi) oil and nitrate on the fermentation and microbial profile of buffalo rumen. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 141-153.
In order to ascertain the effects of supplementation of a blend of ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi) oil and nitrate on rumen fermentation and microbial profile, three rumen-fistulated buffaloes were used in a 3×3 switch over design. The dietary treatments involved feeding of a basal diet alone without additive (Control) or the same supplemented with a mixture of sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate (1:1), replacing 15% basal diet CP, along with ajwain oil at 0.75 (T1) and 1.5 (T2) ml/100 kg BW. Further, in vitro gas production test was carried out using the inoculum form thethree groups of buffaloes taking different hays (maize, oat and berseem), straws (wheat straw, paddy straw and sugarcane bagasse) and total mixed rations (TMRs) with different concentrate: wheat straw ratio namely, 20:80, 35:65 and 50:50, as substrates namely. The rumen fermentation parameters, as well as the rumen microbial profile, were similar (P>0.05) in all the three groups. In vitro methane production was decreased by 21.6, 28.39, and 16.5 per cent in hays, straws and TMRs, respectively, with the inocula of T2 animals than control. The in vitro true digestibility was higher in case of TMRs as the substrate with the inocula of T1 and T2 animals as compared to control. It is concluded that the blend of ajwain oil and nitrate tested may be tested further as a potential feed supplement for methane mitigation from livestock maintained on fibrous diet as it decreased methane production with an improvement in feed digestibility and without any adverse effect on rumen microbial fermentation and microbial profile.

Keywords: Trachyspermum ammi, Methane production, Nitrate, Rumen microbes

*Corresponding author: anjukalavet2002@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00015.3

Evaluation of Pineapple Waste Based TMR on Performance of Crossbred Dairy Cows in Early Lactation

K. Raseel*, B. Chacko, K. Shyama, C. Sunanda, P. Gangadevi and J. Abraham

Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Pookode-673576, India


Raseel, K., Chacko, B., Shyama, K., Sunanda, C., Gangadevi, P. and Abraham, J. 2020. Evaluation of pineapple waste based TMR on performance of crossbred dairy cows in early lactation. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 155-163.
A study was conducted for the comparative evaluation of conventional and pineapple waste-based total mixed ration (TMR) in dairy cows based on their production performance. Two isonitrogenous and isocaloric complete rations, CON with conventional feed ingredients and PAW by replacing one-third of maize of the CON ration with pineapple waste, respectively, were formulated. A feeding trial of 90 d duration was conducted in dairy cows yielding approximately 10 litres of milk per day and within ten days of lactation. It was found that the body weight, DMI and the milk yield of cows fed on CON and PAW diets started increasing from the first fortnight onwards and were similar between treatments (P>0.005) in all the fortnights. The average daily milk yield of cows fed on ration PAW (12.94 kg) was significantly higher (P<0.01) than those fed on CON (11.94 kg). The milk composition parameters were similar (P>0.05) between treatments. These findings indicate that pineapple waste can be used to substitute maize and can be successfully incorporated in paddy straw based complete ration containing 35% NDF for lactating dairy cows.

Keywords: Complete ration, Dairy cow, Milk yield, Pineapple waste, Unconventional feeds

*Corresponding author: rasmoideen@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-181X.2020.00016.5

Effect of Concentrate Supplementation on Methane Emission from Grazing Goats

Ravindra Kumar*, T. Kushwaha, U.B. Chaudhary and D.L. Gupta

Division of Animal Nutrition and Product Technology ICAR-Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom-281122, India


Kumar, R., Kushwaha, T., Chaudhary, U.B. and Gupta, D.L. 2020. Effect of concentrate supplementation on methane emission from grazing goats. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 20: 165-174.
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of strategic concentrate supplementation on methane production in grazing goats using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) technique. Sixteen male Barbari goats (~1 year age; BW 18.83±0.65 kg) were divided into two equal groups namely, CONT and SUPL in a completely randomized design. All animals were allowed grazing for 6-7 h on a pasture of known botanical composition. Additionally, goats of SUPL group were supplemented with 250g of concentrate pellet before grazing. After six weeks of experimental feeding, feed intake and digestibility of nutrients were estimated by indicator method. Rumen liquor samples were collected for assessment of fermentation metabolites. The results indicated no significant effect of concentrate supplementation on DM intake. There was significant improvement (P<0.05) in the digestibility of DM, OM and CP in SUPL goats with supplementation of concentrate pellet. There was lower ruminal pH and higher ammonia nitrogen value in SUPL goats as compared to CONT. Total volatile fatty acids were significantly (P<0.05) higher in SUPL group of goats. Lower acetate and higher propionate values were observed in the SUPL group. The mean daily methane emission (g) was similar in CONT (10.46) and SUPL group (10.04) of goats. However, methane production when expressed in relation to unit DM and digestible DM intake was reduced (P>0.05) by 7.57 and 22.12 percent in SUPL group in comparison to the CONT group. It is concluded that concentrate supplementation significantly improved the nutrient digestibility with no apparent effects on the methane production in grazing goats.

Keywords: Concentrate, Grazing goats, Methane, Supplementation

*Corresponding author: ravindra.srivastava@gmail.com


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